« 前へ次へ »
Improvement in Waggons Conversion of Hindoos. (Jan. 1,
people. While our coaches and machi- might be accomplished, and be so comnery of every kind have rapidly im- pletely under management, that it might proved, this so very material a mode of be applied to stage-coaches. I have no communication between the metropolis doubt, that, if this plan of using lighter and all parts of England, has been ne- horses on the road were adopted, glected. It is truly astonishing that the farmers would begin to breed and use improvement suggested by Dr. Jarrold, themselves, likewise, coach-horses, inof placing wageous on springs, and tra- stead of their heavy, sleepy, cart breed, velling with more speed, bas never oc- now in use. Here would be another curred to the numerous wagyon-owners saving. to the country at large; for the (many of them men ut good sense and same number of berses used in agricul large property) long ago, particularly in ture, of greater speed and activity, would the late denr times, wlien hay and corn plough equally well a much greater quan. were so very expensive. I have seen iity of ground in the same time, and with many of these disgraceful machines thé sanie keep and attendance. We all creeping on at the rate of about two know bow very material a point this is or two miles and a half an hour, and in catching seasons. This breed of horses requiring even for this eight or ten large would certainly be much more saleable heavy horses, many of them appearing than the cart kind, as they would anto be sleeping as they crept aloug; and swer so many more purposes, and, in all this expensive train is employed to case of emergency, mount our cavalry. drag up io London four or five tons
I am, &c. weight only of goods! Ilow is it possi- Nov. 16, 1814.
VIATOR. ble that this can ever pay either of the parties! either those who keep these CONVERSION of the nin DOOS. animals, men, and invisibly-moving ware. To the Editor of the Vero Monthly Magazines houses, or those who are to pay for the SIR, carriage of their goods ? to say nothing IN your number for October I have of the waste of time, which io men in read with attention the letters of Chris• business is of great consequence. Four tianus, J. S. &c. Having also read Dr. coach-horses, with a light waggon, pro- Buchanan's Researches, and most of his perly built and put on springs, would opponents, I have not the shadow of a trarel with case, and with nearly the doubt that much may be done in consame weight of goods, more than double verting the Hindoos if conducted with the distance in the same time. How judgment. In matters of diet, discoctgreat a saving would here be both of ness of casts and prejudices of that kind, keep and number of animals, and also it would be unwise to interfere; for as of time! A smaller number of borses they are points of small moment to the would in the course of one year convey Christian, though not so the Hindoo, 11 double the quantity of goods from Bir- will be better to leave the removal of mingham to London ;-and this might them to time, and not attempt too great easily be brought about, by changing a change in manners and babits at first, horses at every stage-making no stop- They will not long be well instructed pages on the road except to take in or Christians before they will, of them. deliver goods and by so ordering the selves, discover the vanity and folly of stages, that 'no set of horses should run such distinctions. The grand point to more than ten miles backwards and for- be attained, is to provide for the Brawards, with proper intervals between, in mins and others, who, on their convere the course of twenty-four hours, making sion, lose all their privileges and emolu. together twenty iniles in a day and night. ments. The letter of Kolbott and Horst This work, with proportionable keep, from Tanjore, giving an account of it would not hurt the horses. If to springs being obliged to leave a newly converte were also added some mechanical con- Bramin to the care of a distant church, trivance to assist the horses up hill, (such, from the want of means of providing tot for instance, as a mechanical power acted him in any way, sufficiently shews that a on at pleasure by the four moving wheels fund is required to provide for the con of the waggon, ishich we will consider verts, in the first place. Might not, the inomeutum,) capable of doing the then, an establishment be formed bear work of two or more horses, then the every great town and British settlemen eaza of the horses would be much pro- consisting of several hundred acres moterd. I would recommend this at- waste land, for the express purpose tempt to the consideration of some of providing for those who are conce your ruechanical rçaders. I think it and for educating the children of
