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Adam Smith advantage afford agriculture amongst arising augment balance of trade bills bills of exchange branch of industry bread capitalist CAROLINE circulating circulating capital civilised cloth coined commerce commodities consequence consumed cost of production crops cultivation currency demand for labour depreciation derived diminished division of labour duce effect employed employment enable equal exchange exchangeable value expense export farm farmer foreign gold and silver greater number high price improvement income increase inferior soils interest labouring classes landed property landlord laws less luxuries manufactures means ment merchants modities nations necessary observed obtain plentiful political economy poor population Portugal possessed profits of capital proportion proprietor purchase quantity raise the price rate of wages raw produce recollect render rent rich rise Russia savage scarce scarcity sell shillings Spain specie subsistence supply suppose surplus produce thing tillage tion tithes tivate trade value of money wealth whilst workmen
163 ページ - And while he sinks, without one arm to save, The country blooms — a garden and a grave ! Where, then, ah ! where shall poverty reside, To 'scape the pressure of contiguous pride?
74 ページ - What a variety of labour, too, is necessary in order to produce the tools of the meanest of those workmen ! to say nothing of such complicated machines as the ship of the sailor, the mill of the fuller, or even the loom of the weaver, let us consider only what a variety of labour is requisite in order to form that very simple machine, the shears with which the shepherd clips the wool.
77 ページ - ... the pins is another; it is even a trade by itself to put them into the paper; and the important business of making a pin is, in this manner, divided into about eighteen distinct operations, which in some manufactories are all performed by distinct hands, though in others the same man will sometimes perform two or three of them.
461 ページ - Not so the loss. The man of wealth and pride Takes up a space that many poor supplied ; Space for his lake, his park's extended bounds, Space for his horses, equipage, and hounds ; The robe that wraps his limbs in silken sloth, Has robbed the neighbouring fields of half their growth ; His seat, where solitary sports are seen, Indignant spurns the cottage from the green , Around the world each needful product flies, For all the luxuries the world supplies.
45 ページ - But every man, when he enters into society, gives up a part of his natural liberty, as the price of so valuable a purchase ; and in consideration of receiving the advantages of mutual commerce, obliges himself to conform to those laws, which the community has thought proper to establish.
78 ページ - But if they had all wrought separately and independently, and without any of them having been educated to this peculiar business, they certainly could not each of them have made twenty, perhaps not one pin in a day ; that is, certainly, not the two hundred and fortieth, perhaps not the four thousand eight hundredth, part of what they are at present capable of performing, in consequence of a proper division and combination of their different operations.
301 ページ - It is because high or low wages and profit must be paid, in order to bring a particular commodity to market, that its price is high or low. But it is because its price is high or low; a great deal more, or very little more, or no more, than what is sufficient to pay those wages and prof1t, that it affords a high rent, or a low rent, or no rent at all.
297 ページ - The things which have the greatest value in use have frequently little or no value in exchange; and, on the contrary, those which have the greatest value in exchange have frequently little or no value in use. Nothing is more useful than water: but it will purchase scarce anything; scarce anything can be had in exchange for it.
75 ページ - ... if we examine, I say, all these things, and consider what a variety of labour is employed about each of them, we shall be sensible that without the assistance and co-operation of many thousands the very meanest person in a civilized country could not be provided, even according to, what we very falsely imagine, the easy and simple manner in which he is commonly accommodated.