which can appropriate, to the elevation both of the intellect and of the heart, the sublime instructions of Revelation. The only other articles I am permitted to identify are my own, bearing the signature T., and those written by Mrs. Taylor, which are signed A.

“ Instead of writing a general preface to the entire work,—which would have been out of place, considering the limited portion of it for which I am responsible,—I have furnished for the Appendix a Brief Survey of the Succession of Sacred Literature, a subject of deep interest, but which could not be discussed at the length its merits deserve without greatly exceeding the limits assigned to my labours. Under these circumstances, I have principally directed my attention to those parts of this extensive field which have been hitherto comparatively neglected, and have dwelt at considerable, but I trust not too disproportionate length, on the literature of the Greek and Syrian Churches.

“The Geographical, Chronological, and other Tables appended to the work have been carefully compiled from the best authorities, and cannot fail to be highly useful to the Biblical student. It is stated in the proper place, that the Bibliographical List of Autliorities, to which reference has been made, was prepared by Mr. Goodhugh before his lamented decease.

“Sincerely praying the Great Author of the Bible that these labours for elucidating its written word may lead those for whom it is designed to a deeper and more thorough appreciation of its spirit, the Editor bids his readers and contributors an affectionate Farewell.




KADESH, or KADESH BARNEA, yina vyp black tents would fully correspond with the simile of is celebrated in Scripture for several remarkable events. Solomon, (Cant. 1. 5,) while their pastoral traffic is in Here Miriam, the sister of Moses, died, (Numb. 20. 1,) every respect that adverted to in Ezekiel 27. 21, in his and the Israelites murmured against God. (v. 2-6.) It denunciations of destruction against Tyre. belonged to the tribe of Judah, and is usually supposed

II. Kedar is sometimes used as a name for Arabia to have been situated about twenty-five miles to the Deserta. (Psalm 128. 5; Isai. 21. 16.) south of Hebron, but was probably much further south.

KEDEMOTH, a city of the tribe of Reuben. Dr. Wells is of opinion that the Kadesh, in the wilder

(Josh. 13. 18.) ness of Zin, was a different place from Kadesh Barnea, in the wilderness of Paran. (Comp. Numb. 13. 26 and KEDESH, a city of the tribe of Naphtali, (Josh. Deut. 1. 19.) Dr. Lightfoot, however, considers them 19. 37,) appointed one of the cities of refuge. (20.7.) as one and the same place, and so does Winer, and this In the apocryphal Book of Tobit (1. 2) it is called seems best to accord with the Scriptural statements. Cadis.

Moses, by Divine command, sent twelve men, from each tribe a man, to spy out the land of Canaan; who,

KEILAH, a town in the tribe of Judah. (Josh. 15. after a reconnoitre of forty days, returned to him into the 44.) It was situated about ten miles north-west of wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh. Bringing back, how- Hebron, and it is said, by Jerome, that the tomb of the ever, such a report of the land as seemed highly dis- prophet Habakkuk was once shown here. couraging to the people, God was provoked to decree,

KENATII, a city of Gilead in the tribe of Manasseh, that none of those above the age of twenty years should (Numb. 32. 42,) was for a time called Nobah, after the enter Canaan, (excepting Joshua and Caleb, who had name of one of that tribe, who captured it from the brought back a different report from that of the rest of Canaanites, though afterwards it recovered its ancient the spies;) but that they should perish in the wilderness, Here Gideon defeated and took prisoners the where, also, the rest should wander till they should Moabitish princes, Zebah and Zalmunna. (Judges 8. 11, complete so many years from their leaving Egypt, as the et seq.) On the site of this city now stands the ruined spies had spent days in searching the land of Canaan. village of Kannat. After a signal defeat from the Amalekites and Canaanites, therefore, in an impious and presumptuous attempt,

