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1814.] Capt. Manby's Survey of the Durham Coast.

Redcar and Cortham are so notorious clergyman in a parish on the coast for the numerous cases of destruction, would imitate such a plan of charity that it was truly distressing to hear their and patriotism. Thus sanctioned and Tecital. At the former place, four pa- patronized, it would excite the opulent rallel, most dangerous shelves of rocks, to extend their bounty, and induce every called Salt Scars, (seen only at low inhabitant to contribute ; whereby a water,) protrude themselves a great dis- blessing would be diffused, by a parochial tance into the sea : for giving assistance institution for providing the means of to vessels driven on them, it will be re- spatching the shipwrecked mariner from quisite to send a 51 inch mortar, and a a premature death. A whole set of apsix-pounder. To the latter place, for paratus will not exceed twenty pounds. julief to vessels when stranded on the The salutary effects of such an exerBran Sand or South Gare, a 5] inch mor- cise of benevolence would soon be extar will be necessary.

perienced, and the universal system of There being no signal station from preservation promptly established; which Flamborough Head to Hartlepool, a dis. would erect a monument of unparaltance of upwards of eighty miles, I found Teled national beneficence. There is not it necessary to provide for, and point a clergyman, I am convinced, will disreoui, in whose care the mortars, &c. re- gard this appeal, or be offended at the commended should be placed. For Filey suggestion, when it arises fiom the zealBay, the Rev. Mr. Wrangham, of Hun- ous feeling of an individual who loves manby; Scarborough, the Committee of his country, and is so deeply interested the Life Bont; Robin Hood's Bay, Mr. in the welfare of mankind. Cook; Whitby, the Collector of the Easingłon has both rocks and sandy Curioms; Sandend Bav, Runswick Bay, bays, and will require a 54 inch mortar and Sraith's Bay, the Earl of Mulgrave, for the preservation of the crews strandfor his lordslip to appoint such persons as ed on each side of the Signal Station. he might chink proper to direct the same; Sunderland has many dangerous rocks Redcar, for the similar disposal of Lord in front, and extending on each side of Dundas; and at Coribam, H. Vansitrart, its pier, running far out, where innume €34. These arrangements I have made, rable vessels have been lost. It will be bring fully persuaded that nothing can proper to send to this place, from the contribute so much to promote the views various natures and requisite methods of of the establishment, as rank, opulence, giving assi-tance, a forty-two, twentyand respectability, interesting themselves four, and six-pounder. The life boats in the cause of humanity.

here are particularly worthy of notice, DURIAM.-Hartlepool is surrounded having a superior advantage over every by rocks close to its frightful shore, boat I have seen or heard of; four aperwhich extend some distance to the north- tures going through the bottom, that ward : there is likewise a Reef that when the sea breaks over and fills them, stretches liself far into the sea, called these apertores discharge the water to Long Scar. To the sonth, there are the regular buoyancy of the boat, in a very favourable bays of sand on each very short space of time It is the conside of this place, to insure the safely of trivance of -- Davison, esq. of this lives by the aid of a 5 inch mortar, place, and does very bigh credit to his when ressels are driven on them. As [ ingenuity. Attention to a few slight make a point, at every place where a suggestions, such as having the air hoxes brie-boat is kept, of inspecting it, to detached from the botom of the boat, suggest whatever I conceive may con- in case of the bottom being stove in by duce to its utility, I was much gratified rocks, and a projecting rope round the at the admirable appointment and ar- gunwale for men firmly to hold by, until rangement made for it here. A com- they can be taken into the boat, (should mittee of experienced persons judge the they be obliged to swim from the wreck) terits of any extraordinary case, and would render these boats perfectly adeexertion of the people appointed to it, quate to any service, and give such seand reward accordingly. A fund for curity as to preclude all danger. this purpose is principally supported by On leaving Sunderland, the extensive a sermon, annually preached at the pa- lime-kilns situated on eminences, atrish church. On this occasion every tracted my notice; and I have since oue attends, and contributes according been informed that they have been the to his ability, to carry into effect this be- occasion of the loss of inany vessels, by nevolent design. How glorious would it inistaking them for lights intended for be for the cause of humanity, if every navigation. Surely when the remedy to

Wir Wm. Drummond's Edipus Judaicus.

