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India, in 1754, and took his seat as a member of the council, at Fort St. George, to which he had been appointed while in England. Here his talents were of singular utility. When intelligence was brought to Madras of the capture of the English settlement at Calcutta, and the sufferings of the miserable prisoners in the black hole, he warmly urged in the council, that measures of the utmost vigour should be pursued. His opinion prevailed, and he was the man by whose recommendation and influence Colonel Clive was raised to the command of the army, as possessing that intrepid and adventurous genius, which could alone have conducted the enterprize with success, and brought it to an issue, so important and astonishing. We are informed that, after the return of these gentlemen to England, a disagreement took place, which dissolved that friendship for ever. So sensible was the court of Directors of the value of Mr. Orme's services, that he was appointed eventual successor to the governor of Madras; but he did not continue long enough in the country to succeed to that honourable station. The delicate state of his health obliged him to return to England, and he bade a final adieu to India, in the latter part of the year 1758. His voyage proved unfortunate: the ship in which he sailed, was taken by the French ; and he was carried first to the Mauritius and afterwards to France, whence in the year 1760, he passed over to his native country. Wherever he was, he sought inprovement, and was busily employed in aug. menting his stores of useful and ornamental knowledge.
No sooner was Mr. Orme comfortably settled in London, than he engaged himself with vigour in preparing for the press a history of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Hindostan. Materials for this work he had been many years collecting: and the first volume was published in 1763. It was received with the warmest approbation, and was highly celebrated for the fidelity, impartiality, and accuracy of its details. The second volume, which appeared in 1778, renewed and heightened the lustre of his reputation. Mr. O. bestowed immense labour upon it: he examined documents with the greatest accuracy, and improved his work wherever additional information afforded him an opportunity. Of this the second edition of his first volume furnishes ample proof.
Living in the metropolis for a considerable time after his return, he spent his days in the pursuits of literature, and in the society of the learned. Several letters from Dr. Robertsou the historian, which strongly mark their mutual intimacy and esteem, are inserted in the memoir. Mr. Orme was remarkably attached to the great Dr. Johnson, and found the highest deliglit. in his conversation.
“ I do not care," says he to a friend, on what subject Dr. John3011 talks; but I love better to hear him talk than any body: he either gives you new thoughts, or a new colouring. Conversing one day with Mr. Boswell on the Dr.'s Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, he thus strongly expressed his opinion. " It is a most valuable book : besides extensive philosophical views, and lively descriptions of Society in the country that it describes, it contains thoughts wbich by long revolution in the great mind of Johnson, have been formed and polished like pebbles in the ocean."
The loss of a nephew and his family, in the Grosvenor East India-man, deeply affected him, and considerably impaired his health. In 1792, he retired from London to Ealing for the benefit of the country air; and he resided there during the remainder of his life. In his retirement he was visited by ipany valuable friends; but his books were his chief companions, and continued to the end to furnish him employment and pleasure. In the beginning of January 1801, he fell into a state of weakness and languor, and on the 13th of that month, expired in tbe 75th year of his age. – A likeness of Mr. Orme, from a bust by Nollekens, is prefixed to this volumne; and · his character is thus delineated by his biographer.
“ Mr. Orme was somewhat above the middle stature, and his countenance expressed much sbrewdness and intelligence. In his personal habits he seems not to have had any striking peculiarities. His general Dianner was sensible, easy, and polite; of the qualities of his heart, those who knew him long and intimately, speak very highly. He was zealous in the service of those whom he really loved; but as it was not his custom to make professions of friendship, his acts sometimes surpassed expectation. His powers of conversation, as we have already shewn, were very considerable : and such was the extent of his knowledge, the readiness of his perceptions, and the facility of his expressions, that he generally illustrated in a pleasing and often in a forcible manner, whatever he undertook. Ancient literature was one of his favourite topics; and he conversed on it with no common degree of learning and critical exactness, without any sort of pedantry or affectation." : « With respect to his intellectual character, it would appear from his life as well as his writings, that the principal features were good sense, sagacity and judgement. Those qualities were assisted in their operation by an active spirit, a solicitous curiosity, and a cultivated taste. A mind thus constituted, readily acquired that power of combining circumstances, in lucid order, and of relating them with compressive force, which distinguishes the writings of Mr. Orme. Few historians have connected the events of their story with more perspicuity, or related them with more conciseness. If he be sometimes minute, he is never redundant and never tedious. Every incident is so distinctly stated, and clearly arranged ; every new nation, or individual is illustrated with so compendious an explanation ; all the observations rise from the facts with sa much propriety, and are in themselves só forcible and just; and the general style has so much simplicity and terseness, that every reader of
discernment and taste must feel a strong interest in perusing his history. It is not indeed illumined with philosophical views of society, or man. ners, or civil institutions, or arts, or commerce; nor is it adorned with any fine delineations of character ; but it is nevertheless a work of great merit, and must continue to hold a high place in the class of historical compositions."
As the orthography of the word Mahrattas has been settled by the usage of the best writers, Mr. Orme's editor should not have puzzled his readers with the word "Morattoes; nor should he have robbed Hindostan of the H, which is not only essential to the word, but has been sanctioned by the general consent of all the literati both of Europe and Asia.
The following noble and generous sentiments in favour of religion and liberty, with which Mr. O. closes his 'Idea of the government and people of Hindostan,' shall conclude this, article.
. Christianity vindicates all its glories, all its honours, and all its rex verence, where we behold the most horrid impieties avowed among the nations on whom its influence does not shine, as actions necessary in the common conduct of life; I mean poisoning, treachery and assassination, in the sons of ambition; rapine, cruelty and extortion in the ministers of justice.'