KENITES, D'3 Sept. Kevalot, were a Canaanitish in defiance of the command of God, to enter Canaan, people, who, according to 1Samuel 15.6, compared with (Numb. 14. 40-45,) the Israelites turned and took their Numbers 24. 20,21, dwelt among the Amalekites. journey into the wilderness, by the way of the sea, as

According to Judges 1. 16; 4. 11, they appear to have God had commanded them.

been descended from Hobab. They were carried into

captivity by Nebuchadnezzar. KADMONITES, 737p Kadmoniy, (Gen. 15. 19,) KENIZZITES, D'a? Sept. Keveça101, an ancient were a tribe of Canaanitish people, who inhabited the Canaanitish people, were probably descended from Kenaz, promised land east of the Jordan, about Mount Lebanon. a grandson of Esau. (Gen. 15. 19; Numb. 32. 12.) They derived their name from their eastern situation,

KERCIIIEFS. Considerable difficulty attends the DTP kedem, signifying the East.

explanation of the word ninado mespachoth, (Ezek. KANAH, 1797 (Josh. 19. 28,) was the name of a 13. 18,) rendered in our version “kerchiefs.” The Sepcity in the tribe of Asher. It was also the name of a tuagint and Syriac read “mantles, or cloaks,” the Vulbrook on the confines of the tribes of Ephraim and gate “pillows." Kimchi says it was a rich upper garManasseh, (Josh. 16. 8; 17. 9,) termed, in the margin, ment.

It was probably some peculiar kind of veil or Brook of reeds. It rises in the mountains of Judah, but head-dress, denoting by its shape or ornament the chaonly flows during the winter, and falls into the Mediter- racter of those who wore them. The false prophetesses ranean Sea near Cæsarea; its present name is Nahr el alluded to, practised divinations, and pretended to deliver Kasab.

oracles, which contradicted the Divine prophecies. KATTATH, a city of the tribe of Zebulun, (Josh.

The Eastern women bind on their other ornaments 19. 15,) in Judges 1. 30 called Kitron. The Zebulun- with a rich embroidered handkerchief, which is deites, it appears from the latter passage, were unable to scribed by some travellers as completing the head-dress, drive out the ancient inhabitants.

and falling without order upon the hair behind. See

HEAD-DRESSES. I. KEDAR 777 was the name of a son of Ishmael, (Gen. 25. 13,) and also of a tribe of Arabian nomades, KERI AND KETIB. In many Jewish manu: descended from him. Of the history of Kedar little is scripts and printed editions of the Old Testament, a known, but his posterity were rich in flocks of sheep and word is often found with a small circle annexed to it, or goats, in which they traded with the Tyrians, (Ezek. 27. with an asterisk over it, and a word written in the mar21; Jerem. 49. 29,) and they were also celebrated for gin of the same line. The former is called a'np kelib, their skill in the use of the bow. (Isai. 21. 17.) The that is, “ written,” and the latter 'n keri, that is, manners and habits of the Turcomans, a nomadic tribe, “read,” or “reading,” as if to intimate, write in this who infest the inland portions of Asia Minor, are pre- manner, but read in that manner. Some Jewish writers cisely those of the wandering hordes of Kedar, as suppose them to have been made by Ezra; and others, described in the books of the Old Testament; and their that they originated in the observations and corrections


The key

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of the Masorites at a much later period. When there is of large keys, and then they have half on one side of the any such various reading, the wrong reading, the ketib, shoulder and half on the other. For a man thus to is written in the text, the true reading, the keri, is march along with a large key on his shoulder, shows at written in the margin. Thus, instead of the sacred once that he is a person of consequence. “Raman is in name of Jehovah, the Jews substitute Adonai, or great favour with the Modeliar, for he now carries the Elohim; and in lieu of terms not strictly consistent key. “Whose key have you got on your shoulder?' with propriety, they pronounce others less indelicate. 'I shall carry my key on my own shoulder.'”

of the house of David was to be on the shoulder of I. KERIOTH, a town belonging to the tribe of Eliakim, who was a type of him who had the “ governJudah. (Josh. 15. 25.)

his shoulder;" “ the mighty God, the everII. À town of Moab, the destruction of which is lasting Father, the Prince of Peace.”