[Aug. 1,

prevent such evils can be accomplished, To the Committee of the Boat at by having a screen placed before them, North Shields, I made the same observa. no owner or occupier of such works will tions, and signified my intention of sendrefuse to have it carried into execution. ing a six-pounder mortar for its use. The same inay be said of the fires at (To be concluded in our next.) coal-pits, which may be prevented by a similar application.

SIR WILLIAM DRUMMOND'S ADIPUS JUWhitburn.--- At the front of this point

DAICUS. of land, a most dangerous reef of low To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. rocks runs far into the sea, called the

SIR, Steel: a 54 inch mortar must be placed I HAVE as yet seen only the second at this station, which will also be a pro- number of the New Monthly Magazine, tection to the dangers of Marzon Rock (viz. for March, 1814,) and froin its conBay, &c. A similar piece at South tents am inclined to augur well of your Shields will likewise be necessary to af- undertaking. I must, bowever, take 10ford assistance from Suler Point, French- tice of a passage at y, 143, which much man's, Graham's, Manhaven Bays, and injures an esteemed friend of nine. It the Upright Rock, under which vessels is there said, that the Edipus Judaicus have so often been driven and instantly " was distributed, or rather obtruded, gove to pieces; and it will also serve through an extensive circle." The wrifor the Bay called Hard Sand, (on which ter must have been misinformed, since such tremendous surfs break) for the aid this to my certain knowledge was not the of vessels stranded on the bar, when case. I am not going to discuss the running for the harbour, of which there “ merits or demerits" of the book; but I have been such innumerable instances. must say that the article in the Quarterly A six-pounder mortar for the life boat Review to which your correspondent rewill be required. In examining this fers, was not a fair slateinent of the case. boat, I was attended by several of the The errors into which the reviewer has committee, (under whose directions this fallen are shortly, but well expressed, by boat is vested) together with many per. Vinder, in the Dedication” prefixed to sons who have repeatedly been employed, his “ Additional Letters." and have been the means of rescuing April, 1814.

ARISTIDES.* upwards of 100 lives froin wrecks, In the presence of these persons I submitted HISTORY of the ORLEANS'IMPOSTURE. such suggestions as appeared calculated To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. 10 benefit the properties, and provide SIR, assistance, of a remedy for the inconve- HAD your correspondent, Mr. Hall, niencies complained of. That is, tirst, consulted the life of our great lexicothe boat's weight; secondly, baving on grapher, he would have spared his resome occasions been obliged to relin- flexion on finding that, though the cuquish the object of their endeavours, riosity of Johnson was strongly excited tiom the necessity of returning to bale by the marvellous tale, which then enout the water which had broken over gaged the general attention of the public, and filled the boat; and in consequence yet the fraud was exposed by his powerI bare had the satisfaction of receiving ful pen, which circumstance is enough the following testimonial, signed by to vindicate his name from the innpothirty-one persons..

tent ribaldries of such writers as Churchill. South Shields, Nov. 10, 1812. With respect to the other story, á much “We the undersigned pilots and sca- inore correci and amusing account of the men, who are used to the lite boat at transaction may be found in Reginald this place, and have been off in her at Scott's “ Discoverie of Witchcraft, the saving of crews from wrecks, do con- wherein the lewde dealing of witches sider Captain Manby's inethod of apply- and witchmongers is notablie detected," ing casks or kegs filled with air at the quarto, 1584; and as that book is not bottom of the boat, to be a great im- very common, perlaps the narrative inay provement for this and other boats of Lear telling again in your entertaining the like description, as it will greatly We beg to assure this correspondent take from the weight, and consequently that, from some cause which we are unable make ber more lively in the sea, by to explain, this communication has but just being much more buoyant. The water been received, otherwise its appearance discharging itself by pipes is likewise of should not have been so long delayed, great cousequence."