. Comparative Merits of Potatoes and Wheat. 509 tians, and particularly for supporting bett! no subject is too high, or too low, and educating the children of half-cast? for his comprehensive mind; with uniThese are so very numerous, that in a form talents, be discusses the endow, few years we should have our set- ments of an cinperor, or the qualities of tlements surrounded by hundreds of a potatve. How well he has apprestrongly attached and most bighly use- ciated the fornier, and how justly he has ful natives. Let there be an bospital in ascertained the latter, must be apparent each settlement to receive any child that from his oumerous panegyrics upon may be brought to it; and in times of Buonaparte, and the paper just påbscarcity there would be hundreds. I lished upon the demerits of the latter. would also propose that a premium But, alas! Buonaparte, the great politie should be given to the Brainins for every cal calculator Buonaparte, the great gewidow wliom they could rescue from the neral, the magnanimous chieftain, the funeral pile, and should bring to these hero of the Political Register, who was establishments, thousands of lives would to share all the dangers, and all the prisoon be saved, and Christians added 10 vations of his army, has been out in his the number. Let the lands of these calculations, has been foiled as a com. establishments be managed as farms, and mander, has deserted his fellow soldiers, the cultivation directed by Europeans, and left Mr. Cobbett in the lurch. Let and carried on by the converts using it now be tried whether Mr. Cobbett English implements. They would soon has not as much undervalued the pobe able to support themselves with the tatoe, as he has overrated Buonaparte. produce, and have much to dispose of But as the charges which he bay brought also. Tennant says that there are pro- against that more than inoffensive root, digious tracts of country lying waste are of the most serious nature, and throughout the whole of our Indian pos- strike at its very eristence, I must be sessions : let these tracts be given to excused for following him more mivutely the missionaries, and the cultivation of through them than most of his effusions potatoes, among other things, be parti- call for. cularly recommended, as they would Mr.Cobbett says, “ No baker who often prove a substitute for rice, in years understands bis own interest, who knows of famine. These establishments would any thing of the material he uses, will then be public blessings to every town ever make use of potatoes in making of they were near; would tend to improve bread, any farther than is necessary for the agriculture of the country, and be the purposes of aiding the yeast, in the the means of saving thousands and tens work of fermentation.” Agreed-cerof thousands of human lives. Instead tainly no baker who knows, and hoof the howling desert we should have nestly pursues his business, would do so, smiling fields; and would not this be a for that would be an imposition upon blessing worthy attempting?
his customers, by selling them potatoe ANTI-CHRISTIANUS. bread instead of wheaten bread; and if,
as Mr. Cobbett says, potatoes are dearer COMPARATIVE MERITS of potatoes and than wheat, it would be a loss of money WHEAT,
as well as of character," by substituting To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. a more expensive material; in fact, it SIR,
would be paying a premium for being ON the appearance of Mr. Çobbett's reckoned a knave. paper upon the comparative merits of Nir. Cobbett farther says, “ It repotatoes and wheat; the following ob- quires more labour, more of the producservations were written and sent for pub- tive quality of the land; it costs more to lication; but being mislaid, and given raise, subsistence for a man on potaup as lost, they never made their appear- toes than in wheat." This point reance in print. Having, however, been quires to be clearly answered - The prelately recovered, they are offered, (though paratory ploughings, Sir, and the horse late,) to the New Monthly Ylagazine, hoeings, with all the et cetera's, whilst being, as the writer hopes, particularly the crop is growing, are for potatoes calculated to expose that loose way in nearly equal to the labour of a summerwhich the Political Register is accus- fallow, and the quantity of manure retomedto treat the most important subjects. quired, little, if any thing more. Of the I remain, &c.
productive quality of the land as affectCLERICUS DROMONIENSIS, ing the ensuing wheat crop, it consumes COBBETT AND POTATOES.
none; for the quantity of wheat after a How superior a genius is Mr. Cob- potatoc fallow is equal to that of any 510
Strictures on Cobbett's Remarks on Potatoes.