Our Saviour says alluded to by the prophets Jeremiah, (48. 24,41,) and

to Peter, “ And I will give unto thee the keys of the Amos. (2. 2.)

kingdom of heaven;" (Matt. 16. 19;) that is, the power KETTLE, 717 doud, a pot or kettle. (1Sam. 2. of preaching the Gospel officially, of administering the 14; 2Chron. 35. 13.) The Syriac reads a large pot or sacraments as a steward of the mysteries of God, and kettle.

as a faithful servant, whom the Lord hath set over From the passage in 1 Samuel 2. 13,14, it seems evident his household. We read of the “key of the bottomless that the kettle was employed for the purpose of preparing pit,” (Rev. 9. 1; 20. 1,) that is, a commission to open it, the peace offerings, as it is said, v. 14, “All that the to let loose Satan to deceive the nations; and in Reveflesh-hook brought up, the priest took for himself.” lations 1. 18, of the “keys of hell and of death,” that

In the various processes of cookery represented on the is, power over the separate state of departed spirits; to monuments of Egypt, we see frequently large bronze call men out of this life into the invisible state, to raise pots or kettles placed over a fire; and in the Egyptian them from death at last, and to reunite soul and body room of the British Museum may be seen various bronze at the resurrection. buckets or kettles, which appear to have been used in

Key is also used as a symbol of the ability to interthe temples in some part of their religious worship. pret Scripture. Our Lord says to the Scribes and PhaOne of these has engraved on one side, Osiris, under risees, “Ye have taken away the key of knowledge." the form of an emblem of stability, saluted by Isis and (Luke 11. 52.) And, according to the same analogy, Nephthys, each pouring liquid from a vase of libations “to open the Scriptures,” (Luke 24. 32,) is to exhibit on the hands of two human-headed hawks, emblems of their true meaning, whereby others may understand the soul of the deceased Petamoun, prophet of Amoun, them. It is said that authority to explain the law and in Thebes, chief scribe of Maut, scribe of the sledges of the prophets was given among the Jews by the delivery the abode of Amoun. On the other side is Petamoun, of a key; and of Rabbi Samuel it is said, that after his seated on a chair; his name is inscribed upon his dress; death, they put his key and his tablets into his coffin, beneath the chair is a cynocephalus. His son, Presh- because he did not deserve to have a son, to whom he Klons, prophet of Amoun, in Thebes, offers to him a might leave the ensigns of his office. See Doctor. libation from a vase, and incense from an amschoir, over The Rabbins say, that God has reserved to himself an altar before a table. The hieroglyphical lines on the four keys; the key of rain, the key of the grave, the body contain the names of the personages and their key of fruitfulness, and the key of barrenness. invocations. The base is engraved in outline, to repre

“ Power of the keys," is a term made use of in reference sent the calyx and expanded petals of the lotus.

to ecclesiastical jurisdiction, denoting the power of excom

municating and absolving. The Romanists assert that KETURAH, the name of the second wife of

the pope
has the

of the keys, and can open and Abraham, whom he married after the death of Sarah; shut Paradise as he pleases, grounding their opinion on she bore him six sons, (Gen. 25. 1,2,) who were settled that expression of Jesus Christ to Peter, “I will give by Abraham in the east country of Arabia, near the unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven." (Matt. residence of Ishmael.

