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Dr. Watkins on the Gunpowder Plot. (Jan. 1, have been acted upon, but it is sufficient for its support. Without ascribing the to rouse the indignation of every iii- conduct of Osborn to the vilest of mogenuous mind to find that the rule is tives, that of party violence, it is enough sull in active operation ainong a body to disprove what he has asserted, by conof men of wide influerc , who are up- victing hiin of an arrant falsehood in his held in the exercise of it by the casuistry very account, for be scruples not to say of their superiors. If Garnet was right that " the King of Spain sent an agent in so using the sigillum confessions on purpose to congratulate King James with which he was entrusted, and which on bis great preservation ; a flattery so encouraged the coufederates in their palpable," says Osborn, “ as that the abominable design, it follows that any pope could not refrain laughing in the face priest of the present day may lawfully of Cardinal D'Ussat when he first lold it act in the same manner, nay, that he is him. Nor could he forbear to inform under the necessity of so doing, conse- his king of it, as may be found in his quently no state can be safe where the printed letters." But how could the lary and their spiritual guides are hos. cardinal have any conversation with ebe tile in the civil and eceksiastical polity, pope on this subject wben he died many and where they possess the ineans of dig. inonths before it bappened? This blunturbing the executive government, in der is sutñcient to ruin the credit of Os. the hope of establishing their own re!i- born as an historian, but it is not the gion. But it is said by the same eminent only one which he has committed, for casuist and controvertist, who has ven- he says, “I never found any sigoal fa ture? 10 justify the provincial of the vour or respect giren from the court to Jesuits, that the plot for which that man Lord Morley; which renders this consujered at Tuburn was a mere political jecture the more probable, who did recontrivance of the secretary Cecil, and port, as from the French embassadour for this he appeals to two writers of no then resident, that the first intination of credit, wbo lived long after the fact, and the powder treason came from bis mas. wlous authority as historians cannot be ter, who received it from the Jesuits." admitted, because neither of them pro- In the first place, it is so far froin trte, duces any voucher for what he asserts. that Monteagle did not receive any mark The first of these is Francis Osborn, of royal favour, that be actually did obwho, in his slender tract intituled, Me- tain, besides an immediate pension of moirs of James the First, barely ob- five hundred a-year for his natural life, serves that, “ The discovery appeared the farther grant of an estate worth two Do less admirable than the treason, to hundred a-vear more for bimself and his such as took the printed report for au- heirs. In the second place, that man thentick, that a letter was sent to the must be credulous in the extreme, mba Lord Morley, and from him to his ma- could believe that the Jesuits were such jestr. &c. à neat device of the trea- arrant tools as to reveal a secret wbichi surer's (Historical Memoires on the reigns not only affected the interests of thes of Queen Elizabeth and King James, church, but the reputation of their own 810. 1658.")

order. Had the fact been as it is here Such is the vague and ambiguous re- stated, these fathers would have stated mark of an inaccurate writer fifty-three it publicly afterwards, for the justification venrs after the transaction, and without of their community, nor would they letting the reader know whether the con- have sat silent under the accusatiou spirasy itself was the device of Cecil, which was then generally brought against or only the discovery of it. But take it them of having been privy to this borti either way, and supposing that the mi- ble contrivance. Above sixty years nister was indeed apprized of the plot, afier Osborn's stupid tale had been pube the perpetration of which he frustrated lished, it was received by Bevil Higgoas, by his ingenuity, how does this free the nonjuror, who gives it, howerti, those who were engaged in that with laudable caution, as a hearsay reaboininable project from the intention port only, without either expressing his of carrying it into effect? Their guilt own opinion upon it, or telling bis rearemains the same, let Cecil's bypocrisy ders where he bad it. His words are and malice be as black as it is repres these-" The commun opinion concerti sented. It would, however, be an acting the discovery of this letter to the of gross injustice to suffer the memory Lord Monteagle bas not been unive? of a great statesinan to remain uuvindi- sally allowed to be the real truth of this cated from a foul charge which has matter; for some bave affirmed that nothing but the virulence of his enemics this design was first hammered in the

1815.)

