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582 Account of Gottfried Mind--Naturalist's Report. [Jan. I,
NATURALIST'S MONTHLY REPORT.
Give o'er their tormer play;
To claunt the Matin lay.
November 19.-Some few of the late flowering autumnal plants continue still in bloom, though the late frosty nighis bave cut off the greater part of them. The wallhower, (cheiranthus cheiri,) hemlock-leaved cranesbill, (ecranium molle, strawberry tree, (arbutus unedo,) and joy, (hedera helix,) are those which have been principally observed.
November 22.-The gossainer continues to float. Norember 23.-Bullfinches, in some of the midland parts of Sussex, are unusually abundant.
November 26 - In several of the clear rivulets and streams, the smaller lampreys, or lamperns, as they are called in some parts of the country, (petromyzon fluviatilis of Linnæus,) are observed to adhere to the gravel and stones. They are easily caught by boys, who wade in the water for that purpose.
November 27.-On the sen shores of Hampshire and o:her southern counties, the sand-launces, (ummodytes tobianus,) are caught in great abundauce at the recess of the spring udes. They are a somewhat cel-shaped tisli, with a hard and pointed snout, and about six inches in length. As the water retires they hury themselves under the sand, through which they have the power of moving with sur prizing facility. The mode in which they are caught is by digging them out with a kind of prong, and considerable expertness is required in the seizing of them, for if they once e-cape from the fingers, and can penetrate the sand, it is a very diiñcuit malter to recover them.
November 29.-A storm of thunder and lightning in the evening.
December 1.- The first blades of wheat begin to shew themselves above the sur face of the ground.
A few berrings were this day caught on the western shores of Hampshire. The public papers mention that an immense number were caught about this time in the
583 bay of St. Ives, in Cornwall; and that near Abbotsbury, in Dorsetshire, the number of turbot was beyond what has ever been remembered.
December 5.-Wild geese migrate.
December 6.-A kingfisher was seen hovering over the water, into which it darted, and in a moment afterwards brought out a small fish. The quickness and agility with which this was done were quite astonishing:
December 7.-From this day to the 16th, the wind has been almost incessantly violent, chiefly from the west and south-west quarters,
December 14.-Under the shelter of a south wall I observed a toad. In the meadows and pastures the moles continue to throw up hillocks. In this late season of the year the weather is unusually mild and warm.
December 10.--Wagtails run about the newly ploughed grounds for the parpose of picking up insects. The redbreast sings.
December 17.- A pyrus japonicu in the open air has on it numerous blossoms in the different stages of flowering.
The late heavy rains bave swelled the rivers much, in consequence of which the eels have been enabled to take their departure for the sea. This they always do in the neighbourhood of the sea coast, with the first autummal or winter's floout. Considerable quantities have been caught at the different mills.
December 18.-- With the exception of mosses and lichens, vegetation now appears to be at a staud for the season).
MONTHLY AGRICULTURAL REPORT. The mild open weather through nearly the whole of last month, has been highly favourable to the young wheat plants.
The early sinn' have thrown out a most luxuriant and verdant flag, which will tend to preserve the roots through the winter. The latter-sown have made a more rapid growth than was expected in the preceding month. Upon the whole the wheat crop at this season was never more promising.
The neat cattle in the grazing counties have remained longer in the pastures than is customary in the climate of Englaut.
Rye, winter tares, and all the soiling species, are thick-set upon the ground, and promise a full crop.
Turnips, cabbage, and all the brassica tribe, have grown much through the last monib, but have been difficult to consumic upon tenacious soils, on account of the wet weather.
SMITHFIELD MARKET, Dec. 06.-Beef 5s. to 7s. Mution 5s. 4d. to 6s. 8d. Veal 78. to 8. Pork 7s, to 8s. per stone of 8lbs.
Hay 31. to 41, 10s. Siraw 11, 5s. to 11. 105. Clover 41. 10s. to 61. 10s,
Coen ExchanCF., Dec. 26.-English Wheat 50s. to 61s. Fureign Wheat 40s. to 63s. Rve 28s. to: 8». Barley 20s. to 38s. Malt 63s. 10 705. White Pease 52s. to 603. Crey Pease 375. to 475. Tick Beans 355. to 18s. feed Oats 19s to 299. Fine (sts 29 8. to 29). Fine Flour 60s. to 65). Seconds 535. to 60s. Rape Seed 281. to 331.
Hups, New Pockets.-Kent 6). 10s. 10 8l. 18s. Sussex 61. to 71. 15s. Farnham 101, 1o 131.