16. 19.)

and none

KEY, N, maphtiach. (Judges 3. 25; Isai. 22. KHAMSIN. There are various allusions to pes22.) This is a well-known instrument, and it is em- tilential winds in the Scriptures; thus the prophet ployed in the Scriptures as a symbol of government, Jeremiah speaks of a “ dry wind of the high places power, and authority. “The key of the house of David in the wilderness,” (ch. 4. 11,) and the Psalmist, will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall


in Psalm 103. 16, evidently alludes to the effect of shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.” some desolating wind, which very probably was the (Isai. 22. 22.) (See Door.) The keys of the ancients khamsin, so often mentioned by travellers in Syria were very different from ours, because their doors and and Arabia, under the name of the poisonous wind, or trunks were closed generally with bands, and the key hot wind of the desert; the heat being, during its conserved only to loosen or fasten these bands in a certain tinuance, so excessive that it difficult to form any idea manner. The stewards of a great family, especially of of its violence without having experienced it. When the royal household, bore a key, probably a golden one, this wind begins to blow, the sky, at other times so clear, in token of their office; the phrase, therefore, of giving becomes dark and heavy, the sun loses his splendour, a person a key, naturally grew into an expression of and appears of a violet colour, the air is filled with a raising him to great power. Roberts observes, “How subtle dust, which penetrates everywhere; respiration much was I delighted when I first saw the people, espe- becomes short and difficult, the skin parched and dry, cially the Moors, going

along the streets, each with his the lungs are contracted and painful, and the body conkey on his shoulder. The handle is generally made of sumed with internal heat. În vain is coolness sought brass, (though sometimes of silver,) and is often nicely for; marble, iron, water, though the sun no longer worked in a device of filigree. The way it is carried, is appears, are hot; the streets are deserted, and a dead to have the corner of a kerchief tied to the ring; the silence pervades everywhere. The natives of towns and key is then placed on the shoulder, and the kerchief villages shut themselves up in their houses, and those of hangs down in front. At other times they have a bunch the desert in tents, or holes dug in the earth.

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M. Dumas gives us the following graphic description “The desert was imposing and melancholy; it seemed of this wind, which he encountered in the desert:- to pant and heave beneath us, and to force up a burning “ The night was delightful; we possessed water and breath from its inmost depths. The transition had been shade, the two great requisites of which the desert is so rapid and singular; it was no longer the oasis of the sparing. After a night of sweet repose, we awoke fresh preceding evening, the repose at the foot of the palmand vigorous, and commenced our journey in the highest trees, the refreshing sleep, lulled by the murmuring spirits. At the moment of starting, our Arabs showed sounds of the fountain; it was the burning sand, the each other some red lines that streaked the eastern terrible shock of the dromedary; the devouring thirst, horizon; nevertheless, they did not seem to take further fierce, terrible, and maddening; the thirst which makes heed of them, and we had already forgotten these dis- the blood boil, and displays to the wretch that it quieting symptoms, which, however, had not escaped scorches, lakes, islands, trees, fountains, shade, and our notice, when, on entering the Wadi Pharan, we felt water. I know not whether the rest felt like me, but I passing round us some of those fierce blasts of wind, the was really a prey to temporary insanity, to a reverie, to feverish pantings of the desert. The heat soon became an endless delirium which extended itself through all the insupportable; the sand, raised by an imperceptible vagaries of imagination. From time to time our dromebreeze, which seemed an exhalation from the earth, daries sank down, digging the scorching soil with their enveloped us in a cloud, which burned our eyes, and heads, to find some semblance of coolness beneath the erery respiration choked our mouths and noses. Our surface; they then rose, feverish and panting like ourArabs, on their part, contrary to their habit, seemed to selves, and resumed their fantastic course. I do not suffer from these inconveniences as well as ourselves, know how often these falls were renewed; I cannot tell though it might be supposed that they were used to such how we were so lucky as to escape from being crushed attacks. They exchanged brief and hurried phrases under our haghins, or buried beneath the sand; but I with each other, and by degrees the remains of the hos- do remember that scarcely had we fallen, when Taleb, tility of the preceding evening were extinguished in a Bechara, and Araballah were close to us, prompt and common anxiety. The two tribes closed and mingled ready to give assistance, but mute as spectres; they together; the very dromedaries seemed anxious to seek raised up the men and camels, and then resumed their each other, galloping with great agitation, never relaxing course, silent and folded in their mantles. An hour their pace, and stretching out their long necks so that longer of this tempest, and I am convinced that it their lower lips brushed the ground. From time to would have buried us all. Suddenly a blast of wind time they gave irregular and sudden starts, as if the passed, illuminating the horizon, as when the curtain is ground burned their feet. Taleb then called out, 'Have raised at a theatre. «The Mokatteb!' cried Taleb. “The a care; and after him the Arabs repeated the warning, Mokatteb!' repeated all the Arabs. Then the sand rose which I heard without being able to comprehend by again between us and the mountain; but Providence, as what danger we were menaced. I approached Bechara if to restore our strength, had shown us the desired haven. to ask him the cause of the uneasiness which pervaded The Mokatteb! the Mokatteb!' we repeated, without us all, men and beasts. His only answer was, to take knowing what the Mokatteb was; but guessing that it the skirt of his long robe and fling it over his shoulder, was our haven, safety, and life. Five minutes after, we enveloping himself so as to cover his nose and mouth. glided like serpents into a deep cavern; the narrow I did the same, and on turning round, I perceived that entrance of the cave allowed very little light to come in'; our example had been followed by the Arabs, of whom our exhausted dromedaries knelt down with their heads nothing was seen but their black and brilliant eyes, extended to the rock, and remained so motionless, that which seemed still more black and brilliant, peeping out their skins covered with sand gave them the appearance of their bournouses and abbayes. Finally, at the end of camels in stone. On our side, without thinking of tent, of a quarter of an hour, there was no further necessity carpet, or food, we lay down as best we could, a prey at for asking any questions; we all, Franks and Arabs, once to a numbness and delirium which held the midknew equally well what was coming. The Desert fore- way between sleep and violent fever; then, without warned us by all its signs, and spoke by all its voices; it speaking, sleeping, or stirring, we remained there until was the khamsin.