Dr. Watkins on the Gunpowder Plot.

499

forge of Cecil. Though this account for the calumny thrown upon him by should not be true, it is certain that the the nonjuror. Certain it is thai the court of Englad hd notice of this plot papists looked upon Cecil as their most from France and Italy, upon which Cecil inveterate enemy, and hence they spared frarget that letter to the Lord Mon- no pains to make him feel the deadly tenyl." Higgons does indeed affirm force of their malice, not only by vilitve mundis, that a coinmunication of the ing his character but by making repeated design was inade from abroad, but he attempts upon his life. As, therefore, neither says who gave the intelligence, he was an object of hatred to so many nor what authority he had for the decia- parties, it is not to be supposed that any ration that such information ever was of them would bare omitted so fair an made. This writer is of too insignificant opportunity of rendering hins infamous, a character to render his short view of if they could bave brought this charge English history a book of reference in fairly against him in his life time. Adany case, but much less so on any cir- mitting that the press in this country cumstance of remote date and of public was under too much restraint to allow of importance. . Nothing could be more such a publication without endangering preposterous than to iinpeach the inte- the safety of the author and printer, the grity of our national records on the faith case was different at Douay, Louvain, of two or three miserable pamphleteers, and Rome, where men of the first rate who were without credit among their talents were continually employed in contemporaries, and who bad not the the defence of their community, and in common honesty to tell where they calunniating te reformation of all gleaned the stories which they have pre- men tlie Jesuits were the most active in sumed to set up in opposition to the so- this literary warfure; and, as they were lemn proceedings of the courts of law, implicated in this black transaction more and to the public acts of the legislature. than the other religious orders, it became It is ludicrous to see such writers as their jotere.t to lay open the fraud Osborn and Hirsons brought forward which had been committed to bring them in the capacity of historical vouchers to a into disgrace, and to involve the Cathofact of which they could have no know- lics in ruin. That they made no effort ledge. The former of these men was a of this kind can be attributed oply to dealer in paradoxes, of which he was so their utter ignorance of any such trick fond, as to bring upon binself the charge having been played upon them, and not of atheisin, on account of bis singular to the want of inclination, or to the premode of treating religious and moral valence of some peculiar policy which subjects. Though this censure appears kept then silent under an opprobrium to have been too severe, the whole the most mo: tifying, since it subjected tenour of his works marks the author as them to the reproach of the members a man who aimed to think and write dif- of their own church, as well as that of ferently from the rest of the world. Of the church of England. Higgons it is quite sufficient to state, Long after the death of Cecil, and that he was a bigotted partizan, disaf- when all who could throw any light upon fected to that government by which he the subject were also gone off the stage, had been prosecuted for his intemperate this wretched romance was truinped-up, productions. Neither the one por the soon after uliich the author of it died, other of these inen had the talents, in- without leaving the smallest clue by dustry, and impartiality requisite for the which tuture inquirers might be enabled to discussion of historical questions, and judge of its truth or its falsehood. From for the clearing up of doubtful circum- that day to this no writer has confirmed stances. Any tale was acceptable to the declaration of Osborn, by the prothem which served to blacken the cha duction of the smallest docu:nent tendracter of a minister whose memory they ing to prove that the Gunpowder Treadetested, and as Cecil had rendered bime sou was a plot of Protestant contrivance, self obnoxious to the puritans, his name designed to render the Catholics odious, is never mentioned by Osborn, who was On the other band, no event of ancient of that sect, without some illiberal or mordern history stands better attested, invective, or scurrilous insinuation, for the conspirators were men of family, Strange, however, to say, the Romish property, and education. So far were party contrived to represent this emic they from denying the crime for which neat statesman as the patron of the they suffered, that these infatuated men Dutch Presbyterians and Republicans, boasted of it as the cause of righteouswhich will account, in some measure, ness; and even Father Garnet had no

500

Characier of Dr. Vanderkemp.

