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St. Abl's Head-Dowal-Dunbar-N. Bewick, &c. (Nov. 1, .

excellent regulations, the controul of the bill of an anchor, I lamented that my lacommissioners; and I have no doubt by bour was in vain, as the want of secure sending them a 54 inch and 6-pounder anchorage militates so greatly against mortar, considerable good will be derived the benefit of a harbour. by them,

Dunbar.-The shore, in the vicinity of The little harbour of Ayrmouth has a this place, is studded with dangerous most dangerous approach from reefs of rock, and the present larbour is exrocks; and to lessen a recurrence of tremely dangerous for vessels attempring future fatal events, it will be proper to it in a gale of wind. I here exhibited have a avortar lodged at the barracks. the manner of giving relief in cases of

St. Abb's Head. -- This protruding shipwreck, in the presence of the Earl of headland has to record an infinite nuin- Lauderdale, and inany persons purposely ber of distressing cases, from vessels collected by his lordship, from their being driven under it, where the fate of having particularly distinguished themtheir crews has been inevitable. The selves by their activity in cases of such rope-ladder may here be applied with distress; when it was infinitely gratifying considerable success, and I was assured to be inforined, that it would bave saved would have saved numbers, as ves- every life that perished when the frigates sels come close at the rock, having from were wrecked, and the numerous lives eiglit to eleven fathoms close at its foot. that have been lost for the want of such A mortar will be extremely beneficial aid; it is therefore desirable that a 5! for the shore of Coldinghame, where and a 6-pounder mortar should be sent there are many fishermen.

thither. Dowal. From the situation of this North Berwick. Sunken rocks, others place, and its so nearly resembling the visible, and islands influencing currents, difficulties and dangers of St. Abb's readily account for the dangers and the Head, it will require sirnilar apparatus. cases of distress stated to me in this

The extraordinary features of horror neighbourhood. A 5) inch mortar must this iron-bound coast presented, with be placed here, with a similar one about the various bistories of melancholy four miles to the north west, which I events that had transpired, with the loss earnestly hope and trust will prove a of the Pallas and Nymph frigates, so safeguard to the mouth of the Firth, and fresh in remembrance, suggested the in- ' prevent future calamities proceeding finite benefit that would result, if a harc from those winds, E. and N. E. that bour could be obtained ; with this hope bave been so fatal to the maritime inte I minutely explored Skateraw Bay, in rests of the country, and so distressing to the vicinity of Black Castle Signal Sta- humanity. tion, a situation that appeared advan- Island of May.-Among the various tageously placed, and formed by nature improvements produced with a view to by protruding points of land for such a guard against shipwreck, and constituted design, and promising incalculable good, to add security and advantages to navicould it be effected, by a shelter to ves- gation, the system of LIGHTS deservedly sels when embayed between St. Abu's stands first; because it warns and points Head and North Berwick, and for the out objects of danger in the hours of want of which so many vessels have been darkness; and by giving certain informalost.

tion of a vessel's situation in a trackless The bay was formed by a point of and stormy ocean, and aiding her to land called St. Dennis Point, on which reach the destined port in safety. the ruins of an old chapel still remain, If, however, this admirable and well and Trowness Point. There was suffis designed plan be not duly attended to; cient water within the bay for any vessel, and from neglect (for to nothing else can and a projecting ridge of rocks extremely it be attributed) the Lights are at times favourable to inclosure, sheltering from not visible, or present repeated otseura St. Dennis Point to the eastward, and tions, the dangers that attend the mari. from that of Trowness to the N. N. E. tine interests of the country, and to On the closest inspection a shelter is cer- which the lives of a inost valuable class tainly practicable, but the expense in of men are constantly exposed, increase accomplishing it, to lock it in completely, to a truly alarming degree. would be very considerable. The bay is These remarks occurred to me perfectly free from uneven ground, and the observations I had made on the composed of slate, gradually sloping to upon the above-damed island, whic an inclined plane into deep water, but situated at the mouth of the Fir as its surface was too hard io yield to the Forth. My attention was particu

of the Firth of

1814.)