the next morning, extended on our faces, like statues “Our course was very irregular, for the sand rose like hurled from their base.” a wall between us and the horizon. At every moment the Arabs, whose eyes could not penetrate this curtain

KIBROTH HATTAAVAH, of flame, shaded them with their hands to aid their

graves of desire," (Numb. ll. 34,35,) the name of sight, while their faces displayed anxiety and irresolu

one of the encampments of the Israelites in the wildertion. In the mean time, the tempest continually aug

ness, where they desired of God flesh for their sustemented; the desert became more and more billowy; we

nance, declaring they were tired with manna. Quails entered deep furrows of sand, agitated like the billows

were sent in great quantities, but while the meat was of the ocean, and crossed the burning crests of these

in their mouths, (Psalm 78. 30,31,) the wrath of God hillocks as a skilful swimmer cleaves the wave. In

came upon them, and they were visited with a destrucspite of the precaution we had taken to cover our mouths

tive pestilence, so that the place was called the graves with our mantles, we breathed as much sand as air, our

of those who lusted. (1 Cor. 10. 6.) tongues clave to the roofs of our mouths, our eyes be

The site of this, like many of the other encampments came haggard and bloodshot, our respiration rattling in of the Israelites, is unknown, but it is conjectured that our throats revealed our sufferings without the use of it was situated without the wilderness of Sinai; for it is words. I have often been exposed to danger and peril, said, (Numb. 33. 16,) that they removed from the desert but I never felt such an impression as that which I then

of Sinai, and pitched at Kibroth Hattaavah. experienced; it was nearly similar to that of a shipwrecked mariner exposed on a plank in the midst of a tempestuous ocean.

We advanced almost senseless, KID, 'Ta gedi. (Exod. 23. 19.) Among the Jews without knowing whither, always more rapidly and the kid was reckoned a great delicacy; and it appears to obscurely, for the cloud of dust which surrounded us have been served for food in preference to the lamb. became every moment more dense and burning.