[Jan. 1,

thing more to urge in extenuation of his and by the injunction of Christ himself, conduct, than that of having concealed, The cause, interesting and sublime as it as he thought himself bound to do, that is, is one thing; the character of the which was imparted to hiin in confession. persons who engage in its propagation, Dr. Warton, an English jesuit at Bruges, always fallible and imperfect men, is in 1637, freely avowed bis knowledge of another. the plot, both in the contrivance and in Yet, if Lambda, from any commendthe act, which declaration, as it com- able motive, wish to investigate Dr. Vi's pletely clears away the charge brought private character, and surely it will against Cecil, so does it as strongly prove bear investigation, and will leave his that the conspiracy was from the begin- real name and address at your publisher's, ning to end a jesuitical, and vot a Pro- I will reter bin to a gentleman recently testant, device.

returned from the Cape, wbo will afford Nov. 5, 1814.

J. WATKINS, bim all the information he can desire;

but if he requests information on any CHARACTER of DR. VANDERKEMP.

other ground, I beg to submit the fol. To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. lowing supposition to bis attention. SIR,

Suppose, then, that a gentleman be IN your number for August, as your recently returned froin India, and have readers may recollect, appeared a loose his religion to seck; in this state of mind and virulent attack upon missions : in he takes up an old newspaper or mayathat for October you candidly inserted zive, and reads, that a clergyman, of two replies; that which undertook the fifty or sixty years of age, marries a girl defence of Dr. Vanderkemp and the of twenty; he has been thinking of at'African mission, has drawn forth several taching bimself to the church of Eng.

queries about the doctor's inarriage in land, but this marriage is a sad stumyour last number, (for November,) with bling-block in his way; for who can vinthe signature of LAMBDA, probably J. R. dicate so incongruous a match? He then with a new face.

resolves on making the following inquiMy former defence proceeded upon ries public:-“ Did pot the Rev. Mr. the implied assumption of J. R. that marry late in life a girl of twenty! How Dr. V. cobabited with an “ Hottentot long did he survive this happy eventi Venus." This I know must be a falsity; And was he ever separated from her! but having never read Lichtenstein's Tra- Because an answer to these queries will vels, I cannot say what immorality he enable me to make up my mind on the charges upon this late venerable mission- subject of the establishment; otherwise ary; and hence you will acquit me of I may continue a sceptic, or a nonde having any design of calumniating him. script, all my life.For whether this insinuation originated Sincerely wishing Lambda all the relief with the “ amiable traveller” or not, I the supposed case may afford, I may need not waste words to prove, that to cease either to advocate a prevailing repel a calumny and to raise one are not cause, or to defend an injured but eml. one and wie same thing: all that I intend nent character, to prove, and am now prepared to prove,

I remain, yours, &c. whoever be the assailant, is, that in his . Nov. 16, 1814.

Vixden. unwearied efforts in the civilization and Christian instruction of the Hottentots, XISSION among the HOTTENTOTS. Dr. V. was a self-denying and exein- To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazint. plary character.

SIR, i But, Sir, being unable to answer all AS Lambda (in your number for 10Lambda's questions, and as they are put vember, p. 309) appears anxious that to me merely upon a personul motive, what he calls « the foul aspersions of “ to enable him to make up his mind up- Vinder unjustly thrown upon the veraon the subject of missions,"Imust decline city of the amiable and intelligent travelthem altogether. For, to mention no ler Lichtenstein," may be removed, 1 other reason, what connexion has a mis- have taken the liberty to request that sionary's celibacy or marriage with the you will have the goodness to insert in great cause of inissions ? This cause is your valuable work the following extract to be maintained and defended upon from the Report of the Directors of the the principles of philanthropy--by the Missionary Society, published May 13, ignoralit and degraded state of man- 1813; persuaded that with every liberal kind--hy the very nature of the Gospel, and impartial mind it will be considered . * Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, lib. xii. conclusive evidence respecting the vera

1815.]

Mission ainong the Hottentots.

