the Dove, an emblem of the Spirit of God;Out of the dust of the ground, and named by ions, rapid fight, lofty nest, penetrating eye,

the Eagle, distinguished for its powerful pin. Adam.

and rapacity, illustrative of persecutors,—the

Hawle as a bird of passage and prey,—the GOD'S PROVIDENCE OVER THEM,

Ostrich, as timid and easily driven from its In the necessary food and preservation of nest,--the Owl as the symbol of desolation, every one of them exemplitied at the flood, the Partridge illustrative of the persecuted, in Nineveh, etc., represented as teaching and the Peacock as admired for its beautiful telling of God, honouring Him, crying unto Him, plumage, Poultry noted for affection to their and seeking their meat from Him.

young, -Quails as birds of passage, which

cross the Arabian desert,—the Raven as a bird WILD BEASTS,

of prey,--the Sparrow as common and little

esteemed, two sold for a farthing,--the Swallow, God's scourge, while on behalf of his people, and Crane as birds of passage,--their instincHe makes with them a covenant and peace. tive knowledge of the time of their migration

employed as a reproof to Israel; and the VulSUBJECTION OF THE INFERIOR ANIMALS TO ture, as filthy and rapacious, etc.



Appointed by God, effected by taming them,

FOWLING, and exemplified in the killing of the lion by Pursued by means of snares, gins, and nets. Samson, etc.

FISHES, Each noted for its own characteristic peculi. Often employed for food; Fishing a common arity, Bear for fierceness - Behemoth or Hip employment, prosecuted by means of hooks, popotamus for great strength—Boar for wast- nets and drags; illustrative of the work of ing, Coney for its inaccessible abode, -Deer Gospel ministers, and an emblem of the As. for agility and beauty,-Dog for its filthy and syrians carrying Israel away captive,-the predatory habits,- For for its smallness and fish-gate, a gate of Jerusalem. cunning, -Leopard for its spotted hide, and swift and sudden spring, -Lion for its bold

REPTILES, ness, power, and terrific voice; an emblem The Dragon, probably including several ani. of a mighty ruler, a powerful people, and mals under it, represented as being of terrible Satan the adversary ; an instrument of judg- and poisonous aspect, and frequenting ruined ment in God's hand, as in the case of the cities, rivers, and marshes; illustrating the disobedient prophet and the emigrants sent to Samaria;—Leviathan, or Crocodile, for its maliguity of the wicked one, -the Frog an bulk, terrible appearance, and impenetrable object of disgust,--the Horseleech as craving for scales -- Unicorn for its strength, Wolf for its blood,--the Worm as bred in putrifying mat. ferocity, etc.

ter, as also in certain diseases; often alluded

to in connection with the grave and illustPROPHETIC SYMBOLS FROM ANIMALS,

rative of the punishment of the place of

woe,-the Serpent described as subtil. fiery, Lion denoting Assyria,--the Bear Persia,—the crooked, deadly poisonous, and susceptible of Leopard Greece,—the beast diverse from all, being charmed, illustrative of the cunning Rome.

of Satan,—the Snail found in damp and shady places,--the Viper in mauy respects

similar, and often associated with the serProsecuted by means of the bow, and the net; pent. illustrative of persecution.

The Ant noted for diligence; Bees for their

number and sting;. illustrative of enemies Birds marking the approach of summer by numerous and formidable; valuable also for their singing;-cage of unclean birds,-nest built their honey, which is characteristic of Canaan, on the branches of trees, in rocks and in places and often used for food,—the Caterpillar and inaccessible, an emblem of a place of peace; Locust for their devastations and as a means

Bat, Bittern, and Cormorant, alluded to as of divine chastisement, - the Canker-worm inhabitants off solitary and forsaken places, and Palmer.worm also a divine scourge,-the