FDITOR.

1814.)

History of the Orleans Imposture. miscellany, for which purpose I have sent lust? or pride? or want of charity? To pou a transcript.

which separately were answered by two "The lady of the mayor of Orleans in knocks in the negative. France, in the year 1534, on her death “ Is it heresy, that dan pable sect of bed desired to be buried in a private and Luther for which you are damned i Que frugal manner, near to her father and knock. Can't you rest in consecrete grandfather, in the church of the Fran- ground? One linock. FISCANS. Her husband fulfiled her will, “Would you have your body taken up and thereby greatly disappointed the ex- and buried in some other place? Olie pectations of the friars, in regard to the knock. Here the friars applied to the advantages arising fro'a pompous fu- citizens present to attest the truth of this Ofral. This disappointment put them pretended spirit, and of the consersation upon a device to be revenged, which was held with it in their sight and henring.. 10 propagate, by the means of an in- But they, dreading the authority of ine visible agent, vbich they represented mayor, excused themselves from stb. to be the spirit of the lady deceased, scribing to the veracity of the fact. This that the mayor's wife was dumned for did not discourage the friars, wlio, pero ever.

sisting in the truth of this transaction, . "The actors in this scene of deccp- pronounced thcir church polluted, while tion were two doctors of divinity, and a the body of the supposed spirit remained young lad in his noviceship; who being there buried, and removed the host, placed properly, and well instructed and reliques, and their other matters, for the provided with 10:plements, made such a use of the inass, &c. to anorber place. rumbling noise about joidnight, when "By this time the account of the spirit the triars attemed mating in thicir church, was propagated industriously about the that greatly aluriacd those who were not city; and the bishop sent liis vicar fenen in the secret, and prepared tlic way for ral to inquire into the affair with strict exorcisms, in which the confidants de- impart:ality. But all bis prudence and manded a sign to know whether it was a authority were baffled by the coujurors, dumb spirit. To which it was auswered who, driven to any leading circumstance in the affirmatisc, by a token agreed on to detect them, either pleaded an exempty the exorcists aud the supos: d spirit. tion froin episcopal jurisdiction, or pro

" Having laid this foundation of a tended that the spirit was angry, and method to converse by tokens and noise, ought not to be disturbed with frivolous they called in such of tl.e citizens as they impertinencies. The mayor not able by could best influence, not icilina hein all the acts of prudence, and thic assis immediately what was the matier, but tance of the clergy, to detect the fraud; beseeching them to altend their midnight and the afiair beginning to work greatly matins, when they would be witnesses of to his discredit, upon the credulity of a very unfortunate aff.uir that had hap- screral pious and well meaning people, pened in their church.

carried away by the appearance of truth, " The citizens attended pursuant to applied personally to the king for an invitation, and as soon as prayers were extraordinary Coininission to bring the begun, the invisible agent, or counterfeit conspiring friars to justice; widhi Coriya spirit began to make a surprising noise; mission was granted to cert'in aldera and the friars who took upon them the men of Paris, with full and alsolute aire conducting of this exorcism, having asked thority to make inquiry of this affair''; him what he meant, and who he was, and it was also confirmed by the prope's it was significd, that it was not permitted legate, in order to deprive the friars of him to speak.

any plea of exemption from the king's “Then they commanded bim to answer authority, by tokens and signs to such questions 3 “ These commissions convened all the they should put to him; which at lengths friars of thus convent before them all was agreed to be done by linecks. Paris, and proceeded ayniost them hry

“ The first question, Are you the spirit way of interrog:ltorics, but to no purof one buried in thus church!? Oog knack. posc. Then they were committed to

divers prisons, and lept without any "Then having run over many other communication or correspondence with names in the negative; at last it was each other, except the novice, who had demanded, Are you the mayor's wife?' played the spirit under the direction One knock. Are you in a state of dam- above-mentioncil. One of the alderDationOne knock. What is your 'men, named Fumarus, expecting to siti guilt! is it covetousness? or wanton something out of t.is youth, to pave tile NEW MONTHLY MAC.--No.7,

VOL. II.