other fallow; if all the labour were to instead of a fool, you would probably end in the crop of potatoes, that would meet with as complete a hustling as you be a different case, but taking them as a have deserved to undergo. fallow, the labour is not greater, and the Mr. Cobbett objects also to the waste potatoes are gained into the bargain. which attends the consumption of poBut even supposing the cropping with tatoes. This is very hard to visit the them were to be carried on, the labour, sins of the consumer upon the innocent the manure, and the seed, would be di- root, which, if properly treated, affords mirrished, but not the produce,* whereas nutriment to some useful creature in two crops of grain in succession would every part; bringing on with its fragments injure almost any land, especially if young pigs and poultry, which, in due thuse crops are wheat.
time, produce a supply of eggs and baThe Political Reviewer nest talks with con and fowls, no bad accompaniment bis usual flippancy of Mr. Wilberforce's to a potatoe. In one word, it is owing bringing in a bill to encourage the growth to the potatoe that Ireland, in spite of of potatoes, and of Mr. H. Tooke op- its misery, rears so many brave men and posing it, and continues in his rambling bagdsome women, that it uses and exway, until he comes to state, “ that it is ports so much good pork and savoury a great bulk, a monstrous heap, that an bacon. acre produces, but not so much food as Passing by many of Mr. Cobbett's is contained in the wheat which would sarcasms, many of those very elegant have grown on the same land. If this phrases and words, of which he is so root," he continues, “had a tendency to profuse, he now shall be taken up on his prosperity in a country where it is gene- calculations. The average produce at rally cultivated and eaten, Ireland would which he states wheat and potatoes seems surely not be so supreme in the misery to be a fair one; wheat at $2 bushels, of its people," and in the next sentence or four quarters ; potatoes at 10 tous, is an excellent joke: “ It may truly be or 400 bushels; making the quantity of called the root of misery." Mr. Cobbett, potatoes above 12 times as much as that who told you that the people of Ireland of wheat. This pound of wheat, to give are so supreme in misery? and that this every advantage to it, shall be converted supremacy is caused by their potatoe into a pound of bread of the best quaeating? It is most heartily to be wished, lity, aud so we start--Now Sir, let a man, Mr. Cobbett, that you could be conveyed his wife, and two or three hungry cbilto some country town in that kingdom, dren, sit down to this pound of bread; on a market day, (to Lisburn, for exam. and another man, his wife, and two or ple, in the county of Antrim,) which on three children, with equal appetites to that day is always filled with com- twelve pounds of potatoes the infefortable, well-looking, aye, Sir, and with rence is plain; of the bread each would well dressed people from the country have a mouthful, of the potatoes each round, all inveterate potatoe-eaters; would have a bellyful, with something and that, notwithstanding your well to spare for pigs and poultry, that is, for grounded antipathy to the root, you reversionary eggs and bacon-Q. E, D. could be induced to go to the place from this statement, Mr. Editor, it where potatoes are exposed to sale, and must be apparent to most, that the supe. you should harangue these miserable riority of affording a quantity of food people and endeavour to persuade them both for man and other animals, lies on that their misery was entirely caused by the side of tie potatoes, not on the side the pernicious roots before them, and of the wheat; and, ibat if it is the cause that every time they attempted to ap- of misery, it is the misery of a full pease their appetites with them they stomach, not the misery of an empty were making large strides to more mi- belly. sery, besides assimilating themselves to hoys by feeding on thein; I say, were SIR WILLIAM DRUMMOND'S EDIPUS JUyou, Mr. Cobbett, to place yourself in
DAICOS. that predicament, and, what is very to the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. likely, were you to be taken for a koave SR,
The writer of this could point out a field YOUR correspondent Aristides calin the neighbourhood of Killough, county of not deem more lightly of ridiculing the Down, Ireland, that has been more than 40 Old Testament than I do of the practiyears under potatoes, without their destroy- cability of the attempt by such agents as ing the productive quality of the land, being Sir Win. Drummond and his defender, ** cod now as when fust planted.
