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1815.)

Davi's Agricultural Chemistry-Small-Pox Hospital.

513

trious and independent. This is my fore, be adding much to the favour, if wish: I desire to befriend the labourer they could be translated into good plain and the farmer also, and I think I English at the same time, for, at precannot do this more effectually than by sent, no farmer upon carth can ever unsubmitting the following proposal to derstand the bombastico-poetico-prosaic your readers, some of whom may per- style, as our parson calls it, in which haps take the matter in hand.

they are composed. Perhaps they were To proportion the price of labour to composed to be sung to an organ! the price of provisions has always been Sir, your most humble servant, the most difficult task; and which, in

Hodge. deed, with justice to ourselves, we farmers never yet have been able to accom

On the SMALL-POX HOSPITAL. plish. For, having once raised the price Tu the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. of labour we have invariably found that SIR, here it must remain; we have not hadM Y acknowledgments are due to the the power to reduce it again, though person who signs himself “ A Member provisions may have fallen to their old of the Comınittee of the Small-Pox llos. standard. Feeling the ill effects, I have pital,” in your last number; but before long turned my thoughts to this point, I accept his polite invitation to enrol and imagine that if the price of labour myself among the managers of that instiwere regulated by the price of bread in tution, I must be convinced of its utility, the following manner it would entirely about which I have expressed strong remove the difficulty, viz. making the doubts, and nothing contained in the price of the half-peck loaf the price of letter of your correspondent has served a man's labour by the day. Every vil- to remove or weaken them. It is adlage should be regulated from week to mitted that the building is too large for week by that market town which the its avowed objects, which strengthens justices for the hundred should appoint. what I have advanced against its conWe then should have a regular standard tinuance with that designation. The reto go by, and should never objcct to duction of the establishment confirms raise our labourers' wages in the time of the objection, and the extensive pracscarcity, knowing that we could reduce tice of vaccination within the walls of them again. The labourer would always that edifice brings the point to a demonhave it in his power to earn enough to stration, by shewing that the necessity support him in the worst of times; and which once called for such a charitable we have the pleasure to see an abundant foundation has now ceased. If the smalle larvest once more operate in lowering pox is to be perpetuated among us, in he price of every thing else. But now opposition to common sense and hut has not that effect, as we most sen- manity, let the practice of inoculating it ibly feel at the present moment, when be confined to some place exclusively wheat is low, yet labour, meat, and appropriated to that blessing; but do very thing else, keep up their price. not, by a refinement of hypocrisy, carry should it continue so, it will be more to on vaccination under the saine roof. Our advantage to have a middling than This is to disperse the poison and the in abundant crop. We must sow less antidote by the same hands, and is of a ur fear of bringing down its price. piece with the counsel of Rousseau, who

A FARMER. advised parents to take their children to

a brothel that they might learn to abhor IBRIDGMENT of sir 11. DAVY'S AGRICUL- vice. Vaccination has no need of a hosTURAL CHEMISTRY proposed.

pital, for the discase neither requires seTo the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. clusion nor the formality of medical atSIR,

tendance; I am, therefore, fully justiI BEG leave by your assistance to re- fied for any thing that appears to the mark, that an abridgment of Sir Hum- contrary, in contending that so extensive pliry Davy's Agricultural Chemistry of a building as this, let its internal econothe price of seven or eight shillings would my be what it may, ought now to be betDe very useful to farmers like myself, ter applied. The committee-man is who have neither time nor patience to compelled to allow this; but then he read the whole of the present lectures. puts the question how the funds are to In fact, it is to us all time thrown away; be raised for the support of the hostor scratch our heads as long as we will pital in the event of its being opened for

ter reading one of them, we cannot general purposes. His demand would understand one half! It would, there be reasonable enough if the matier to be New MONTELY MAG-No. 12.

Vol. II.

3 Y

514

Original Letter of Dr. Puley-Singulur Epitaph.

[Jan. I,

determined was simply whether the explains the only difficulty in the subbuilding should remain as it now is, orject, arising from an apparent inconnec be made an inbriary on a large scale. tion between the first and second chapBut this is not the case; for though ters of this book. It was to elucidate such a charity is very desirable in that this difficulty, that the favour of this neighbourhood, there are other uses to explanation was obligingly conferred by which the present structure might be the estecmed author on well appropriated, so as to take off from

Your obedient servant, the capital of the British empire the dis- Dec. 4, 1814.

