conquest were increased by peaceable pened for the better or for the worse purchase. The new colony was on a the event hath showed; for they large scale, extending over whole coun- brought with them hither such a stock ties and enlisting the services of the of Puritanism, such a contempt of corporation of London in its erection. bishops, such a neglect of public liturgy, Two points in its constitution we would and other divine offices of this church, especially note: It was a colony, and that there was nothing less to be found it was, in the main, a Scotch colony. amongsi them than the government The great body of its members had and forms of worship established in torn themselves from home and old the Church of England. Nor did the association to go forth into a land of doctrine speed much better, if it sped strangers, for whose past they had no not worse; for Calvinism, by degrees, regard, whose future they were to cre- had taken such deep root amongst ate. They were among the boldest them at the last, it was received as the and most venturesome of the Scotish only doctrine which was to be defended nation, a people of strong will and de- in the Church of Ireland.” cided convictions. These facts have Such reproaches, so far as they are impressed themselves on every page matters of fact, are an honor to the of the history of Ulster, and, since Scots. They were Calvinists, and so their advent to this country, upon the were the English colonists and preachhistory of America. They, of all ers at that time. They were not Puclasses in the British Islands, stand in ritans, but Presbyterians. They were a position most analagous to that of industrious; they were intent upon the American people, being least over having the gospel preached wherever awed by traditional associations and they settled; they did not see in bishhistorical memories, least slow to adapt ops and liturgies the essentials of themselves to the genius of a new land Christianity. But they were friendly and a new people."-Penn Monthly to the English Church, whose docMagazine, June, 1870.

trine then agreed with their own. Upon these Ulster Scots have fallen They did not despise the bishops ; the reproaches of those historians who they used a form of service or liturgy; imagine that Puritanism was their ministers did not object seriously worse than Popery. Its crime was to being ordained by Anglican bishsuccess, and the nurture of liberty. ops; many of their first preachers Peter Heylin, the champion of the were thus ordained.

They were supEnglish Church, who is almost as ported by the same tithes as their amusing in seriously writing history English brethren. For years their as Cervantes in burlesquing chivalry, system was Presbyterianism within the vents his prejudice upon the planta- Episcopal Church, and legalized in it; tion of Ulster by saying:

“ It was

a sort of compromise mutually accarried on more rigorously, as more cepted by both religious bodies. The unfortunately withal, by some adven- Scots were willing to adapt themselves turers of the Scottish nation, who to circumstances in order to maintain poured themselves into this country the gospel among themselves and to win as the richer soil; and, though they the Irish to the Christian faith. Pure were sufficiently industrious in improv- Christianity was coming to Ulster; ing their own fortunes there, and set the little cloud then rising would inup preaching in all churches where crease, and break, and pour its showsoever they fixed; yet whether it hap- ers of refreshing upon the land.




No. III.




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N this sketch we propose grouping commingled, and the union formed a

the three battles whose names head race of men whose glory shall never die.
our article, because there is a wonderful At the battle of Bannockburn we saw
sameness in the accounts of all of them. a down-trodden nation rising success-
They were all fought against the French fully against a foreign yoke; the men
upon French soil ; in each one of them whose blood there dyed Scotland's soil,
the English were arrayed against fearful fought for home, for families, for liberty;
odds; in each the French gave battle in and with the motives which they had, it
full confidence of an easy victory; and is no wonder that they fought and won
in each they were overwhelmingly de- in such a way that the mention of their
feated. Seventy years elapsed between battle-field makes our pulses beat more
the first and the last of the trio, but quickly and our hearts tingle with emo-
change the proper names, alter a few of tion. Far different was it when Edward
the details, and one account will answer III, the Black Prince, and Henry V, cast
for all. They were different from those their covetous eyes across the Channel
wħich we have studied before-different to the fair land of France.
in aim and different in result.

England had been almost torn to Hastings was, indeed, an invasion, but pieces by factions among the nobles of it was fought in the days when, emphat the land; she had been exhausted by ically, Might made Right. Great Britain foreign wars and civil broils; yet her had always been a sort of debatable monarchs were willing to shed the blood ground, open to the newest and strong. of any number of their people for the est comer; the people were regarded sake of conquest, of treasure, of a crown only as the tools or the slaves of the suc- even, to be wrested from a people over cessful tyrant, and so that their taxes whose property they had no possible were kept within bounds, and their hov- right. It was the age of chivalry, too, els left unmolested, they little cared un- when deeds of daring and of adventure der whose banner they served; while the were gladly undertaken by the knights, promise of higher wages, or larger share and these latter having power to comof the booty, would tempt the best of mand large numbers of retainers, made them from any allegiance. The result it an easy matter for a popular comof Hastings, as you know, was a perma- mander to assemble an army. Edward nent change in laws, manners, and lan- III, of England, was informed that the guage. The Normans did not altogether northern parts of France were rich in absorb the Saxons, but the two races treasure of every kind, and were, moreover, comparatively defenseless; that They had also the assistance of some most of the French troops had been sta- strange masses of hollow iron, from tioned in the southern provinces. which, at intervals of hours, hot stones