Fler on account of its insignificance,-Flies scales and fins;-Clean fowls not formally for their swarms--the Gnat for its proverbial described, but the unclean excepted by name; smallness, ---Grasshoppers, for their vast num- creeping things, clean in part, described and bers, and individual smallness,—the Hornet named, as the locust, beetle, grasshopper, etc., for the severity of its sting, and as unclean in part described and named, as the instrument of Divine judgment, — Lice one lizard, etc, of the plagues of Egypt, -the Moth for its silent destructiveness-the Spider for its frail

THE HERD, web; illustrative of the hope of wicked men, Catlle an important description of wealth in etc.

ancient times, the calf often fatted and killed ANIMALS USED FOR LABOUR,

as a luxury; -- Bulls, fierce, bulls of Bashan,

the Ox used for agricultural labour, unaccusThe ass for riding and work, persons of rank tomed to the yoke, an image of impenitent men riding on schite asses, wild asses regarded as un- under divine chastisement; statutes appointed tameable—the camel used on long desert jour- enforcing equity and mercy, pasture ground Deye, the swift dromedary,--the horse which very extensive, -dairy produce, Milk, Butter, Israel was forbidden to multiply, used espe- and Cheese, killing cattle for food frequently cially by warriors in early times, and in draw. exemplitied, and very often referred to in ing the chariots of the great-The war steed, Scripture-the Horn frequently employed as characterized by strength, fleetness, and cou an emblem of power, pride, protection, and rage,- Mules employed in riding, horses of as a prophetic symbol. various colours, with their riders and chariots, used as prophetic symbols in Zechariah. DISTINCTION OF ANIMALS INTO CLEAN AND Sheep-a common element of ancient wealth,

UNCLEAN, FOR SACRIFICE AND FOOD, kept for their wool and flesh, prone to wander, Animal food given to Noah, etc., blood for. I are illustrative of mankind going astray from bidden, and fat, animals unclean which had of a scattered people, and of Christ's followers

God; symbols of innocenco and helplessness, been killed by beasts, or died a natural death; | under persecution—Tending the flock performed christian law, and conscience, require abstinence by the sheepmaster and household, similitude from what may be doubisul to ourselves, or of the rulers and teachers of a nation and of cffensive to weak brethren.

Christ the Shepherd of souls ;--Multiplication

of the flock, a token of the Divine blessing-ANIMALS CLEAN AND UNCLEAN IN THEMSELVES, Wild goats, inhabitants of inaccessible rocks Quadrupeds clean which parted the hoof, and and mountains,--the domesticated led in flocks chewed the cud, unclean which did not part by a he-goat-the milk and flesh valuable for the hoof or chew the cud;-Fishes clean which food, and the hair employed in manufactures; bad scales and fins, unclean which had not l-emblem of the wicked; symbol of Macedon.




employed, bricks, stones, timber,-Erection Tents, used in part at least by the Antedilu. was executed by carpenters, masons, etc.; used vians, by the Patriarchs, and by Israel in the as a symbol of the increase of families, and of wilderness, Materials composing them, cords, spiritual edification. artans and stakes; figuratively applied to the

ORDINARY FORM OF HOUSES, eartb, with the curtains of heaven above, Walls so built as very much to seclude the and also to the body of man.

building, -Courts uncovered, open spaces; -,

Roof required by the Mosaic law to be flat, and OCCASIONAL DWELLINGS,

fenced with batllements, usually cominuni. Cores resorted to, for shelter, and in seasons cated with the house, and was often resorted of danger; caves mentioned in Scripture,-to for the purpose of observation, for making Makkedah, Adullam, Engedi, etc.

public proclamation, and for retirement and

prayer,--Peter on housetop,-Pillars employed ORDINARY DWELLINGS,

for strength and ornament, symbolically ap

plied to eminent men,-Door, porch, gaie, the Houses of various forms, palaces, castles and passage for entering and departing, - Windows calages; Foundation metaphorically applied for light,--the Dial for determining the hour, to the mountains, and to the world at large, -the various apartments constructed so as to illustrative of strength; a name given to suit the various objects for which they are Christ and his Apostles;-Materials usually designed.


