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CON TEN TS.

ORIGINAL PAPERS.

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The Great Earthquake in Chili, in 1835. By Alexander Caldeleugh, Esq.,

F.R.S., &c. (From the Philosophical Transactions)

Volcanic Eruption in the Bay of Fonseca, on the Western Coast of Central

America. By the Same. (From the Same.)

The Mathematical Miscellany. No. I. Conducted by Professor Gill, Flushing

Institute, Long Island, New York

Remarks on Crystallization. By Mr. Thomas Griffiths

An Elementary Course of Descriptive Geometry.

I. Historical Notice

II. Fundamental Principles and Definitions, Modes of Representa-

tion and Notation

Dr. Buckland's Bridgewater Treatise. Geology and Mineralogy considered

with reference to Natural Theology. By William Buckland, D.D., &c.

The Philosophy of the Hour-Glass
Recent Information on the Prevention and Detection of Secret and Accidental

Poisoning; particularly with Arsenic

Questions for Solution relating to Meteorology, Hydrography, and the Art of

Navigation. By M. Arago. (Continued from Vol. I.)

Thermal Springs

Mean Height of the Barometer

On the Influence of different Winds on the Heights of the Barometer

On the Diurnal Variations of the Barometer

Observations on Rain

Rain in a perfectly Clear Sky

Magnetism: Diurnal Variations of the Declination .

Inclination

Observations on Intensity

Luminous Meteors: on Lightning

Falling Stars

The Zodiacal Light

Aurora Borealis

The Rainbow

Halos

Winds: Trade Winds

Phenomena of the Sea.

On the Means of Drawing up Sea-water from great Depths, and of

ascertaining in what proportion the two principal constituents

of Atmospheric Air are contained in it

Marine Currents.

On the Cause of Currents

Sea of Weeds

Scientific Almanacs.

The Nautical Almanac; Connaissance des Tems; Astronomisches Jahr-

buch (Berlin); Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes; British An-

nual, &c., for 1837

Report of Magnetical Experiments on board an Iron Steam Vessel. By Ed-

ward J. Johnson, Esq., Commander R.N., F.R.S.
Geology and the Holy Scriptures

447
465

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New Mail Coaches; their Cost, Per Great Variation of Temperature borne

formance, &c.

72 by the Il uman Body

242

British Association,-Sixth Meeting 72 New Link between the Great Divisions

German Association, 1836

of Organized Beings

Prostitution of the Medallic Art 73 Vapours of Saline Solutions and of

Stereotype Plates of Iron

73 Water, same in Temperature 243

Improvements in Steam Carriages on New Term in Physics

244

Common Roads

73 Comparison of distant simultaneous

To prevent Ink becoming Mouldy 74 Vibrations of the Magnetic Needle 244

Patent-Law Improvement

74 Phosphorescence of Decayed Wood 245

British Letters-Patent Amendment i On Veratria

245

Bill.—Abstract

74 Migration of North American Birds.

United States Letters-Patent Bill. - By the Rev. J. Bachman

246

Abstract

76 Singular Employment of the Human

Total Amount, and Annual Average of

1

Race

246

Patents in the United States

77 Organic Origin of Tripoli Stone 247

High Electrical State of the Atmosphere 78 Hypothesis respecting Aurora Borealis 247

Railroad Acts, present Session

78 Convenient Numerical Expression of

Railroad from Cairo to Suez

the Welfare of a Nation

248

Patent-Law Grievance. No. Y. 78 Visible Sparks from the Torpedo 250

Patent-Law Improvement Bill 166 Fluorine

250

Practical Suggestions for a Reform of Railroad Acts to end of recent Session 251

the Patent Laws

166 United States New Patents Act 251

Physician not necessarily an M.D. 168 Patent-Law Grievance. No. VII. 253

Valuable Donation, by a Lady, to a French Account of the Statistics of the

Scientific Institution

169 Book Trade in Germany and England 320

Temperature of London in 1835 169 New Surveying Instruments

320

New Fact in Electricity

169 Mode of ascertaining the Proportion of

Berlin University

169 Carbon in Cast Iron

321

Death of M. Ampère.-Election of M. Temperature of Space

321

Savart

169 Amber,

321

Bronze Original of the Warwick Vase 169 Polarization of Heat

321

Statistical Association of Normandy 169 New Botanical Society

321

Improved Composition for Crayons and

Consumption of Oxygen by burning

Pencil Points

169 Wood

321

Gratuitous Instruction for the formation New Map of Central Asia

322

of Practical Naturalists

170 | Correct Notion of Steam-Engine Horse

Taxidermy

172 Power

322

Stationary Temperature of Alcohol on Combe.- Application of the Term 322

heated Metals

172 Bottles, &c., sunk in the Sea

322

Tabular View of the Manner, Cause, Suggested Sessional Journal of the

and Effect of the Destruction of

British Association

323

Steam-Boilers. By M. Galy Cazalat 173 Investigations, &c., recommended by

Railroad Mania in Germany

174 the British Association

324

Bored Wells

174 Philanthropic Deposit

325

Gas from Peat ...