Allured by what seemed to him to be could be projected upon the enemy. favorable circumstances, and led on by Very unlike our artillery were these a love of fighting, and by ambition, he pieces of uncouth mechanism, yet those crossed the water with a not very large of the present day are only those of 1346 or very strong army, and the astonished with one improvement after another Philip VI heard, in his capital, stories of added till it seems as if they had reachdevastation and burning and plunder. ed perfection. Philip had but the one ing, which roused him froni apathy. He advantage of numbers; his army had levied forces at every side, and hastened been hurried northward under the imto meet his foe, who in the meantime, pression that the sooner the English had swept through the north, sacking were encountered the sooner they would the towns, massacring the poorer in be driven back; and only when it was habitants, and sending the richer in the too late did Philip assent to the request vessels which bore off his stolen treasure of some of his advisers that the contest to await their ransom in a foreign land. should be postponed for a day. If it had As Philip advanced he was joined by been, the result might have been very troops in large numbers, for, although he different, but it was too late to promulhad made bis people groan beneath cruel gate the order; and the troops pressed and enormous taxations, they were eager upon one another until there was conto unite with him in expelling a for- fusion in the ranks even at the opening eigner from their land; and Edward, of the battle, while the wearied Frenchbefore long, found that he should have men were entirely unequal to the conto struggle hard to hold the advantages Alict. At three o'clock in the afternoon he had gained already, while the pros- some of Philip's hired Genoese drew pect of wearing Philip's crown appeared their bows upon the English, but as it to recede even as he advanced. He de- the very elements had conspired against pended largely, however, upon the Black them, a shower of rain had wetted a Prince, on whorn he had bestowed the relaxed their bow-strings and the arro honors of knighthood immediately upon fell short of their foes. Not so was it reaching France, and with wonderful with the English, who did such exech foresight he disposed his troops to await tion in return that the Genoese fell back the conflict he knew to be near at hand.only to be trampled upon by the ad

The army, elated with its successes, vancing cavalry, and from that moment was most sanguine, and inspired with the French ranks were in inextricable the enthusiasm which seemed to ani- confusion. mate the king. declared themselves ready King Edward, bolding his division in to follow him, if necessary, to the death. reserve, looked upon the battle from a An August nooi saw the two armies hill at a little distance, and his hopes ready for the fight, near the little village centered upon his son who was in the of Crecy, or Cressy, as we have Anglicized thickest of the fight, showing valor which it. The English had the decided ad- proved him not unworthy of his warriorvantage in position; they were arranged father. At one time he seemed sorely in three orderly divisions, led respect- pressed, so that the Earl of Warwick ively by the King, the Prince of Wales, rode off to the king, beseeching him to and the Earl of Arundel; they were hasten to his son's relief. But when he guarded by intrenchments, and they heard that that son was neither slain awaited the battle calmly and hopefully. I nor wounded, he still held aloof, beley.

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ing him to be equal to the task of con- sand. Philip, meanwhile, had been sucquering, and willing that the whole glory ceeded by his son John, a sort of Don of the day should belong to him. Philip Quixote, without that hero's noble qualwas no less brave than his adversaries, ities. Imaginative, fantastic, living in a but the day was lost; at evening he al sort of dream-land peopled with knights lowed himself to be led off the field, and 'squires, utterly heedless of the lessadly and in despair. Two kings, eleven son which Cressy might have taught the princes, twelve hundred knights, four- French, that the real strength of an teen hundred gentlemen, four thousand army, as of a nation, is “a line of yeo. men-at-arms, and thirty thousand of in- men good,” it is no wonder that the ferior rank, were left upon the field; story of Cressy was repeated and intenwhile at the roll-call of the English, in- sified at Poitiers. credible though the difference may seem, As before, the French had immensely there were absent only one esquire and superior numbers; as before, the Eng. three knights, with very few of the com- lish were wise in their choice of position. mon men. One would think that Ed- But this time, had the King of France ward might have been content and have known how to use his power; had he afforded to show mercy; but that was a