Ísland of May--Dr. Vunderkemp.

309

directed to it, by the repeated repre- method of determining the situation of, sentations I received from persons along and knowing every light, when seen. It the coast, that the loss of many vessels is a subject worthy of serious considerabad been attributed to it; and it was tion from those to whose department so farther said partly to involve the de- important a branch of maritime science struction of the two frigates lately belongs; and I shall most readily give wrecked at Dunbar.

my humble aid, to perfect a system, the In order to make correct observations result of which would be of incalculable for forming an opinion, I took the aid of good to this nation, and to universal maa good glass, and employed myself in ritime commerce. looking at the light on several clear win

Gro. WM. MAXBY. ter nights : sometimes (when I presume Edinburgh, March 10, 1813. the fire was stirred) a bright flame was exhibited, but it wus of short duration, QUESTIONS CONCERNING DR. VANDERand sunk again into darkness.

KEMP. I am confirmed in this remark by the 'To the Editor of the Nou Monthly Magazine. . officer commanding the signal station at SIR, Black Castle, wbich is on an eminence MAY I he permitted to ask the writer immediately opposite to the island; and of an article in your valuable miscellany, by the reports of many of the officers published October 1, signed V'inder, four commanding ships of war on the Leith plain questions? --Did not Dr. Vanderstation ; but I may in particular men- kemp marry, late in life, a Hottentot tion Captain Pierce, of his majesty's girl ?-What was the girl's and the docsloop Rifleman, who declared, in the tor's age at the time of such marriage ? presence of Vice-Admiral Otway, com- -How long did the doctor survive this manding on this station, that during the happy event?Was lie ever parted from eighteen months he had been under his this Hottentot girl? as l'inder asseris command, he had repeatedly run within that he died in the house of a christian balf a mile of the island before the light friend. was discernible.

A candid reply to the above will This light is maintained by coals, enable me to make up my mind upon the which is at all times, and in any situa- subject of missions, and at the same tion, improper; but it is more so on this time remove the foul aspersions of Vincoast, because there are so many lime- der unjustly thrown upon the veracity of kilns burning so near it, that unless the the amiable and intelligent traveller utmost attention be used to keep a regu- Lichtenstein. lar blaze, and render the streams of light

Your obedient servant, perceptible, it can be of 110 service to

LAMBDA. navigation, and may easily be mistaken, from its similitude to those lights on

REMARKABLE PREDICTIONS.

To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine, The Island of May, and its light, are SIR, private property; and to that circum- IN the account of the voyage of disstance I cannot avoid attributing, in a covery made by the late Captain Flingreat degree, its imperfection, from the ders is the melancholy relation of the want of that controul which is essential loss of the master, Mr. Thistle, with to so important a subject, and cannot scren others, in a boat on the inbosbe properly maintained, except by go- pitable shore of Terra Australis. To vernment authority, or a well regulated this narrative, a note is subjoined, consociety.

taining the following extraordinary cir. Under a strong impression of the cumstances, which I shall quote in Captruth of this, I would earnestly recom- tain Flinders' own words. mend, that this light be purchased, and “This evening, Mr. Fowler, the lieuteplaced under the immediate controul of nant, told me a circumstance which I government, or of a society such as the thought very extraordinary, and it afterBrethren of the Trinity House, or the wards proved to be more so. Whilst Commissioners for Northern Lights: I we were lying at Spithead, Mr. Thistle need scarcely add, that the light should was one day waiting ashore, and having De illuminated with reflectors, so as to nothing else to do, went to a certain old form a distinction from any other. man, named Pine, to have his fortune

I cannot conclude without remarking, told. The cunning man informed hiin that no study would be more beneficial that he was going out a long voyage, and

navigation than that of producing a that the ship, on arriving at her destina NEW MONTILY MAG.-No. 10.

VOL. II.

TC

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shore.