CHEMICAL REPORT. THE foreign papers have announced the recent death of a celebrated chemist of Vienna, siamid Schavinger, in consequence of having spilled upon buis naked arm a quantity of prussic acid, which he was preparing, and which proved fatal in a few hours. It is well known to chemists that the priociple of this acid, one of the most subile poisons with which we are acquainted, exists in the leaves of the peach trec, the wild laurel, the almond, and inost of those which bear fruits with kernels. The late Duke Charles of orrane had well migh lost his life by swallowing a few drops of euu de noyuu too liighly impregnated. It is also generally known how dangerous it is to chew the leaves of the wood laurel. The oderous principle of the prussic acid is of the sime nature, and a small quantity of it inbeled when the acid is in the state of gas, is sufficient to produce death, without convulsions, in a few seconds. A tea-spoonful of water or spirits, impregnated with a small quantity of this acid, will kill the largest dog. It is believed that Scheele, the celebrated Swedish chea mist, who died suddenly wisile engaged in some new experiments upon prussic acid,
[Jan. 1, was affected by its deleterious quality. These circumstances shew the necessity of extreme caution in the preparation of this dangerous substance. ,
M. Vauquelin has communitated to the French Institute an account of the results of some recent experiments, which are highly interesting to assayists, gold and silver-smiths, and all workers in the precious metals. This chemist, placing four grains of silver in a cavity of ignited charcoal, observed that, when he directed a corrent of oxygen gas on the metal, it produced a conical fiame, the base of which had a yellow colour, the middle purple, and the top blue; and that, by collecting the disengaged vapour in a bell glass, he found the receiver covered with a brownish yellow crust, which was almost dissolved in cold very dilute nitric acid. In this experiment the four graius of metal disappeared in less than a minute. M. Vauquelin thinks that the silver burved at the same time with the charcoal, and that it is to this cause the yellow-coloured name of the latter must be ascribed.
M. Bergman, of Berlin, recently examined with great ininuteness the bark of the prunus padus, and found that it contained a great quantity of prussic acid. Water distilled from this bark has an odour as strong as that of the leaves of the laurus oerasus, and an ethereated oil is obtained similar to that of laurus cerasus and bitter almonds. This water has a peculiarly energetic action on animals. Thus, a dog of middling size, which was made 11 swallow balf an ounce, died in ten minutes; and another dog died in half an hour, after taking an ounce and a half. This distilled water, the infusion, and the bark in powder, have been employed with success by Dr. Bremner of Berlin, in gouty diseases and in some other cases. M. Berginan purposes to examine the bark of the prunus padus, when taken off the tree at different seasons of the year.
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT. Commercial transactions, generally throughout the past month, have been subject but to little fluctuation, until within the last few days, when the treaty of peace with the United States of America was officially announced, which circumstance gives rise to various conjectures with regard to the general effects likely to be produced upon commercial operations. In consequence of the various impediments commerce has experienced within the last twenty years, cultivation of the soil and manufactures lave, to a considerable extent, been suspended : more particularly so in certain colonial territories; and the aggregate commercial productions of the globe at the present time may be considered not more than adequate to the real wants of its civilized population : but the facility with which the Americans have heretofore carried on commercial operations in every quarter of the globe, and the total disregard of all consistency to which their cominercial transactions became subject, produced such extreme fluctuation and depression wherever they appeared, as to have made an impression upon the minds of ail experienced merchants, amounting almost to an intimidation of competition. Many of the causes, however, that tended to give to American commerce the facilities it once possessed, have ceased to exist, by which the same consequences that have heretofore been , experienced, are not likely to occur, at all events not to the same extent. The impressions, however, above described, will doubtless prevail, and cause purchases to be made more limited than they otherwise would be, and a general decline in price of alt colonial and American productions throughout Europe. These observations apply more particularly to the effect American competition will produce upon the general commercial operations of Europe, as respects Great Britain alone, the event may be greeted as favourable, as the raw productions of American commerce will soon become abundant at moderate prices, and the manufactures of this country experience a very extended demand, causing full employment to the whole inanutácturing class of the community, by which the aggregate prosperity of the country will be promoted.
As three inonths inust elapse before it will be ascertained whether the treaty of peace will be ratified on the part of the American government, coinmerce will remain during that time in a state of suspense, and the very limited stock of all American and colonial productions now in Europe, will prevent much alteration in the value during that time. The bolders of cotton and tobacco do not at present manifest any disposition to sell at a much reduced price.
Sugars have been in less demand the latter part of the last month than for sonic time past. Prices, bowever, have not declined, except for refined, which, in sorne
585 instances, may be purchased three to four shillings per cwt. less. The present partial cessation of demand may be attributed to the season of the year rather than to any opinion that may be entertained of a general decline in price taking place.