174 Return of Rain-water to the Sea 326

Lunar Influence on the Weather 174 Immutability of the Nature of Light

326

Patent-Law Grievance. No. VI. 175 Valuable Acid for Engravers

326

English Industry in Scientific Research 242 Error in the Length of the French

New Method of Cultivating the Cerealia 242 Metre

326

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Blissful Ignorance

328 | Nomenclature of Comets

483

Cold fatal to Barbel

328 Honour due, and granted.—Mr. Francis

First Belgian Scientific Congress

328

Baily

483

Bug-destroying made easy

329 Doubts of the Efficiency of Fusible

Application of Science to Navigation. Discs on Steam-Boilers

484

-French Prize Question

329 Proportion of Infants Still-born 484

New Theodolite for Surveying Under Paradox in graduating Circular Instru-

ground

329 ments

484

Recent Account of the African Desert Chemical Rays of the Spectrum.-Mrs.

Sahara

330 Somerville, M. Arago, and Signor

Huttonian Theory of Rain controverted 331 Melloni

485
Recent Meeting of German Natural Goethe and De Candolle

486

ists, &c.

332 Grand Scientific Survey by order of

Freiburg Suspension Bridge

332 the Russian Government

487

Wanton Destruction Annually of a Mirage in Iceland

487

Million Chaldrons of Coals

333 Extemporaneous Malleable Platinum 488

Clerical Error in the American Patents' Geological Hebrew

488

Law

334 Motion of Water on Heated Surfaces 488

Patent-Law Grievance. No. VIII. 334 Instantaneous Calculation of Areas 489

Biot and Newton

405 Height of Waves at Sea

490

Apparent Connexion of Aurora Borealis

Comparative Intensity of the Solar

with Rain, Wind, and decreasing Rays in different Latitudes

490

Atmospheric Pressure

404 The Weed-Sea.—Mar de Sargasso 490

Advantage of Chlorine in the Conver Passive Patriotism.—Electricity of

sion of Iron

405 Clouds

491

Mean Level of the Sea

405 The State assisted by Science

492

The Tide, a True Barometer

405 Easy Solidification of Carbonic Acid.

Lifting of the Kremlin Bell

406 - Extraordinary Artificial Cold 493

Thermometer indicating Mean Tempe Frozen Mercury

494

rature

406 Temperature of the Geysers

494

Indelible Writing Ink

407 Patent Law Grievance. No, X. 494,

Parisian Mechanics' Institution 408

New Patents, 1836:

Two capital Omissions in all the Bri-

408

June (cont.)

79

tish Systems of Public Instruction

409

July

79

The Botanical Society of London

Number of British Species of Plants 409

August

175

Bored Well at Grenelle

409

September

253

Geological Co-operation

335

September (cont.)
October

335

Danger of Calomel-Medico-Botanical

October (cont.)

410

415

Society's subject for Gold Medal

November

415

Great Central Heat of the Earth not

November (cont.)

alarming

411

494

December

494

Estimate of Solar Heat imparted to

the Earth

411

Meteorological Journal for the Month of

Progressive Rise of a Portion of the

June

80

Bottom of the Mediterranean 411

July

176

French Scientific Congress, 1836 412

August

256

Substitutes for Costly Drugs

412

September

336

The Level of the Caspian Sea much

October

416

below that of the Ocean

413

November

496

Diamond-making anticipated

413

Fossil Ferns

414 British Association.-Bristol Session 254

Light indefinitely produced

414 | University of London.—Copy of the

Patent-Law Grievance. No. IX. 414 Royal Charter

... 479

THE

MAGAZINE OF POPULAR SCIENCE,

AND.

JOURNAL OF THE USEFUL ARTS.

A POPULAR COURSE OF GEOLOGY.

INTRODUCTION. Sir John HERSCHEL has said that Geology, in the magnitude and sublimity of the objects of which it treats, ranks in the scale of the sciences, next to Astronomy; to which we may add, that it will ever be more generally cultivated, because a knowledge of it is more easily attainable. It may be successfully pursued without that severe preparatory discipline of mathematical study which is required of the votaries of astronomy, before they can advance even to the threshold of her temple. In making this assertion, we by no means deny the dependence of geology on the other sciences; we admit, on the contrary, that he who would be a perfectly accomplished geologist, ought to be familiar with the whole circle of them. He ought to be thoroughly versed in mathematics and general physics, in order that he may know what are, and what are not, sound data on which to found his inferences—he ought to be skilled in mineralogy, that he may know the proximate constituents of rocks. Of the general results of chemistry he must not be ignorant, and he will find it a great advantage to be expert in chemical analysis. The organic remains entombed in the strata, will make constant demands upon him for a knowledge of zoology in all its branches, and in particular he ought to possess such an intimate acquaintance with those nice distinctions which constitute specific differences in conchology, as of itself requires the study of a whole life, and such a profound knowledge of comparative osteology, as enabled Cuvier, from the examination of detached bones, to remodel the entire skeletons of animals of unknown genera: such is the harmony of proportion, the adaptation of means to ends, and of parts to uses, which the wisdom of the Creator has manifested in the structure of organic bodies. The geologist ought moreover to be a botanist of the highest order, and in the most extensive sense of the term. He ought to be able not merely to refer a plant to its place in some artificial system, by counting its stamina,-a process which he will rarely, if ever, have an opportunity of applying to the fossil vegetation of former worlds-he ought to be able, from the examination of a stem, a leaf, or a seed-vessel, to determine the natural group to which the plant belongs, and by pointing out its habits, to throw light on the circumstances under which the stratum containing it was deposited. He ought, moreover, to be a good draughtsman, and a skilful practical surveyor. Acquirements so varied and extensive as these are attainable by few, and yet much may be done in geology with a very limited proficiency in these branches of knowledge. Without a very profound acquaintance with any of them we may master Vol. II.

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