if the intemperance of the latter dges
1815.] The Edipus Judaicus-Recollections of Lectures. 511 not convince every impartial reader of a division of labour and manufacture, their personal identity.
presupposes the accumulation of stock. The virulence of the reply so fully Even agriculture could not be improved confirms my assertions, that I shall be to any great extent without the previous no more provoked to repeat them, or to accumulation of capital, which is indeed sully your pages by quotations in corro- necessary to all improvement; for boration of them. The good sense of nothing is more true than that “ money our daily journalists dictated the sup- begets inoney." Hence the foundation pression of any extracts from the Ecce of giving labour for stock, or the just Homo, which was as impotent an attack practice of lending out on interest. upon the New, as the Edipus Judaicus Mr. Hume in bis political tracis seems is upon the Old Testament.
to be the first author who investigated As a calm, but at the same time the true nature of interest. Long, inwatchful observer of the insidious at- deed, before, a low interest had been tempts of the opposers of all revealed considered a sign of national wealth; religion, I have been amused at the but by Locke, Law, and Montesquieu, it blind and indiscriminate fury of Aris- was ascribed to an abundance of money. tides, who does me the honour to attri- In Batavia, however, where money was bute to me the article in the Quarterly plenty, interest was at 101. per cent. and Review which I never saw until in print, in Portugal, at 61. as Hume remarks. and of whose author I am now as igno- He adds, that prices and gold had risen rant as Aristides evidently is.
four times since the discovery of the That Review, however, so completely West Indian mines, but that interest had effected its object by consigning the sub- not fallen. Mr. Smith agrees with Mr. ject to its merited contempt and oblivion, Hume in his conclusions, though the one that I have only to reproach myself, as I drew thein from theory, and the other in a foriner letter observed, with giving from facts. it a momentary revival by the authentic The term value of money is sometimes anecdote I communicated, and now no used to express the exchangeable prices considerarion shall induce me to waste, for commodities : in other cases it means on a forgotten subject, those animadver its value in getting interest in the marsions for which a licentious age affords ket. These distinct and separate senses too constant a demand from the pen of have often been confounded, particularly Dec. 1814.
CASTIGATOR. by an author who has drawn up some
very laborious tables of the prices of For the Vew Monthly Magazine.
corn, in a publication on the corn laws. RECOLLECTIONS of the UNPUBLISHED High interest Mr. Hume states to arise I.ECTURES of an EMINENT Proressor. from a great demand in borrowing.
Secondly, from there being but little Of the Acoumulation of Stock, and the riches to supply this demand; and thirdorigin und nature of Interest.
Is, from high profits in commerce. Low
interest, on the other hand, is occasioned HOW much the division of labour, by the opposite of these three causes, and of professions, has been promoted by This, in the main, is distinct and accuthe introduction of money, has been al- rate. ready shewn: another of its tendencies The great demand in borrowing hap. has been to increase the fund of national pens, Mr. Hume says, where there are stock and wealth, as both Mr. Sunith and numerous proprietors of land, who live Turgot have maintained. They have luxuriously; and this may be in part shewn that all manufacturing industry true, though subject to some limitation. arises from this accumulation of stock, With respect to the second cause, or and that riches floti in from the advances there being but little riches to answer and return which it enables the com- the demand, it may be observed, that it mercial interest to venture. Till the is not so much the absolute qgantity, as employment of gold and silver, this ac- the accumulation of riches in a certain cumulation of stock and division of la- number of hands that occasions high inbour could not be easily attempted, from terest. Commerce, by accumulating the perishable nature of all other sub- riches, adds both to the punber of lenstances used as money. In most manu- ders and borrowers; and from the babits factures, also, no trade could be carried of merchants being more saving than on till a capital was created to enable those of landed proprietors, by degrees one to advance money for the labour of a new order of society springs up, difeothers, as Mr. Turgot bas observed with rent both from the landed and commerrespect to the article of tanning. lience cial proprietors, and in this country.