Corice continues exactly as at the close of the preceding month. Some purchases have been made in the course of the month at one to three shillings per cwt. advance; but as the season of the year does not admit of its being exported to the north of Europe, transactions in the article are limited, and causes the price to remain without variation,
RUM, PIMENTO, Cocoa, AND Dyewoods, are all without any demand to cause them deserving of any particular attention. The supply of pimento and cocoa of fine quality is, however, more limited than for several years past; but as hostilities with America will in all probability terminate, so as to render convoys from the West Indies unnecessary the ensuing season, further supplies of those articles, as well as all other West India productions, may be expecied to arrive several weeks earlier than in former seasons.
East India MERCHANDIZE of all kinds remain with but little fluctuation. Some partial sales of indigo have been effected at fourpence to sixpence per pound advance on last sale prices, but it has only been for a selection of particular quality, and the large quantity declared for sale in April will, doubtless, cause some decline in the price of this article. The demand for pepper has continued throughout the month, but uo advance in price has been obtained. One cargo of pepper has already arrived since the suspension of the East India Company's charter, and as a succession of arrivals may now be expected, the supply of this article will, in all probability, very soon considerably exceed the demand, and a decline in price consequently be the result. Cloves, inace, cinnamon, and nutmegs, are abundant, and may be expected to decline in price. Cassia still supports a high price, being scarce.
The total supply of coffee, by the last arrivals from the Isle of France and Batavia, in November and December, is about 40,000 bags, making the total importation of East India coffee within the year about that quantity more than in former seasons, and consequently adding so much more to the aggregate supply from the West Indies; the whole, however, does not equal the increased consumption, and the total balance of the stock of this article is now very considerably less than for several years past. The same limited demand still prevails for East India piece goods, but as it appears by such information already obtained of the articles of the treaty of peace with America, that Great Britain bas reserved to berself the exclusive commerce of her East India possessions, the cotton manufactured goods of India are not likely for the present to be exposed to the competition of forced sales, that would necessarily result from the admission of the Americans to the conmerce of that part of Asia. An increased demand for these goods from hence may consequently be expected the ensuing season.
BALTIC Produce.—Hemp has experienced an advance of 61. to 81. per ton, owing to considerable purchases having been made by the American markets, and partly on speculation ; but as the utniost extent that may be shipped to America • will not exceed 2,000 or 2,500 tons, whilst a great part of the stock held by government, amounting to 10 or 12,000 tons, will, in all probability, be offered for sale, the advance on this article can only be temporary. Flax for the present being in a rather short supply, continues to maintain a high price, particularly the betler kinds. Tallow still maintains its high price, and has experienced within the last month an advance of 3s. to 45. per cwt. The best quality now commands 87s. to 88s. per cwt. The quantity of tallow shipped from Russia to Great Britain in 1814, exceeds that of any previous year by 15 to 20,000 casks; the quantity shipped from St. Petersburg being 61,800 casks, averaging seven cwt. each, and from Archangel3,133 tons, or about 10,000 casks: yet, notwithstanding this onusually large supply, speculation has prevaited so much as to cause tallow to bear a price disproportionately high to every other article of commerce, which may ultimately tend to produce an extreme depression.
A reference to the table of the prices of bullion and courses of exchange, will shew the variations to which they have been subject. They have not been such as to produce any material effect upon comniercial operations, but as the suspension of hostilities with America will tend to cause lullion to be more plentiful for individual purposes, it may tend more speedily to cause the courses of exchange to approximate to their respective pars. New MONTHLY MAG.--No. 12.
Vol. II. 4 H
BANKRUPTS. FROM NOVEMBER 23 TO DECEMBER 23 INCLUSIVE. Where the address of the Solicitor is not mentioned, he must be understood to reside at the
same place as the bankrupt. The Solicitors' names are between Parentheses, ADLAM J. Bith, baker (Wingate
Hobson T. Spilsby, shopkeeper (Waller Ashby R. Poultry, engraver (Kearsey and Spurr, Ilodgkinson J. and J. Leigh, Liverpool, merchants Bishopszite street
(Crump and Lodge Baxter R. Southwark, ironmonger (Humphreys, Holmes R. Buckland, miller (Peers, Plymoută Barnard's ind
Jackson J. and W. S. Birmingham, steel magufacBeale T. Little Smeaton, weld mercliant (Heaton, turers (Mole Doucaster
Jones G. East ludia chambers, merchant (Robins, Bellairs G. Leicester, banker (Dalby
Bloomsbury square Bentley W. Mile End road, victualler (Alling. Kelsey A. jun. Fareham, corn factor (Minchin hani, St. John's square
and Weduell, Gosport Bird J. St. Martin's lane, cheesemonger (Richard. Keppell Z. Alford, builder (Mellersh, Godalming son and Miller, New ion
Knowlton C. Bristol, haberdasher (Langley Blackburn J. Heckmondwike, grocer (Wadsworth Krumbhaar G. F. Hammersmith, vinegar makar Millbridge
(Gregson, Augel court Bolton W. Bury street, St. James's, plumber (Rich. Lane J. Edward street, coach maker (Upsiost, ardson and Co.