The sons of liberty may here behold the mighty ills to which the slaves of a despotic power must be subject : the spirit darkened and depressed by ignorance and fear; the body tortured and tormented by punishments inflicted without justice and without measure, such a contrast to the blessings of liberty, heightens at once the sense of our happiness, and our zeal for the preservation of it.'
Art. III. Dr. Holmes's Vetus Testamentum Græcum cum variis Lectionibus
concluded from page 274. W E are now to consider the importance of the collations of
' which a part is here presented to the public-principally as relating to the various omissions and additions imputed to the Seventy interpreters. On this subject Dr. H. observes,
« If the Seventy Interpreters, in framing their version, had made omissions of the Sacred Text, considerable either as to their importance or their number, it appears hardly conceivable that such a circumstance should have continued unknown during a great length of time. The high and indeed extravagant commendations bestowed upon the Septuagint translation, by Philo, Josephus, and the Talmudists, its carly and long admission into the Synagogue, and the favour and care with which it has been continually cherished and guarded, by the whole body of the ancient Jews, seem sufficient testimonies that it originally represented the Sacred Text, as it stood at the time, without either defalcation as to its substance, or violation as to its order. In succeeding times, however, this Version fell into another state ; and various causes conspired to introduce into it appearances of mutilation and disorder.
Words and whole clauses of the Original Text, were then found to have either no representation at all in it, or none in the requisite place. Hence, it was concluded that such words and clauses were originally omitted by the Seventy.
It is worthy of remark, that many of these deficiencies which appear in the different printed editions of this version, are found supplied in MSS. and in those Versions which were professedly taken from the Septuagint, and in the quotations of the early Greek ecclesiastical writers : A manifest proof that these omissions did not appear in the Original Version; and that a proper collation of these authorities, will tend to restore that version to its original purity.
But omissions of the original text, in the present printed copies, do not constitute the whole of the charge brought against the authenticity of this version. In the language of its detractors, it is frequently too full: it has interpolations of various kinds, which we may presume never existed in the original text: the same Hebrew word is translated in such a great variety of ways; and in different parts of the text, such a great variety of idiom appears, as seein to indicate that the work could not be the production of any class of men in the same age and country.'
Though we have little cause to doubt that the version formed by the Seventy-two Interpreters, extended at first only to the five books of Moses; yet as the advantages derived by the Hellenistic Jews from such a version would undoubtedly induce them to wish for the completion of the work, it is most reasonable to conclude that, very shortly after the publication of the Law by the Seventy-two Elders, the remaining parts of the Scriptures were also translated into Greek, if not by the same persons, yet by others of as competent skill, in the same country, and probably in, or nearly in, the same age. If our conjecture on this part of the subject appear to be rationally founded, we must look elsewhere for the causes of interpolation, different renderings, and variety of idiom. Dr. Henry Owen, we think, has been very happy in the solution of this difficulty; of whom Dr. Holmes observes that his masterly discussions of most points relating to the Septuagint, have distinguished him among the learned of his time."
Mapy words and even clauses were manifestly inserted in the Greek Version by way of explanation. They are a kind of paraphrastical interpolations, purposely added to make the sense more clear, complete, and determinable. They owed their origin, if I am not greatly mistaken, to the following circumstances. The Kosń, that is the old Greek Version in common use, though plain and simple, was nevertheless in many places scarcely anderstood by the common people. To render these places more intelligible, the ministers of the church in reading, or perhaps in the subsequent explication of the lesson, added, in some
places, places, certain words to explain the sentence; and elsewhere exchanged some words of abstruse meaning for others better known. And, moreover, where they thought some texts improperly rendered, there they proposed new and different translations of their own.'
"The explanatory interpretations above mentioned were afterwards inserted in the margin of several copies, and from thence finally admitted into the text; which accounts for some variations of the Greek from the Hebrew ; as it does also for different renderings, observable ia the Greek itself, before the time of Aquila. And it may be further remarked that these interpolations, though founded on the same prina ciple, were yet of course different in different countries, because of the different idioms of their language; which fully accounts for those va. rieties we see between different Greek copies.' · Hence then, we may conclude that these and such additions, can with no propriety be attributed to the Original Interpreters; but owe their existence to subsequent authorities. And in confirmation of these conjectures, we inay observe with Dr. H.(3d. anngal account p. 20.)
- That when copies of the Greek itself, together with versions and citations from it, concur in disowning these interpolations, &c. and nothing correspondent to them occurs in the editions and MSS. of the original text, there seems to be no want of sufficient authority for concluding that they had not, from the first, a place in the Korean or common text,'
Those passages, nevertheless, in the Septuagint, which appear · to be additions to the text, and which have nothing corres
ponding to them in the present Hebrew, are not universally to be considered as interpolations. For it is certainly possible that some word or words may have been lost out of those copies of the Hebrew text, which afterwards served for the foundation of the printed editions. A few examples will illustrate our meaning. In Gen. iv. 8. in the Hebrew text we find, 108 520 5X 97 708. • And Cain SAID unto Abel his brother, &c. - very improperly rendered in our common En. glish Version, And Cain TALKED with Abel his brother:--and it came to pass, when they were in the field,' &c. What Cain said to Abel his brother, is not intimated ; though the next clause of the verse represents them as being in the field, and seems to indicate that something relative to their going to the field, had been the subject of conversation. The Septuagint removes all obscurity, by inserting the words, Svínowley eis to medsos.
And Cain said to Abel his brother let us go out into the field; and it came to pass when they were in the field,' &c. Now this addition is not only acknowledged by the most authentic MSS. and printed copies of the Septuagint, but also by Chrysostom, Tertullian, Ambrose and others : together with the Vulgate, the Syriac, the Chaldee Targum of Jonathan, and
amplew text Abel Elton