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thankfulness that “ the darkness is passed, and that the true light now shineth."
Having exhibited to our readers, Mr. R.'s character of the incestuous Alexander VI. we shall lay before them its counterpart of savage cruelty--the character of Julius II ; though our author, in drawing them up, has given flattering likenesses of both.
“ Bold, enterprizing, ambitious and indefatigable, he neither sought repose himself, nor allowed it to be enjoyed by others. In seeking for a Vicar of Christ upou earth, it would have been difficult to have found a person whose conduct and temper were more directly opposed to the mild spirit of Christianity, and the example of its founder ; but this was not the test by which the conclave judged of the qualifications of a Pontiff, who was now no longer expected to seclude himself from the cares of the world, in order to attend to the spiritual concerns of his flock. Julius II. is therefore not to be judged by a rule of conduct, which he neither proposed to himself, nor was expected to conform to by others. His vigorous and active mind corresponded with the restless spirit of the times, and his good fortunę raised him to an eminence, from which he looked down on the proudest sovereigns of the earth”. p. 151, &c.
The tenth chapter commences with the assembling of the conclave, for the election of a successor to Julius II. After various reverses of fortune, neglected by one pope and patronized by another; at one time a prisoner, another time at the head of affairs in Florence-having narrowly escaped poison and assassination, the cardinal de Medici is elected supreme Pontiff, in his 37th year, and assumes the name of Leo X. From this period, the history becomes exceedingly interesting to a British reader and Protestant. Our own country inakes à conspicuous figure on the theatre; and much original matter will be found respecting our Henry VII, and his unfortunate favourite Cardinal Wolsey. The Pontificate of Leo X., opened under favourable auspices. He manifested a sincere disposition to compose the differences, which had for so long a time distracted and laid waste the greater part of Christendom; and paid particular attention to the cultivation of the arts and sciences. The learned found in him a liberal and discerning patron, and artists of every description met with a benefactor, whose taste and munificence equally afforded them encouragement. Rome, where learning and the arts, under the enervating licentiousness of Alexander VI. and the chilling barbarism of Julius II., were alimost annihilated, became the rendezvous of men of talents from every quarter; and extraordinary attention was paid to the culture of Greek literature. But here, alas, we have to deplore the fatal effects of unsanctified learning. The writings of the antient Greeks were sought after and read with astonish
ing avidity; and the ethics of Aristotle, with the philosophy of Plato, superseded the doctrines and precepts of the blessed Jesus. The minds of the clergy were stored with the maxims of Pagans; and an appeal to the Stagirite, carried more authority with it, than a “ ThuS SAITH THE LORD." Whoever reads the truly elegant and classic verses of the learned Marcus Musurus*, prefixed to his edition of the works of Plato, while he admires the elegance of the scholar, will lament the state of the times, when an Archbishop of Malvasia could look to the genius and writings of Plato, to bring back the universal reign of peace, and the golden age! Mr. Roscoe has furnished us with a translation of these verses; and it is but justice to say of it, that it transfuses to admiration, ihe spirit of the original, into the English language.- We should be glad, if our limits would permit us to lay the whole of it before our readers; but so much other important inatter remains to be noticed, that we can spare room only for a short extract on the horrors of War; and we shall give it, together with the original, that the reader may forni, some idea of that justice which Mr. R. has done his author.
Αλλ' ν' αποσβεσσης μαλερον πυρ αλλοπρόσαλλά
Αρηος" τω νυν σαν αμαθυνομενα
Ilayla ahew autee, mayla new vervan;
Ωικτισε μεν Κυκλωψ, ωκτισε δ' Αντιφατης.
Δαρδαπτει, μογερων τ' αγρονομων καματες.
Append. vol. ii. p. 88, « But that thy hand might dash the fiend of war,
That now relentless o'er EUGANIA's plain
Thro' scenes of horror, and o'er heaps of slain.
The orphans' wail, the widow's'. piercing cry?
And Polyphemus heave a pitying sigh ;
The crackling harvests in the flame expire ;
. vol. ii. pp. 223-4.
* An edition of these verses, with various illustrations, and a Latin translation of them by Zanobio Acciajuoli, was published in the year 1797, by Mr. Butler, late of St. John's College, Cambridge.
In the appendix to this volume, as well indeed as to each of the others, will be found abundant matter to gratify the taste of the scholar. Many compositions both of Poets and Prosewriters, are here introduced, which never before appeared in print; and those of them which have before been published, are scattered up and down in numerous volumes, which are only in the possession of the most diligent collectors of books. On these and other accounts, the different appendixes will be con- . sidered as a very rare and valuable treasure.
We now proceed to the third volume, which brings us to the 5th year of Leo's pontificate. From this period, the great Reformation may be considered as commencing, and the English Protestant will feel much interested in its review. Our account of this part of the work, must be deferred till a future number—yet we cannot close what we have at present to offer, without noticing the dreadful state of Religion at that time. That the people at large were sunk into the lowest state of depravity, cannot excite wonder, when the character of the Pontiff and of his Cardinals is considered. This is strikingly delineated in the events which attended, or followed, a conspiracy among several of the Cardinals, to poison or assassinate the pope: and we know not which to reprobate most, the treachery and perfidy of Leo, in order to get possession of his enemies, and his cruelty in punishing them; or their inveterate malice and irreconcileable enmity towards him. What an idea must it convey to the pious Christian, to be told, that the successor of St. Peter, the Vicegerent of Christ, who holds the keys of heaven, did not dare to perform the rites of religion, without an armed force, which attended to protect him, not from a foreign enemy; but from the assault of his Cardinals! Vol. iii. p. 110, &c.