501

city and impartiality of Lichtenstein. food, without touching our funds; and Any farther information respecting Dr. the call for stockings and night-caps is Vanderkemp and Mr. Read, may, I con- more than we can supply, especially of ceive, be obtained from the Rev. John short stockings or socks, to which the Campbell, who has lately returned from officers in military service are very parSouth Africa, where he visited the inland tial. city of Letakhoo, containing about 8,000 " · The industry of our people, in geinhabitants, being, as he believes, the neral, continues to increase : mats and first European who had done so. The Caffre baskets are made in great abundnarrative of his journey you bave an- ance, and sold at Fort Frederick, and nounced as soon likely to be in the different parts of the country. hands of the public.

« «Considerable traffic in salt has been I am, &c..

carried on this year, which our people Moo: 9. PHILANTHROPIST. fetch from the salt-pan, pile up in heaps,

and is fetched from hence by the far“ In a work written in German, and mers, who otherwise have often a jour: lately translated into English, entitled ney in vain, not being able to get fine Travels in Southern Africa, by Henry salt; or even in that case, prefer to give Lichtenstein,” some very unjust reflexions a reasonable price for it dry, than to are thrown on the late Dr. Vanderkemp, take it wet from the pan. Our people which we cannot forbear to notice.- carry it likewise to different parts of the Speaking of the mission at Bethelsdorp, country themselves for sale, and barter he says, its utility was lost by the over- for wheat, &c. Soap-boiling. sawing, pious spirit and proud humility of its and wood-cutting for waggons, &c. is head;'* the people,' he adds, 'were cer- carried on at a considerable rate, by tainly daily instructed for some hours in which means they are enabled to earn a the Christian religion; but these instruc- good deal of money with the greatest tions made much more impression upon ease. Besides this, they earn much by their memory than upon their under frequent journies to the Cape with the standing. They could sing and pray, fariners. and be heartily penitent for their sins, " The success of our harvest of 1808 and talk of the Lamb of Atonement; but gave vigour to our agriculture, so that in none were really the better for all this the months of June and July we began 'specious appearance. No attention was again, and have been able to get uppaid to give them proper occupations; wards of 40 sacks of wheat into the and, excepting in the hours of prayer, ground, besides some barley, rice, Indian they might be as indolent as they chose.' corn, beans, pease, pumpkins. &c. Si p. 236.

that the wants of our poor people are " In refutation of this calumny, we inore and more likely to be supplied."" refer to our former Annual Reports, and “ Let the world now judge of the to the Missionary Transactions. When truth of what the author affirms, p. 239 : this traveller visited Bethelsdorp, in 1805 “ Dr. V.' he says, “nerer turned his or 1806, the settlement was in its in- thoughts seriously to instilling habits of fancy, having been commenced only in industry into his disciples; but all idea 1802 ; it was, therefore, extremely unfair of their temporary welfare appears with to contrast, as the author does, the state him to be wholly lost in anxiety for their of Bethelsdorp with that of the Moravian eternal salvation:' and again, 'It appears settlement at Bavians Kloof, which had to me that Vanderkemp is of litile value been cultured many years. Our journals as a missionary'-' he is too learned'-will shew how assiduously and success- hence comes his total neglect of husfully Dr. Vanderkemp and his valuable bandry. What the author says of a associate Mr. Read (whom the author'swarm of missionaries' (three or four at unjustly styles an ignorant man') at- most) at Rodezand, is equally false. He tended to the civilization of the natives; affirms, 'that they have introduced bigotso that in the year 1809 the following ry, which has very much changed the report was made to the directors by frankness of character and good-will Dr. V. and Mr. Read :- Our external which was once so prevalent here. The circumstances are much as usual. The pious Edinburgh Reviewers, referring to knitting school still continues, but misses this passage, have kindly improved it by its founder (Mrs, Smith); the number, saying, “ Both the happiness and the mohowever, increases, and prospers beyond rals of the colonists of this district seem expectation. About 30 children in it to bare been injured not a little by the have earned the whole year their daily intrusion of a swarm of missionaries,'

502

Cause of Rheumatism.