310
Remarkable Predictions.

[Nov. 1, tion, would be joined by another vessel. Some years afterwards, when he was That such was intended, he might have taken up, in 1715, and committed to the learned privately; but he added, that Tower upon suspicion of treasonable Mr. Thistle would be lost before the practices, which never appeared, his other vessel joined. As to the manner friends said to him that his fortune was of bis loss, the magician refused to give now fulfilled, the Hanover horse was the any information. My boat's crew, hear- wbite horse whereof he was admonished ing what Mr. Thistle said, went also to to beware. But some time after this, he consult the wise man; and after the had a fall from a white horse, and reprefatory information of a long voyage, ceived a blow by which he lost the sight were told that they would be shipwreck- of one of his eyes." ed, but not in the ship they were going Baron Pollnitz, in his very entertainout in; whether they would escape, and ing memoirs, has the following remarkreturn to England, he was not permitted able relation concerning the palace set 10 reveal. This tale Mr. Thistle often apart for ambassadors at Berlin. “This told at the mess-table; and I remarked, hotel formerly belonged to Baron de with some pain, in a future part of the Dankelman, prime minister to King Frevoyage, that every time my boat's crew derick, when he was only Elector; and went to einbark in the Lady Nelson, being built by the said minister at a time there was some degree of apprehension when he was such a favourite that he did amongst them that the time of the pre- almost what he pleased, he spared no dicted shipwreck was arrived.

cost to render it a mansion worthy of his “I make no cominent," says Captain high station. I was assured by persons Flinders, “ upon this story, but recom- of credit then alive, that after it was mend a commander, if possible, to pre- built, the late king had a desire to see it, vent any of his crew from consulting upon which occasion, M, de Dankelman fortune-tellers."

made a great entertainment for him; and It should be observed, that every par- that while the queen and the whole court ticular of these predictions came exactly were dancing, the king retired into his to pass, for the master and his boat's ininister's closet to have a private confercrew were lost before the Investigatorence with him, and looking very earwas joined by the Lady Nelson from nestly on a certain picture there, M. Port Jackson; and when the former ship de Dankelman told him that the picture was condemned, the people embarked and all that he saw would soon be his with their commander on board the majesty's. The king, not knowing what Porpoise, which was wrecked on a coral he meant, desired bis minister to explain reet, though none of the crew were lost. himself; whereupon he made answer,

This story brings to my recollection the “ That he should very shortly incur his equally remarkable one of Sir William displeasure; that his fall would be atWyndham, which is related in the me- tended by the forfeiture of all his estate ; moirs of Bishop Newton. " In his that he should be arrested and committed younger years, when Sir William was to prison, and that there he should .be abroad upon his travels, and was at confined ten years, at the expiration of Venice, there was a noted fortune-teller, which time his innocence would be male to whom great numbers resorted, and he to appear, his estate would be restored ainong the rest; and the fortune-teller to him, and he should be taken again said to him that he must beware of a into his majesty's favour." The king, white horse. After his return to Eng- who was at that time very fond of his land, as he was walking by Charing minister, and did not think he could ever Cross he saw a crowd of people coming do without him, ridiculed what he had out and going in to a house, and inquir. said as the surmise of a visionary; and ing what was the meaning of it, was in- was going to swear by the New Testaformed that Duncan Campbell, the ment, then upon a table in the room, dumb fortune-teller, lived there. His that this prophecy would never come to curiosity also led him in; and Duncan pass. But the minister held his hang; Campbell likewise told him that he must and begeed him not to take an oath which beware of a white horse. It was some- it would not be in his power to keep: what extraordinary that two fortune- Some time afterwards, M. de Daoli tellers, one at Vevice and the other at man was disgraced, and sent, first, to London, without any communication, prison of Spandau, whence he was and at some distance of time, should moved to Pritz; but his continem both happen to hit upon the same thing, lasted fifteen years, and though her and to give the very same warning. vered his liberty, he was never res

ment

reco

SIR,

1814.)
Conversion of St. Paul..

BU to his place, nor did he get back his for the New Monthly Magazine. estate.

VIEW of AMERICA and its NATIVE TRIBES.
ALBUMAZAR.