- names given to them from that of the In unwalled villages held on the same principle builder, from the object of the erection, or as in ordinary inheritance, - Houses in wal. from some circumstance connected with'the

erection. Different kinds of cities speciled cities limited in respect to their redemp. tion and restoration; dedication attended by fied, namely, Royal, Treasure, Commercial, certain ceremonies and privileges -- the thir. Chariot, Fenced Cities, the walls of great

strength, and proviiled at intervals with tieth Psalu.

watch - towers and battlements ; -- gales some

times constructed of brass, iron, etc., being FURNITURE

places of concourse, spaces around them used Beds sometimes richly ornamented, but ordi- for merchandise, and for judicial proceedings, narily couches ranged round the walls of the often alluded to as the resort of the idle, rooms; used as an emblem of the grave; Sireets and thoroughfares usually narrow in botties made of leather or the skins of animals; the east, - Watchmen employed to guard during instanced in Hannah, the Gibeonites, etc., the night; elders of the people appointed by The pitcher used for carrying water, exem- Moses to act as magistrates; instanced in the plified in the woman of Samaria,- The table history of Ruth. used for meals and often used figuratively for the food itself as "providing a table." Seats

CITY OF GOD, (domestic) often formed simply of the sleep. ing couches folded up;-other household stuff Jerusalem, often called the holy city, so named consisted of pots, baskets, etc.

from being specially the place of God's pre

sence, the scene of his worship, and the conTHE HEARTH,

vocations of his people Israel. Fires for cooking, and during the winter months for warmth; instanced in the hall of

ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS, the high priest during the trial of Jesus; for. Erected by good men to mark special manifes. bidden to be lighted on the Sabbath day,Fuel of wood, thorns, dried grass, etc.,

-The tations of God's favour, as by Jacob at Beth-el, Candle or lamp of oil usually kept burning | Moses at Sinai, Joshua at Gilgal, etc. during the night, and often employed as an emblem of domestic prosperity, but "lamp pul out," the symbol of domestic adversity; leprosy As the result of God's displeasure; often the in houses and law about it.

subjects of prophecy, and often described as

in the case of Babylon, Damascus, Nineveh, CITIES,

etc. Rebuilding of a city once in ruins is illus. Erected for security, for convenience in mer. trated in the case of Jerusalem after the Baby. chandise, and often from personal ambition, lonish captivity.




Ammon, and the league of the tribes with Musters made by Moses in the wilderness, by the cunning Gibeonites. Ehud and Gideon among the judges; by command of the States-general, and very

BANNERS, frequently by the kings of Judah, and Israel, Israel marching in the wilderness, had the etc. trange method of sudden summons em standard of Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun ployed by Saul.

on the east, Reuben, Simeon and Gad, on STANDING ARMY,

the south, Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin Began by Saul, attempted by David, and north; sign of mustering nations, and the

on the west, Dan, Asher and Naphtali on the completed under the kings, -Foreign armies gathering of converts to Christ. often referred to as those of Egypt, Midian, Amalek, Philistia, Moab, Syria, Assyria, Ammon, etc,- Allied armies also often re

DISCIPLINE, ferred to in sacred history, as in the case Founded on gradations of rank, the common of the bings of Canaan against Joshua, soldiers being the mass of the army, and the Judah allied with Simeon,-Ammon with officers in command, consisting of various Syria, -Judah with Syria, -Judah with grades, distinguished in different armies as, Israel, - Judah with Assyria, - Moab with captains of thousands, captains of hundredí,

captains of fifties, captains of the host, cap- they heard the evil report of the spies,—-by tains of the guard, centurions, etc.