surrounded the enemy, as he might have word not in his vocabulary, and in the done, and cut off their supplies of profog of the next morning he even erected visions; had he been a good general as French standards and then slaughtered well as a brave fighter; had he had Eng. the straggling troops who rallied about lish foresight and prudence, in addition them. From the old blind King of Bo- to, or even in place of, French ardor and hemia, who had ridden into the battle impulse, he might almost have forced strapped to an attendant upon either the Prince to surrender without a blow. side, and who was found with his guides, Instead of this he rushed headlong into all dead, the Black Prince took the the conflict, rejecting with disdain offers three white plumes which adorned his of accommodation which Edward made helmet, and adopted them for his crest, through the Cardinal of Perigord, who, with the motto, “ Ich dieu"-"I serve." weary of bloodshed, would fain have They have been worn by the Prince of acted as mediator; and the result was Wales ever since, and are even now the that the name of Poitiers was added to distinguishing mark of Victoria's eldest the English roll of honor.

Again the English, in three divisions, Great as this victory was, Edward was awaited the onset of the foe; again the too prudent to march immediately upon French, upon advancing, were driven the capital. Hat d as he knew Philip back in disorder; again, from that mo. to be, he was aware that the necessity ment, it was a rout rather than a batfor defense against a foreign foe will tle; and again the field was strewn with often heal all civil dissensions; and hav- the flower of the French nobility, while ing gained a foothold in the country, King John himself only escaped with having taken Calais, through whose his life upon the condition of surrendergates he could at any time admit his ing himself a prisoner of war. It is men into France, he returned to his much pleasanter to contemplate the own country to await a more suitable Black Prince after Poitiers than Edopportunity for his next attack.

ward III after Cressy. Slaughter was This occurred after the lapse of ten forbidden; exchanges were, in some years, when the Prince of Wales entered cases, effected; and the picture of the France with an army estimated by no treatment of the royal captive is one of historian as greater than twelve thou- I the brightest in England's historic gal


lery. He was entertained at the King's lection of Cressy and Poitiers could have table as a guest; his entrance into Lon- kept the English hearts from sinking at don was like a royal progress, and al- the prospect; as it was, however, they though the Prince's position upon an in- nerved themselves to the contest, and ferior horse of meaner trappings seems prepared, at least, to give the French a an affectation, yet it pleased poor foolish hardly earned victory. John, and seemed to take away the bit- For the third time the English were terness of his captivity. He led an easy in the best position; for the third time life in the Savoy Palace, making one French impetuosity cost them the day. visit to his native land, when proposi- They insisted upon an immediate entions for peace were being entertained, gagement, and they were speedily routbut refusing to remain there unran- ed, with the loss of ten thousand slain somed, saying that if honor were ban- and fourteen thousand prisoners; many, ished from the whole earth, it should both slain and imprisoned, being of very still be found in the heart of kings; high rank. The English losses are said, and so returning once more, to die in by some, not to have exceeded fortyEngland, in 1364, being followed to the though the statements range from that grave,

after a few years, by the Black to sixteen hundred; at all events, comPrince, who did not live to ascend the pared with the French losses, they were throne to whose brightness he had added inconsiderable, if not insignificant. Nevso much military luster.

ertheless Henry's victory was only the Richard I and Henry IV had more battle; England gained nothing from than enough to occupy them at home; the war, and the crown-jewels and the but Henry V, after astonishing all the king's private property were pawned in nation by casting off the dissipation and order to meet the expenses of the camdebauchery which had given him an un paign. enviable notoriety as Prince of Wales, The French learned from these battles restored partial quiet to his country, and that the day of chivalry had passed entered upon a career of conquest in away; that steady determination and France, so similar to Edward III's that discipline, exercised with regard to the it is hard to believe we are not reading people, would accomplish far more than the old story. He nded near Harfleur, | burnished armor and having plumes besieged and took it, marched slowly on and gilded trappings; yet even they to Calais, somewhat harrassed by bodies failed to use the lesson rightly, and of the enemy, but meeting no large op- England reaped no lasting advantage posing force until he crossed the little from all these wars, which were underriver of Ternois, when he was amazed, taken in vainglory, and carried no real upon looking down from the heights, to progress with them. perceive that the whole French army It is a sad, sad picture; and it is imwas drawn up on the plains of Ajincourt, possible for us to realize the suffering and so posted that nothing could possi. that was brought upon the people of bly prevent an almost immediate en- both victor and vanquished by the emgagement. The French were four times ulation and self-aggrandizing schemes of his number, and nothing but the recol- ! their respective monarchs.

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