(Jan. I,

(No. LI. p. 64.) But it is thus that the and therefore it is an interesting ques. servants of Christ izbo torsie all and tion, wliat becomes of the remainder? follow him, must, like tei apostolical That it must be absorbed bị the syspredecessors, .go through evil report as tem is, therefore, evident; and it is well as good repori :' but blessed are almost as evident thal, although part of ye when men ball say all manner of it may reinain in the hones and inuscles evil ag just you talselv for my sale.' for certain purposes, yet inuch must also The infidel writers of the present day, pass off by the pores of the skin. disliking Christianity itself, seize every N ow, Sir, if any circumstances were occasion to vility those devoted men, to intervene to check this evaporation whose sole object is wo diffuse the knows by the cuticular pores, an accumulation ledge of it through the world." Page 2, would natura ly take place, which would 3, and 4, of th. R port for 1813. produce pain by distension, and even

For an accoon of the latter part of an apparent swelling without any colleco Dr. Vanderhemp's life, see Missionary tion of buipours; a stiffness of the parts Transactions, vol. ii. p. 404, 5, 6, 7, 8, where the accumulation took place would 9, & 10.

also ensue, and the patient would scarceJy be able to tell whether the pain was

in the muscles or in the bones, or might, CAUSE Of CILEUMATISM.

perhaps, suppose it was in both. Again, To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. if measures could be adopted to restore SIR,

the natural healthy state of evaporation, IT is a well known fact, that what is and at the same time care was taken to generally called chance, has led to some prevent the formation of gas in the sioof our most important discoreries in the mach, it is evident that the pain would various branches of science. Whilst gradually cease, and, finally, that the trying experiments on one subject, pbi- symptoms would go off! losophers bave ascertained truths con- Then, Sir, if you, or any of your readnected with others, and have thereby ers, have ever suffered the excruciating been led to further investigation, and to pains and tortures of RUFUMATISM, I consequent knowledye.

will ask you, if it is possible to present In most branches of science experi- a more familiar vicw of the origin and ment may be ventured on without risk; progress of that disorder? but there is one branch in which it is. It is worthy of observation, too, that railer dangerous, though, perhaps, as many of the known causes of rheumatic olien tried as in any other-I mean affections, both chronic and acute, are medicine.

connected with the foregoing consideraNow, Sir, the following hints on a tions, and that those remedies which disorder, which has long been an oppro- afford partial relief are connected with brium to medical skill, miglit, perhaps, them al-o. Colds, apd stoppage of the be tr nsmitted more technically to a ne- perspiration, produce rheumatic affecdical journal; but, as I am not a medi- tions, whilst the worm bath relieves cal man, and your inagazine is dedicated them). In short, Sir, I think it is almost to science in general, I may, I hope, be self-evident that ibe carse assigned is excused for sending you a few loose the real cause of the RHEUMATISM, and thoughts for the consideration of the therefore that any cure to be proposed world at largc.

must be founded upon its principles. Whoever bas paid even a slight atten. I presune not to dictate to the medi. tion to chemical lectures and experi- cal world, nor sl.all I hint that sui gical menis, must be aware of the great quan efforts to permit the imprisoner gas to tily of gris of various kinds which may escape would be either beneficial os judibe extracted from all species of human cious; but I may hint, that whatrver will food, whether animal or vegetable. It stimulate the pores to permit the passage is also plain, that the heat and mechani- of the gas already accumulated, aud cal action of the stomach must have an whatever will tend to expel the gas from etfect on food analogous to the retort of the stomach as soon as formed, so as to the chemist, and therefore it follows that prevent absorprion, may perhaps be at a great, inderd an almost incredible, tended with relief; whilst at The same quantity of cas must be evolved during time proper precautions should be taken the act of digest:on. Some part of this that the patient shall only partake of may certainly esc pe externally, but that such food as is likely to evolve the quantity is rery small in comparison with smallest quantity of gaseous matter in the whole that is continually evolved, proportion to its bulk.

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