V. M. 11. grace of retaining a hospital having the

(Copy.) naine of the small-pox. While such an Sir,-You inquire what is the purport establishment is suffered to continue of Ch, I. B. 3. of my Moral Philosophy. with that designation, it is in vain lo It is expressed in the first senteoce of look for the extermination of the ma- the chapter which follows it, viz. “There lady, though Providence has graciously must be some very important advantages put the means of eradicating it into our to account for an institution in one view hands. None of your readers can be of it su paradoxical and unnatural." ignorant that the practice of variolous What is said in the preceding chapter is inoculation is still prosecuted with great for the purpose of introducing this obactivity, and in the immediate vicinity servation. If you read the two chapters of the small-pox hospital. At the very together, or, if you please, consider time I am now writing there are many them as one, I think you will perceive cases around me of the very worst kind, how the first bears upon the second, and aud such as would not have happened both upon the subject of the book. had not the apothecaries been restrained I am obliged to you for the favourable by a dread of the law or a sense of opinion you entertain of my worth and duty. It would, I am persuaded, be no public principles, and am, Sir, your obe more than justice to hold up the pames dient servant,

W. PALEY. of these men for public reprobation, but at present they shall be left to settle it It must be regretted as a singular mis with their conscience, whether he who fortune, that the publication of the me professionally communicates a disease moir of this eminent man by Mr. Meadthat may prove mortal, when he has it ley, led to the abandonment of the late in his power to counteract the infection Bishop of Elphin's intended life of his by an effectual preventive, can morally illustrious friend.

V. M. H. be acquitted of the crime of culpable homicide ?

SINGULAR EPITAPH.
A PANCRATIAN.

To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine Mor, 10, 1814.

SIR,

IN passing through France the otbel ORIGINAL LETTER Of DR. PALEY on his day. I met with a curious epitaph, whick, “ MORAL PHILOSOPHY."

having translated, I have submited to To the Editor of the New Montily Magazine.

your inspection. SIR, MANY of your readers will probably

An Epitaph on å Tomb at Arlington,

near Paris. remember tbat, when the late Archdea

Here lie con Paley first published his celebrated

Two grandmothers, with their two granch work on Moral Philosophy, a consider

daughters; able agitation was excited in the politi Two husbands, with their two wives; cal world by the subject of the Chapter Two fathers, with their two daughters; on Property.*

Two mothers, with their two sons ; The following letter froin the author Two maidens, with their two mothers; himselt, in illustration of the particular Two sis:ers, with their two brothers; scope of this very argument, which Yet but six corpses in all lie buried here: caused so clamorous an outcry against All born legitimate, from incest clear. this intrepid champion of liberal senti. Nov. 1814.

Wur MSICOLOS ment, will shew how little foundation there existed for the perverted use which

For the Nez Monthly Magazine was at the time made of his supposed NATURAL HISTORY of the COMMON LEL doctrine. The letter which I subjoin

By the rev. W. BISGLEY. for the perusal of your readers, clearly

(Concluded from p. 412.) See Mor, and Pol. Phil. vol. i. Look i. Professor Bradley attempted, chap. i,

earthen pans, to breed and keep young

1815.]

Rev. Mr. Bingley on the Natural History of the Eel.

515

Gsh; amongst many others, he procured or four yards under the bank of the river some eels which were not thicker than a or ditch which they frequent. In such coarse thread. For six months they situations they bave been dug out in were always immersed in the mud or immense numbers, coiled together in one earth at the bottom of the pans, having great mass. An instance of this took only a small hole open where their place near Waltham, some years ago, in mouths were. Various other kinds of which there was as many discovered as fish were at first kept in the same ves- would have filled a busbel. sels; Mr. Bradley has often seen them Eels are proyerbially tenacious of life. seize a fish as it passed by them, and, he It is considered so ditlicult to kill them, says, if he had not removed several that many persons have the cruelty to which he had put into other pans, he skin thein alive rather than take the should soon have lost them all.

trouble even of attempting first to renThere is at present not inuch known der them devoid of fecling. Perhaps respecting the growth of fish. Nume- the easiest and most efficacious method rous attempts to rear them in close ves- of doing this is to divide the vertebra sels under immediate inspection have behind the head by means of a penknife. been made, but none of these have been The natural duration of the life of eels attended with the desired success, since, has not yet been ascertained. Some in this confined state, and deprived of persons have supposed them to be very their natural food, their developement long lived, whilst others do not believe must necessarily be much slower than in that they usually outlive the term of from the open waters. There cannot be a five to eight years. The enormous size stronger illustration of this circumstance to which some individuals have grown chan that which was afforded by the eels woulj, however, seem to militate against that were kept by M. Septfontaines. In the latter opinion. the month of June, 1779, he procured These fish are usually considered in sixty eels, each about seven inches in highest perfection for the table from the length, which he put into a large reser- commencement of Spring till about the voir. At the end of more than four end of July: yet they continue good till years, namely, in September, 1783, they the end of September or begioning of had only increased to the length of about October. seventeen inches. In October, 1786, The skins of eels in some parts of the they measured about twenty inches, and continent are made into a kind of ropes, lastly, in July, 1788, after a confinement which have great strength, and consideof upwards of nine years, not more than rable durability. In some districts of about twenty-one inches.