Yes.

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wav for a more perfect detection, took what are commonly called illuminations, him to his own house. This youth was are so generally adopted as expressions often eximined and earnestly intreated of public joy, and state the connexion, to sneak the truth. But nothing could or the probable affinity, if there te any be rawn from hiin sufficient to convict between the sign and the thing to be sige the friars of inposture, till the cominis. nified. If I mistake not, fire, in varie. sioners assured hiin. that be should be gated forms, or soine artificial light, is pardoned, and that he should never be used for the same purpose, not only in lelt to the vengeance of the triars, liut European and other civilized states, but provided for in a place of safety. Upon also ainong many savage nations, ot iliese promises the novice related the whose customs we have any knowledge. whole transaction in the inanner it was Ilistoriaus say that barbarous and uncula contrired and done: and, being brought tivated clans, in various parts of the into the presence of the triars, . be habitable globe, are accustomed to light arouched the whole to their faces. large bonfires, and dance round them, as

“ The friars still carried it with a bigha demonstrations of joy in tiines of triumph. hand: denied the accusation, and ap- I do not recollect any aucient custom pealeid from the authority of their judges. that even remotely bears upon the one But the commissioners proceeded to pass in question, excepting the practice used sentence upon them, and condemned among the Jews in their marriages them to be carried to Orleans, there to and ouer civil und religious festivals ; be imprisoned for a time, lium thence to put their illuminations were within be cutitucted to the chief church in the their houses, and those rejoicings being city, and thence to the place of execu- celebrated in the night, they could tion, wliere they should make an op, n not do without lights; this practice, contession of this imposture, or be put therefore, is not analogous. Neither do to death."

the perpetual fires of Vesta, the goddess Such is the history of this abominable of ihe earth, or nature, apply under imposiure, which I have no doubt was whose vame the anticnt heathen worread and acted upon hy Parsons, and the shipped the earth and tire, and to whom other manager of the trick plaved in Numa Pompilius, King of Rome, dedithe parish of St. Sepulchre in 1762. cated an everlasting fire, and appointed

AMICIS. the priestesses or vestal virgins to keep i

As darkness is a sign of sorrow, and INQUIRY respecting the ORIGIN of il- light an emblein of joy, is the custuin of LUMIXATIONS.

general illuminations a humble attempt To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. to perpetuate or prolong the day? SIR,

Yours, G. B. IT is a pleasing, and not unfrequently June, 1814. a profitable employment, tu trace and ascertain the origin or reason of prevail

For the Setm Jonthly Magazine. ing public customs. There are inany RECOLLECTIONS of the UNPUBL1511 FD usinges generally adopted in civil and so LECIURES of an EMINENT "RUFESSOR. cial lite the source or reason of which is

Of aRISTUCRACY. but imperfertly known. It will be cone WHERE the soi ereignty is lodged in mvply found ihat where a custom uni- a body of nobles possessing hereditary versally obtains, there is generally some power, the government is called aristoassignable reason for its adoption, at cracy. When this body is numerons, a least for its commencement or introduc- senate is selected from it, with whom, tion; and though we may not be able properly speaking, the power then realways satisfactorily to elicit the con- sides. 'The forms of aristocracy differ nexion that subsisis, there is, I should imich in their construction, and in their apprehend, sorne affinity between the influence on the happiness of the people. manner of expressing it, anri the thing Thut of Venice is preferable to the late intended to be implied. It is true, that aristocracy of Poland, where the petty words are arbitrary signs of ideas, but tyrant exercised oppression without actions are frequently syin bolical, and controul. external i epresentations are otien figura- That of aristocracy, as a simple furon rive. I should think it would be ace of government, is best which excludes ceptable to most of your readers, espe. only the lowest of the people. Indeed, cially at the present period of national no democracy will answer the ends of rejoicink, if any of your learned cor government which does not confine porespondents would assiga the reason why litical power to those alone who are ca

1814.]