Liecollections of Lectures-Price of Labour.
called the “ monied interest." These in stock, occur together only in new colend out their inoney without trading; lovies, where capital increases faster and this though it adds to the opinber of than labourers can be found to work it; borrowers, does not necessarily increase but whatever the profits of stock may the rate of interest, for the competition be, the demand for labour continues; in lending increases also, and thus keeps and hence we see that in those colonies, it down.
although the profits of stock have dimiIn the third place, as low profits in bished, the wages of labour lave kepe up. commerce lower interest, so does a re- In the East Indies wages are low, and duced interest lower the profi:s of com- interest high. Sometimes moucy is lent merce. In Holland, all persons were in to farmers at 401., 501., or 60l. per cent. trade; for interest there being only 21. and their crop mortgaged to pay it; so and 31. per cent. few or none could live that thic labourer gets little or nothing without trade. By cheapening commo- for himself: hence the rapidity with dities, and increasing consumption, low which richies are accumulaied in that profits have a tendency to increase con- country, and the wretchedness of the merce. Hence, says Mr. Hume, a low labouring classes of the communits.interest is the best and most universal Where the law either prohibits interest sign of wealth.
altogether, or does not euforce a legal The same author remarks that the payment of it, usurious transactions nesubstitution of the term interest for cessarily arise. usury, was a happy instance of the good The ordinary market price of land is etfects of a change of words, doing away regulated by that of interest, and the the odiousness attached at one tine to market-rent of land may be always exthe lending of money. In Elizabeth's pected to fall short of the market inte reign, interest was at 10l. per cent.; at rest of inoney. If noney did not prothe period of the Revolution at 6l.; and cure a higher interest than land, all during the reign of Queen Anne it was would be tempted to purchase the latter reduced to 51. Since the time of Henry from the greater security it affords. VIII. interest had been falling, from the When interest was at 101. per cent. land gradual improvement and extension of sold at ten and twelve years' purchase : commerce. Clarendon relates the rapid as interest has fallen, land has risen in progress of improvement in the begin value. The value of land must vary often ning of the reign of Charles I.; and even from local circumstances. Thus persons the rebellion that succeeded, though for who acquire money in trade, not by imanbile injurious to both king and people, poverishing their neighbours, but by by drawing the orders of society closer drawing it by the profits of their labour together, tended eventually to add, as from a distance, ofien wish to get land Mr. Chalmers gays, to the fund of na- in the vicinity of their manufacture, and tional wealth. Towards the end of King thus increase the Duinber of buvers.-William's reign interest tell, and conti- The extravagance, and consequent popued low. In George the First's reign it verty of landholders, leads also to the fell to 41, and has since that time been sale of land, and at the same time as low as 31, per cent. During all this cheapens it. Mr. Locke observes, that fall of interest the wages of labour bave estates are seldom sold witbout being risen.
previously mortgaged. As to the quesIn France the fluctuations of interest tion of policy, bow far the legislator have been inore variable than bere, from should interfere in the regulation of in. the arbitrary interference of the govern- lerest, will be spoken of hereafter. ment. In 1720 it jell from 51. to 21. per ceut., and in 1706 it us again raised to SCALE for REGULATING the PRICE of La51. This lower rate of interest shiews
BOUR IN IIUSBANDRY. trade to be more profitable in France; To the Eliitwa of the New Monthly Magazinc. and many English have been induced to
SIR, settle there, though iu that country trade IT has long occupied my mind, that was so little respected. The wages of few measures would promote more gtlabour, however, continued low, and ncral happiness throughout the kingdoin, therefore the poor of that country were than adopting some scale by which treo more miserable than those of England. gulate the price of labour. Let me not
In the West India colonies, also, inte be supposed to wish to oppress the poor, rest has gradually fallen, as commerce or to see them working liard for a bare and money became more abundant. subsistence; on the contrary, I feel de High wages for labour, and high profits lighted to see them comfortable, indus