(To be continued.)
Art. VIII. An Account of the Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson, from his Birth
to his Eleventh Year. Written by himself. To which are added, Original Letters to Dr. S. Johnson, by Miss Hill Boothby: from the MSS. preserved by the Doctor, and now in the possession of Richard Wright, Surgeon, &c. Foolscap 8vo. pp. 144. Phillips. price 4s. Od.
1805. TT will probably be recollected by many of our readers, that
Dr. Johnson, a few days before his death, ordered the whole of his papers to be burnt. Among then were,' two 4to volumes, containing a full, fair, and most particular Account of his own Life, froin his earliest Recollection. As we have always particularly regretted that these valuable memorials were not ex
empted by our great moralist from his literary conflagration, we * look up the voluine before us with the hope that it would in
tome measure compensate for the loss. We are sorry to feel ourselves compelled to say, that our expectations have been disappointed. That portion of the book which relates to Johnson personally, is contained in 32 fashionable foolscap 8vo. pages. The remaining 112 pages are occupied by a Collection of Letters from Miss Boothby, to Dr. J., four Letters from him to her, which have already appeared in Mrs. Piozzi's collection; a prayer, before printed, and an epitaph on Miss B. by Sir Brooke Boothby. Besides these unequivocal symptoms of bookmaking, we feel it our duty to point out a deception, which, if intended, deserves the severest reprehension. That part of the volume which contains the Anuals,' is stated in the title-page, to comprise an Account of Dr. Johnson's life,' from his Birth to his Eleventh Year. This is so far from being the fact, that it gives only a mutilated account of five years of his life. The third year is unfinished, in consequence of a hiatus in the MS. and the annals do not recoinmence until the ninth year, the beginning of which is lost; and the tenth does not appear to be completed. · These Annals' are meagre and uninteresting, and were it not for their illustrious author, we sbould have deemed them unworthy of an article in our Review. It appears that they were rescued from the flames by Francis Barber, Dr. Johnson's black servant; and that by purchase from Barber's widow, they came into the possession of the editor. As they are not, of course, susceptible of analysis, we shall present our readers with such extracts as may enable them to judge for themselves of their nature and importance. .
"I was, by my father's persuasion, put to one Marklen, commonly called Bellison, the servant, or wife of a servant of my father, to be nursed in George-lane..... Here it was discovered that my eyes were bad, and an issue was cut in my left arm, of which I took no great notice, as I think my mother has told me, having my little hand in a custard..... Dr Swinfen told me, that the scrofulous sores which afAicted me, proceeded from the bad humours of the nurse, whose son had rhe same distemper, and was likewise short sighted, but both in a less degree. My mother thought my diseases derived from her family. In ten weeks I was taken home, a poor diseased infant, almost blind.
In his third year Dr. J. S was taken to London' by his mother, "to be touched for the evil by Queen Anne. They lodged in Little Britain, at Nicholson's, the famous bookseller. Here, be observes,' I reinembered a little dark room behind the kitchen, where the jack-weight fell through a hole in the ficor, into which I once slipped my leg. In the same vear, he was first informed of a future state:' he was told by his mother of the two places to which the inhabitants of this world were received after death; one a fine place filled with happiness, called Vos. II.
heaven; heaven; the other a sad place, called hell. That this account, much affected my imagination, I do not remember.',
The remainder of the 'Annals' are principally occupied by school details, in which Dr. Johnson enumerates a variety of circumstances which evince the strength of his memory. We do not think that our readers would be gratified by extracts from this part; and shall therefore only observe, that Dr. J. appears to have excelled his competitors even at that early age. · Miss Boothby's letters are evidently the composition of a superior and cultivated mind; and if their contents had been of a more interesting nature, might with propriety have' formed an appendage to this little tract.' They breathe a spirit of piety, which we hope had its effect upon the mind of her correspondent. We can only spare room for one extract. ..
"I am desirous that, in the great and one thing necessary, you should think as I do; and I am persuaded you some time will. I will not enter into a controversy with you. I am sure I never can this way con. vince you in any point wherein we may differ; nor can any mortal con. vince me, by human arguments, that there is not a divine evidence for divine truths. Such the apostle plainly defines Faith to be, when he tells us, it is “ the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen." Human testimony can go no further than things seen, and visible to the senses. Divine and spiritual things are far above-and what' says St. Paul? For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him ? Even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.'
. Art. IX. Oddy's European Commerce, concluded from Page 44. IN the second and following books, Mr. Oddy treats of the 1 commerce of Prussia, Mecklenburg, Sweden, and Denmark. Their ports, rivers, canals, produce, and manufactures are described in the same manner as those of Russia had been..
The Prussian territories, from their great extent along the southern shore of the Baltic, will possess their full share of the advantages which political events may confer upon that ancient seat of commerce. The lakes, or baffs, as they are called, and the rivers, are numerous, advantageously situated, and with the aid of some canals, open a communication with the interior of Europe, and even with the Black Sea. Great attention has been paid to the improvement of its manufactures, several of which, especially that of linen, in Silesia, are in a very for fishing state.
. The produce exported from Prussia, consists of some hemp and fax, linseed, a little tallow, ashes, bristles, and fir timber, chiefly from Me. meland Konigsburg; likewise, at periods, grain ; more particularly, and in great quantities from Dantzic; and, in less proportion, from Elbing : also,