Tartary they are used to supply the place Much has at different times been said of glass in windows. The inhabitants respecting the enormous size that eels of the Orknies wear them as a remedy have attained. But I am inclined to for the cramp. In many countries of the suspect that, at least, in some of the in- north of Europe the scales of eels, which stances, the conger has been mistaken are extremely minute, are mixed with for the common eel. In the river Ban, cement for the purpose of giving a silia Ireland, where there is an eеl fishery very lustre to the houses. so considerable as to let for 1000). a With respect to its interior conformayear : it is, indeed, well known that the tion, we find that the abdominal cavity common eels do arrive sometimes at a of the eel is narrow. The heart is some weight of betwixt fifteen and twenty what four-cornered. The liver, which pounds. But the eel said to have been consists of two long and uncqual lobes, caught near Cricksea, in Essex, the is of a pale red colour; and the gall length of which was five feet eight bladder is large. The spleen is triangumches; that in the Maldon Channel, lar, and the air-bladder simple. The about half a mile below the town, which intestinal canal is short, and without was seven feet in length; and that taken either sinuosities or appendices. The on the Norfolk coast, which weighed be- backbone contains one hundred and six {wixt fifty and sixty pounds, have cer- teen vertebræ. tainly been congers. The hybernation, or winter retirement

On Noise in the HEAD. of eels, is not a little curious. I am To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazins. credibly informed that they do not SIR, merely sink themselves deep into the I BEG leave to inform your corro mud, but that they oftentimes make spondent G.W. that I was a considerable their way to the distance even of three sufferer frem the complaint he mentions;

516

Noise in the Head Marriages of Minors.

(Jan. 1,

and, during my residence at Wells, in ounces of blood, which was of a good Somersetshire, I applied to Mr. Bernard, colour, but thick, and obtained with an eminent surgeon at the adjacent vile much difficulty. This operation prolage of Wookey, from whom I received duced on the same day no sensible alte much benefit, and should no doubt have ration, but on the next a small degree experienced a complete cure, bad I not of giddiness was felt, attended with nauleft Wells sooner than I intended. That sca, which induced abstinence froin food, gentleman was or opinion, that noise in This nausea, however, was soon overthe ear might proceed either from a nere come by taking gruel and heef-tea, and vous affection, or from the tympanum of the stomach restored to its former lone. the ear being perforated--the air, rusi- A week after this recourse was had to a ing through the aperture, causing the blister behind the ear, the painful effects hissing noise.

of which awoke the patient about three If G. W. is a military or naval man, o'clock in the morning. The noise or the perforation might be the effect of singing was much increased, the sight his being close to cannon during a heavy affected, vertigo ensued, whicb produced discharge, or of some sudden and loud sickness and vomiting. This indisposinoise. As the complaint is very annoy- tion of the stomach was soon removed, ing, I would advise him to write to Mr, without medical aid, by the use of gruel, Bernard, detailing all the particulars he &c. Since that time the patient has can, when I have no doubt lie will re- enjoyed good health, but is at this moceive such advice as will procure relief, if ment recovering from a slight paroxysma in the power of medical abilities, whicis, of the gout, which was preceded by a from experience, I judge will be the case. swelling of the feet and legs. The pain I am, &c.

is now subsided, and the feet restored Southampton, Nov. 8, 1814. T.Q. to their wonted size; but the noise of

which he complains remains the same. To the Edilor of the Ncw Monthly Magazine. It was hoped that this attack of the gout SIR,

would have removed the complaint in IN your last, a correspondent, who the head, but it has not. This attack signs G. W., wishes for a remedy for a of the gout, in the present instance, is noise in the head; but his having had the more remarkable, as the patient in medical advice, leaves me poor encou- all his habits is very temperate-drinks ragement to expect to succeed after that very seldom, either wine or spirits--and bas failed. I should feel pleasure in uses much exercise in walking every day. affording G. W. even a partial relief, and This is the second attack he has bad of the simple means I would advise I think the yout. The patient has, during a long he will readily adopt; it is one of my life, enjoyed uncominoply good health; little domestic recipes, which I have hardly ever experiencing any other inoften known to cure; and if he derives disposition than that produced by cos benefit I wish him to inform me, as I tiveness. may bit upon some other means. Take Should your good correspondent H. M. some cotton wool, and press it firmly see this, I beg be will accept of my into the ears, not to oppress the part, thanks for his friendly information; and but so effectually to stop the aperture as should he, or any other of your readers, to produce a degree of deafness: let it indulge me with any further counmım renain in for a week or ten days, and if cations on the subject, they will be the noise is diminished or cured, take thankfully received by yours, &c. the cotton out, and put some fresh in, Dec. 8, 1814.