Of Aristocracy, Despotism, and Mixed Governments.

11

pable of exercising it: the lowest of the dity and distrust. Spies and informers, people cannot exert power but to their mingling with every private society, own injury. The distinctions of politi- render the mul:ituile a ro;c of sunt: and cal rights founded on birth are culpable, have been deservedly styled by Tiberius, since the field should always be left open the guardians of the state. Nor is the to the exertions of fair and laudable am- condition of the despot less deplorable bition. Every man ought to have a rea- than that of his subjects: for his reign sonable prospect of elerating himself by commences generally with a civil war, his talents and virtucs to the highest si- and ends in premature death. tuations; but those certainly should be

Of MIXED GOVERNMENTS. excluded from power, whose constant Simple governmeots, such as have been labour is incompatible with the talents described, do not in reality exist; they required for its exercise.

are mere abstraccions contrived by poliIn their general conduct an aristrocacy ticians. All goverminents are mixer, should avoid all invidious distinctions of parlaking more or less of one or other of dress, of manners, and whatever relates the simple forms. In practice, governo to taxation-distinctions, which introduce ments frequently differ from what they laughtiness into the manners of one appear to be in theory. l'rom the indeorder, and servility or disgust into those finite nature of the words cmployed to of the other. The most favourable view express political notions, and the coinof aristocracy is in the public inamners of plicated and numerous institutions which the higber orders, in their generosity, mutually influence e:ch other, it is listitheir courage, and that frankness which cult to comprehend the precise mature is conoccted with higlı birth and elevated of modern governments, of which the rank: on the contrary, the most imfa- mistakes of the French respecting our Fourable riew of it is in their intercourse constitution are a sufficient proof. The with their inferiors. But it should be despotisin of the East differed in many Tecollected at what price these distinc-' respects froin that, of ancient Rome.. tions are purchased, by the degradation The former bad forgotten even the name of the inore numerous classes of society, of freedom), but the latter coutinued for a in Sparta. Nothing is more absurd ages to feel and recollect, and cxcrcise than distinctions of rank that do not the virtues of their ancestors. In moserve some political purpose. (See dern Europe, also, despotism is restrained Montesqaieu, &c.)

greatly by the freedom of public opinion Of DESPOTISM.

resulting froin the operation of the press, The next species of government is by the inultitude of states into wbich it despotism, where the people have no is divided, and by the subordination of rights in opposition to those of the ra:ks arising from feudal institutions. master, Despots having no concern Honour is said to be the principle of this about their subjects' welfare, and being kind of government. Every inan is 1a general miserably educated, find it taught from his infancy to respect the necessary to employ some chief minister adventitious rights of others, to maintain in the character of vizier,' (For a cha- his own rights, and to seek, as the great racter of Despots, see Helvetius.) object of lis life, the advancement of his

As no established law exists under a own rank. Montesquieu's description despot, every subordinate magistrate of a limited monarchy, by which he exercises a despotic authority over bis means a monarchy restrained by opinin, dependants; and the worst of all ser- but not by law, is partial, and too favitudes is that of serving under a slave. vourable to this kind of government. The extreine of despotism is where the Perhaps he was swavea by a partiality despot is proprietor of all the lands and for that in which he was educated, or heir to the effects of all his subjects, as perhaps by pruilence; frequently his among the Siainese. This kind of go- praiscs appear ironical, as if he meant Seminent defeats its own purpose. indirectly to intiinate to his countrymen Without some degree of liberty, men to seek a better systein. Thus we see will never exert industry, nor acquire that all governments are in real tv those riches, which it is one of the ob- mixed, but some are so expressiy by jects of despotisın to amass by rapine. their constitution, as the English. We cannot help feeling astonistinent A natural aristocracy in every country, that such a government exists: it is formed from the men oi birth, opylence, founded on gencral ignorance, on a taleuts, and virtues, distinctions which foolish and absurd admiration of the naturally draw the respect of inankind, splendour of rank, and on general tiini- so disposed as to obtain all the good of

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