BY ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT.
From the Introduction to the Picturesque

Atlas of his Travels.
CONVERSION of st. PAUL.
To the Editor of lhe New Monthly Magazine.

(Continued from p. 166.)

THE number of the languages which AS your pages admit of biblical en, distinguish the indigenous nations from quiry, I shall, through their medium, one another seems to be still greater endeavour to reconcile two passages in in America than in Africa, where, the New Testament relating to the con- according to the recent researches of version of St. Paul. The one is Acts, Messrs. Seetzen and Vater, they exc. ix. v. 7. “ oi de ardess on arvod fúortes avru, cecd 140. In this resi:cct the whole of 259485ay ineol, a XOVOVTES Mùy the paras, pendève America resembles the Caucasus, Italy de SEX STŪYTES;' tlie other, c. xxii, v. 9, before the conquest of the Romans, ana " Thy de Ouring oix 'nxeray To nadŪytas MOK." Asia Minor at the time when the CiliNow, from what is recorded in the former, cians, of Semitic origin, the Phrygians, it is evident that the voice was heard; of Thracian descent, the Lydians and whilst, from the latter, St. Paul bimself, the Celts dwelt here together within a before Lysias and all the people, declares small compass. The formation of the that those who were with him saw ju- earth, the extreme luxuriance of the vedeed the light, but heard not the voice getable kingdom, and the dread of the of him that spake. As the difficulty intense heat of the vallies entertained by arises from the words own and axovw, it the inhabitants of the tropical regions, will be necessary to investigate them, impede mutual intercourse and create and to shew, from passages of Scripture, an astonishing diversity of American their different interpretations. Parm is dialects. This diversity is not so great often made use of in the Old Testament, in the savannahs and forests of the where it signifies thunder; Exodus, c. x. north, which are traversed by hunters, V. 23, “ xai Kupios Edoxe owvàş xai xanasay;" on the banks of the great rivers, along again, Exodus, c. xix. v. 16, “ porn rns the coasts of the ocean, and wherever

hiyo."nyet pusya," and is the same as the the Incas have introduced their theocracy Hebrew 017377, “ voices," ordinarily sig- by force of ar:hs. miring thunder. The men who jour. When we speak of more than a hun-. neyed with Paul might hear the thunder, dred languages, on a continent whose but it was the aposile himself who alone total population is not equal to that of heard the will of God revealed in that France, we term those diderent lan* thunder.

guages which have the same affinity to Axex is frequently used for under- one another as, I will not say the Gerstanding," as well as hearing, or as Park- man to the Dutch, or the Italian to the hurst, in his Greek Lexicon, translates it, Spanish; but as the Danish to the Ger" to hear with the ear of the mind," and man, the Chaldee to the Arabic, the in this signification it is used by St. Mat- Greek to the Latin. As a person behew, c. ii. v. 15, 'o ixwasta åxýsiv, ánvéte; coines more and more familiar with the also by St. Paul, in his first Epistle to labyrinth of America, languages, he perthe Corinthians, chap. xiv. v.2, šdaus vàre ceives that many of them belong to one crés. In the Old Testament, also, åxed and the same family, wbile a great numhath a similar interpretation, Gen. xi. 7, ber of others remain insulated like the ένα μή ακεσωσιν έκαστος την φωνήν τε πλησίον Basque among the Europeans, and the Deur, c. xxviii. v. 43, isvos sx axson Tus Japanese among the Asiatic languages., Gamis aitē. A similar expression is found This insulation is perhaps only apparent, in Jeremiah, ch. v. v. 15. Hence this and it may be presumed that those lanseeming contradiction of the two pas

guages which seem to defy all ethnograsages in question is reconcileable, as ex

phic classification, are allied to others mes ay imports that those who were with either long exi

either long extinct, or peculiar to naPaal might hear the thunderings, but did tions whom no travellers have hitherto not UNDERSTAND the voice, as an arti

visited. culate sound, in the midst of the thun

Most of the American languages, even derings. I am, &c.

those whose groups differ from one Sept. 14, 1814.