Moab when they saw the numbers of Israel, by the kings of the Amorites when they heard

of the wonders which God had wrought for CONSTITUENTS OF ARMIES,

the tribes,-by the Roman guards at the Infantry. Cavalry largely employed in foreign sepulchre of Jesus, - promise made to Israel armies, but forbidden by Moses to Israel, lest that their enemies would be panic struck betbey should traffic with Egypt, those who fore them, which was often fulfilled in their forghe in chariots, pioneers, etc.; – the Com. history. missariat provided sometimes by voluntary contribution, and sometimes by compulsory

ARMOUR, lery.

Usually worn by soldiers in battle, used symWAR TRUMPET,

bolically to denote the weapons by which

the Christian may meet and successfuily repel Employed in mustering the people and in his spiritual foes, the defensive consisting of directing them while under arms, commanded the helmet, for the head,—the shield fastened by Moses, used by Joshua at the siege of on the left arm, and used in parrying off the Jericho -by Gideon,-by Nehemiah, etc. strokes of enemies, the symbol of divine

protection,-the coat of mail fitted to the VALOUR,

body to protect it — greaves, titted round

the legs to protect them, – the offensive Often displayed in the troops, often in indiv. consisting of the bow and arrow, the characteridual heroes, as in those who attached them. istic weapons of the Jews and foreign nations; selves to David, and in heroines, as instanced image of terrible evil inflicted by man, as also in Deborah, - Challenges to deeds of valour of divine judgments,--the dagger, darts, or made by Caleb, calling to the assault of Kirjavelin, the spear, the sling, used by shepherds jath-sepher, by Jonathan to attack the in defending their flocks, as well as in war,Philistines,—by Goliah to meet himself, etc. illustrative of casting or expelling a people ont

of their own land, and the sword the most COWARDICE,

deadly of all the ancient weapons; the sym

bol of divine punishment and of human Evinced by Israel in the wilderness, when ' persecution.



THE HEAD, Formed out of the dust-fearfully and wonder- Hair its natural covering, often standing for fully made-symbol of the Church, in its the person or life itself, a natural symbol of sympathetic unity; has an interest in Christ's chief or governor-bowed in token of revesalvation; grows in stature, and possesses rence to God and respect to man-covered senses, appetites, and organs.

with dust a mark of mourning-hoary, a mark CONSTITUENT PARTS OF THE BODY,

of age and venerable appearance-baldness a

token of disease, grief, and reproach-tossed in Flesh the name often given to the whole cor-token of contempt, anointed for refreshment, poreal person, or to corrupted human nature, one hair not falling to the ground denoting used to signify what is external, denotes perfect safety. Beard usually worn among humanity generally. Bone, naine and index of the Jews --Forehead, a spot on it marking blood relationship, often alluded to as the public or official rank-Face bowed down in sat of pain, often applied to the dead body, obeisance-falling on it the result of sudden as bones of Joseph Joints said to be loosened in or overpowering sensation--To set the fuce defeat. Skin black, expressive of severe disease, noting steady purpose-cheek, to smite on it an bones cleaving to it denoting emaciation

act of haughty contempt-ear the organ of aneus hardened, a symbol of obstinacy-blood hearing, to give ear denoting attention--bad often used to express murder as “the pollut. cbaracteristics of the ear denoted by the epi. tion of blood." Flesh and blood an expression thets, uncircumcised, stopped, not inclined-carfor humanity.

rings, a common ornament. Eye the organ PARTS AND ORGANS OF THE BODY, of sight, and the source of tears; sometimes Are often alluded to and frequently employed dimmed by age or sorrow; occasionally painted by the inspired writers.