(See CookERY.) It still continues to be a choice dish

קברות התאוה

among the Arabs. The Hebrews were forbidden by Jews: it is, that abo hhaleb, rendered “milk," here Moses to eat a kid boiled in the milk of its mother, means “butter;" and that the literal force of the com(Exod. 34. 26; Deut. 14. 21;) and this remarkable mand is, “thou shalt not dress meat with butter.” He prohibition is repeated three several times by the in- observes that the Orientals have many words or circumspired lawgiver. As it is one which has been variously locutions arising from composition with the words, son, understood, we may here state the chief of these inter- daughter, sister, brother, mother; and that in Arabic, pretations. Some writers maintain that its object was, for instance, a kid's mother means nothing more than a that a kid should not be killed till it was eight days goat—any goat that has yeaned. Moses also frequently old, when as it was thought it might subsist without the gives his laws in special examples, without directly milk of its dam. This conjecture is derived from a mentioning all those of a like description, to which they supposed analogy between the injunction, and that are applicable, so that what he enjoins with respect to which forbids a kid to be offered before the eighth day goat's milk must be understood also of that of cow's; in sacrifice; others think that the interdiction is alto- and all butter is originally milk, so that we can dress no gether against the eating of a sucking kid. Another victuals with butter without dressing it with milk. view is, that it was in order that the dam and kid might This is certainly the opinion which the Jews themselves not be slaughtered at the same time, which is else- entertain; and to this day they do not use butter comwhere forbidden as regards the cow, the sheep, and bined in any way with meat, employing animal fat in the goat, and probably had reference to the cherish- its stead. The question may be asked, why was butter ing of kind and humane feelings. Understanding the interdicted? To which it may be replied, that the prohibition literally, it has been supposed that it was interdiction of butter is one of the body of regulations, intended to guard the Hebrews against some idolatrous the combined operation of which was calculated to make or superstitious practice of the neighbouring heathen their new country necessary to the Israelites, so as to nations. This appears to be the opinion of some of the render it impossible for them to abandon it for any Jewish expositors, though they have not been able to other, or to resume their former mode of life. Two cite any instance of such a practice. Cudworth, how- objects which we discover in many of the laws, are, for ever, states that in an old Karaite commentary on the instance, to prevent their return to Egypt on the one Pentateuch, he met with the statement, that it was a hand, and on the other, to change their character from custom of the ancient idolators, at the ingathering of that of wandering shepherds to that of a settled agricultheir fruits, to take a kid and seethe it in the milk of its tural people. The prohibition of butter would contridam; and then to go about and sprinkle with the broth bute to both these objects. It would oblige them to their trees, fields, and gardens, in a magical manner, turn to oil as a substitute, and therefore not to neglect under the impression, that by this process they insured the cultivation of the excellent olive-trees, in which their fruitfulness in the ensuing year. Spencer likewise their new country abounded. mentions a similar rite as in use among the Zabians. The modern practice of the Jews respecting butter,

Michaëlis supports another interpretation which seems we have stated in the article EARTHEN VESSELS. founded on the general opinion and practice of the

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KIDRON, 1977P The brook Kedron, Kidron, | crossed by a bridge of one arch. Its waters are said to or Cedron, as it is variously termed, (2Sam. 15. 23; be dark and turbid, probably, because it collects the waste 1 Kings 15. 13; 2Kings 23. 6,12; 2Chron. 29. 16; of the adjacent hills; and, like other brooks in cities, it Jerem. 31. 40; John 18. 1,) flows through the valley of is contaminated with the filth of which it is the receptacle Jehoshaphat, eastward of Jerusalem, between that city and common sewer. and the Mount of Olives. Except during winter, or This was the memorable brook which David crossed after heavy rains, its channel is generally dry; but when barefoot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom, swollen by torrents, it flows with great impetuosity. (2Sam. 15. 23,30;) into which A sa, Hezekiah, and Josiah Its bed is very narrow and rather deep, and is now cast the ashes of the accursed things used in idolatrous

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