J. M.

another in the same manner as the dialects of German, Celtic, and Slavonian origin, exhibit a certain resemblance in their general organization, which if ?

312

Humboldt on America and its Natire Tribes.

[Nov. I,

does not indicate one common stock, at munstrate that those tribes which mileast denotes a very close analogy in the grated from north to south, possessed in intelectual faculties of the Ainerican na their northeru abodes that variety of lantions, from Greenland to the streights of guages which we discover in the tropical Magellan.

regions. Hence we may draw the anaVery minute enquiries, conducted ac- logical inference that the ramification, cording to a method betore unknown in or to use an expression independent of etymological studies, have proved, that all systems the diversity of the languages there is a sinall number of words com- is a very ancient phenomenon. Perhaps mon to the languages of the Old and the languages whieh we term American New World. In 83 American languages, originally belong no more to this quarter examined by Messrs. Barton and later, of the globe than the Madjarian or Hunhave been found about 170 words which garian, and the Tschoudian or Finnish seemed to have the same roots; and we do to Europe. may easily convince ourselves that these It must be admitted that the compariresemblances are by no means acci- son of the languages of the Old and New dental or an imitative haripony, and per- World has led as yet to no general rehaps resulting only from the uniform sults; but we ought not on this account structure of the organs which renders to relinquish our hopes that this study the first articulated tones of children will prove more productive when the sapretty nearly the same in all parts of the gacity of scholars shall possess a larger world. Out of 170 words, in which this stock of materials. How many languages : siinilarity is perceived, three fifths seem of America, as well as of the interior and to claim affinity with the languages of eastern part of Asia may there still be, the Mantchous, Tungusians, Mongols, whose mechanisın is as unknown to us as and Samojedes, and the other two-fifubs that of the Tyrrhenian, Oscian, and with Celtic and Tschoudian dialects, and Sabine dialects! Of the nations which with the Basque, Coptic, and Congo lan- disappeared from the Old World, there guiges. Those words were found out on may perhaps still exist some petty dea comparison of the whole of the Ameri- tached tribes in the cast wilds of America. can ianguages, with the whole of the lan- . If, however, the early intercourse beguages of the Old World : for as yet we tween the two worlds can be but very know not of any American dialect which imperfectly proved by the languages, it! can be deemed more nearly allied than is on the other hand unequivocally dethe rest to any of the numerous groups of monstrated by the cosmogonics, the inoAsiatic, African, or European languages. numents, hieroglyphics, and institutions The assertions of some scholars, proceeds of the American and Asiatic nations. ing upon abstract theories, respecting I think that to ile evidences already adthe supposed poverty of all the Ameri- duced on this point, I have addid no can languages, as well as the extraor- small number ihat were hitherto uno! dinary scantiness of their system of num• known. I have every wliere endeavoured bers, are as rash and unfounded as the to discriminate that which denotes a cumstatements of others who contend for mon origin from what must be considered the imbecility and stupidity of the hu- as the result of analogous relations, man race in the New World, the din subsisting between nations which bave, minution of organic borlies, and the de- attained the highest degree of civi generacy of the animals transported lization, thither from our hemisphere.

To deter:nine the period of the ancient Various dialects at present spoken by connexion between the two worlds was barbarous nations alone, seem to be previously impracticable, and it would be relics of copious and flexible languages, 100 presumptuous to pretend to de which denote a considerable progress in signate the group of nations in the Old civilization. I shall not here enter into World, to which ibe Toltekes, Aztekes, an exatoination of the question--whether Muyscas, or Peruvians, are nearest althe original condition of mankind was it lied, since the relations bere alluded to state of rudeness and stupidity, or are founded upon such traditions, monuwhether the savage hordes are descended ments, and usages, as may possibly be from nations whose mental powers, as of bigher antiquity than the present diwell as the language in which they are vision of the Asiatics into Mongols, Hinreficcted, were previously both equally doos, Tongouses, and Chinese. developed : but I shall merely observe At the time of the discovery of the that the little which we know of the New World, or to speak more correctly,

pory of the Americans seems to de- at the period of the first Spanish iuva

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