G.W. pressed lighter than the former; and so continue to diminish the pressure, until he will be enabled to cease the applica

MARRIAGES of MINORS.

To the Editor of the Neä vonthly Magazini. tion, and be perfectly relieved.

SIR, Clapham, Nov. 18, 1814. J.T. YOUR correspondent HUXANITAS (in

p. 423 of your number for December) To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. scates the case of an unfortunate woma, SIR,

whose husband has deserted ber, and SUFFER ine, through the medium of threatens to set aside their marriage your very useful miscellany, to thank because he was under age at the time. your obliging correspondent II. M. for Had they been married by licence, with his prompt and friendly reply to my out the consent of parents, the obja, letter; and also to inform him that the tion would have been insurmounts patient has lost by cupping about six under the marriage act, 26 Geo. II. C.vvs

1815.]

Julian's DeathDr. DonneSir Lewis Dives.

517

but in the instance put by Humanitas, The story of the witty prediction of who states that they were married by the Christian grammarian at Antioch, in banns, the objection now made by the reply to the question of Libanius the husband, that he was under age at the sophist is told by Theodoret and Sozotime, will not avail; so that Humanitas men, from whom it has been retailed by is mistaken in describing the object of most writers who have treated of this his very just commiseration as neither emperor's history. But the saying and wife, maid, nor widow. She cannot be action attributed to Julian, in his last deprived of the title of wife, and may moments, have no better authority than securely attempt to assert her legal rights the former of these historians; for though to a maintenance for herself and child, Sozomen relates it, be does it in a very (if any the fruit of the above-mentioned slighting manner, and evidently without marriage ;) but to direct ber in the judi- believing it himself. Ammianus Marcelcious prosecution of them will require linus, who was present when Julian exthe advice of some professional person. pired, gives a very different account of I am, &c.

his language and behaviour. Instead of Dec, 1814. INIGO SWILAFF. that frantic or theatrical scene, which is

so highly coloured in the anecdote, it To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. appears that Julian behaved with a graSIR,

vity suitable to his condition, and so far A correspondent in your last lavs be

from uttering any blasphemous expresfore your legal readers a very affecting sions against heaven, his words were such casc, of a minor having married a wo- as might have become a Christian in the man, and then deserted her, upon a plea same circumstances : “ I submit gladly," of infancy. The question he there puts said he, “ to the eternal and unchangeis, “ Whether the marriage can be set able decrees of the gods; and, though aside on proof of the minority? and, if in the spring of my days, I am sensible so, what remedy can be given to the that he who is inordinately fond of life unfortunate woman?" Now, Sir, I sub- when called upon to die, is as much a mit that, as a publication of banns is coward as the man who wishes to die equal to a licence with the consent of when he ought to live." the parents or guardians, this marriage

The extracts from the memoir of Dr. cannot be set aside by the mere dis- Donne, in your last number, do not furagreement of either of the parties. With nish any more information concerning respect to the remedy, if there has been that ingenious divine, than what may a deed of settlement, an action at law already be met with in honest Izaack will lie on the covenant therein; but it Walton's life of him; but your corredone, the best course for the wife to spondent has committed an error in pursue will be to seek relief in a court making the “ witty Charles," as he calls of equity, which will allow her a main him, the patron of the doctor instead of tenance out of the property of her bus- James 1. By the way, can any of your band in proportion to its extent. readers inform me where the story is to I am, &c.

be found, or on what authority it rests, London, Dec. 1814. H. M. which gives the dean the credit of diso

covering a murder in the parish of St. BIOGRAPHICAL INTIMATIONS. Dunstan, by the simple occurrence of To the Editor of the New Monthly Mugazine. taking up a scull in the church-yard? sir,

From the letters of James líowell it AMONG the pious frauds which too appears that Sir Lewis Dives, inquired frequently disgrace the pages of eccle- after by HENRICUS, (at p. 427,) was at siastical history, may be reckoned the Madrid when Prince Charles made the account of Julian's death, concerning romantic journey to that court, with the which your correspondent VERITAS makes favourite Buckingham, in quest of a wife. inquiry in your last number, p. 418. Howell, who speaks highly of the abiliThat monarch had rendered himself so ties of Sir Lewis, has inserted in his obnoxious to the Christians, by his zeal entertaining collection three letters to for paganism, and by the absurd attempts him, of which two were written when which he made to restore che pomp of the former was in the Fleet prison, and polytheism, with all its altars and mystic the latter in the Tower, in the year 1646; rites, throughout the empire, that his but the other, wbich is without date, and death could not be registered without addressed to Sir Lewis Dives at Paris, some circumstance to mark the special was evidently composed at an earlier interposition of the divne agency. period.--Wood, in his accouật of Doris

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