by women, exemplified in Jezebel, an evil eye


a mark of mean disposition-winking with the hand,from the power of; to give the hand eye a sign of evil intent, lighting up the eye the mark of amity; -hunds also used in a denoting begun or renewed attention ; used variety of idioms, to "clap them" expressive as the symbol of intellect, reason, or opinion. of sudden feeling—to lay them on," to take Nose the means of breathing and the organ hold of, or to impart healing, spiritual office, of smell, breathing of the nostrils metaphorically or gift-to lift or spread them the posture of descriptive of divine wrath. Mouth used in prayer-to list those of another to comfort him speaking-opening it the sign of commencing --to lift them against one to rebel-to join a discourse-lying the hand on it a token of them a sign of combination; left hand used with reverence-smiting on it an act of contemptu- the right, in idiomatical expressions, denoting ous anger. Lips used with a variety of epithets both sides left handed persons noted for dex. to express shades of character, as uncircumcised, terity and precision of aim-righthand the flattering, lying, joyíul, burning, unclean, etc., symbol of power, and the place of honour. used in Proverbs, especially to point out vices Bosom the seat of emotions, as joy, sorrow, and virtues of character. Teeth, the organs of etc;-breast, smiting it, expressive of intense mastication, gnishing them a sign of agony, grief. Back, turning it the sign of forsakinggnashing with them a sign of rage—the principal bowing it of servitude-loins bound, and instrument of speech, like lips used with a strengthened by the girdle, expressive of linevariety of epithets denoting great diversity of age or descent. Heart the seat of emotioncharacter. Throat as the means of utterance to harden it, to persist in disobedience, to compared in wicked men to a sepulchre-neck apply it, to denote oneself to study. Liver adorned with ornaments of needlework, called glory in the Hebrew Scriptures; reins chains of gold, etc., the seat of yoke, and the or kidneys, figuratively, the seat of feelingsymbol of subordination – clasped in joy bowels, used in many places of Scripture, where and grief, hard or stiff denoting obstinacy. in modern langpage, heart would be employed. OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY,

Thigh, putting the hand under it a form of Shoulder the seat of burden, badges of honour oath.' k'nce, kneeling, token of obeisance to borne on it, as exemplified in Christ, on God or man-leg, foot, instruments of motion, whose shoulder "the government shall be." | therefore the symbol of personal action, Arm the natural symbol of strength-of flesh purpose, etc., Feet used idiomatically, in denoting weakness-hand used in a variety of various ways, "under feet," token of subjecidioms as,at handd, near in time or space, tion, " at the feet” close attendance on, or " by the hand-by means of, "into," or in implied inferiority, "falling at another's” feet the hand,into or in the power of, " from the an act of homage.

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God, – the expulsion accomplished by Israel As defined by Moses, extending to Egypt, the under Moses and Joshua, acting under the great (Mediterranean) Sea, the desert, and the Captain of the Lord's host, - prosecuted little river (Euphrates); as defined by Ezekiel in by little,-the original inhabitants who were vision, more limited and more nearly coin. spared being in the meantime placed under cides with the territory generally possessed by tribute, -the chosen people entering on the the tribes, - noted for its hills and valleys, possession of cities which they had not built, fountains and springs, — its wheat, barley, and vineyards and oliveyards which they had vines, figtrees, and pomegranates, and for its

not planted. richness represented as flowing with milk and CHART FOR THE DIVISION OF THE COUNTRY. honey, etc.

Canaan proper, having the wilderness of Sin, PROMISE OF POSSESSION,

etc., on the south, the great sea on the west, Repeatedly given to Abraham and the Patri. the east; the territory on the other side

Lebanon on the north, and the Jordan on archs, to Moses, Joshua, etc.,, subsequent Jordan, having the Arnon on the south, the allusions to the same subject made by David, wilderness on the east, Hermon and Bashan by the captives from Babylon, and by Stephen on the north, and the Jordan on the west;-and Paul-conditions of continued possession, the territory east of the Jordan conquered that the tribes should obey God and abstain under Moses, and allocated to two and a from idolatry.

half of the tribes, the rest by Joshua, and COMMISSION TO CONQUER THE LAND,

given to the remaining nine tribes and a

half. Given to Moses and renewed to Joshua,

THE SEVERAL INHERITANCES, the aborigines to be expelled, gigantic in stature, given up to idolatry with other kin- Allocated to the several tribes and families dred sins, and falling under the judgment of for the most part or altogether by lot, and

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