Charles street Browell. J. Coal Exchange, coal factor (Atelieson, Laugher A. Birmingham, coal merchact (Benson Great Winchester street
Leigh J. Burslem, potter (Griffia, Hanley Brown J. Sandlord, farmer (Pring, Crediton Lister J. Netherton, merchant (Baltye, HuddersButford D. Titunton), grocer (Leigh
field Callow J. Birmingham, matheniatical instrument Long C. High Ioyland, surgeon (Jackson, Bank maker (IIurd, Temple
End, Barnsley Chapman J. Axbridge, linen draper (Bayton, Lorymer W. P. Newport, Monnouth, coal mere Bristol
chant (Prothero and Phillips Cherrington W. Cludley, dealer (Morris, Newport, M.Michael J. and Co. Bridgnorth, bankers (PritchSalop
ard, Brosely Child R. Weedon Beck, innholder (Oakden, Da. Morris J. Unsworth, cotton spinner (Hewitt and ventry
Kuk, Manchester Cooke H. Milland, raper maker (Rhodes, Chi- Newman A. Woodstock, shopkeeper (Cecil, Orchester
ford Cooke W. Chelsea, chemist (Noy, Mincing lane Osborne E. Falmouth, merchant (Young Cowiug ). and S. Calísky, Bentford court, woollen Pite D. Fenchurch street, hosier (Noy, Mincing drapers (Baltye, Chancery inne
lane Dillicar W. Pickering, horse dealer (Walker, Pittard S. Southampton, shoc maker (Smith Malton
Pocock R. Kilmisten, blacksmith (Lipscomb, Net Dobson S. Great Duiffield, cabinet maker (Breary, Alresford Scarborough
Povey P. Chester, victualler (Faulkner Dowdall J. Dartmouth street, carpenter (Veal, Rangecroft J. Binfield, grazier (Asbfeld, Mert Abingdon street
Jane Drake R. Teigumouth, ironmonger (Peers, Ply. Robinson J. Stockport, corn factor (Waltes mouth
Rogers G. Pimlico, brieklager (Knight, Kensington Edge T. York street, engineer (lluglies, Dean Rowland J. Erainshott, dealer (Greetham, Peters street. Fuiter lane
field Foreman J. Sheermss, carpenter (Debary aud Co. Ryan P. and F. O'Keync, Pancras lane, merchans Gate street, Lincoln's inn
(Swaine and Co. Frederick's place, Old Jerry Gill W. Bury, grocer (Wayman
Shands T. Providence row, baker (Mulard, Cork Glover E. jun Bittersweil, horse dealer (Giay, wainers' hall Tyson place
Shepley A. Newton, manufacturer (Groudy, Maa' Goundry W. Shadwell, sajl-cloth maker (Blunt chester and Bowman, Old Dethlein
Shuttleworth J. Copthall court, merchant (Degreti Grant J. F. Chartoite street, Fitzroy square, mer. and Co. King's Arms yard chant (Richardson, Clement's inn
Smith J. Chow Bent, corcon spinger (Dact worth Green J. Wood streel, merchant (IIarvey, Cursitor and Co. Manchester street
Smith J. Berwick, wealman (Willdry Grimes J. Burton crescent (Martindale, Gray's Smith S. Deptford, baker (Santion ina
Spicer T. Weeden Beck, shopkeeper (Orden, Halsted $. Ilorsham, draper (Richardson, Cle
Daventry ment's inu
Somers L. Heneage laue, dealer in watches (Pese Harrison s. Parliament street lioen draper (Sweet nett, George street, Mino.jes and Stokes, Basinghall street
Stacey J. Portchester, victualler (Paddon, FareHawkins J. U. Bermondsey, carpenter (Hum
ham • phreys, Tokenhouse yard
Stephenson P. Leicester, hawker (Goodheli, West *Haydou T. Mitcham, baker (Debary and Co, lingborough Gate street
Still H. S. Lambeth, dyer (Wiltshire and Baw, Heap J. llepworth, clothier (Steplicnson, Holm. Old Broad street firth
Stone R. Garsington, farmer (Tavaron, Oxford Heaton R. Nollingham, hosier (Lowless and Eturge J. Bristol, professor of music (Habeshield Crossr, St. Mildred's coust
Sussum E. Finsbury place, tailor (Alliston and Co. IIcticy W. Alwalton, iniller (Platel, Peterborough Freeman's court liewett J. and J. Iloj kins, Warminster (Davies Swallow J. Bix, corn dealer (Vines, Reading Hilbert R. Wiganj recd maker (Baion and Ditch. Tanner E. Hart street, Mark Lane, skup agent tield
(Partridge, South wark