ploys a v; and where the Latin employs a v, the Greek uses a ß (as Axbid, BeomeOlayos, &c.); will see at once, that Wol, Vol, Boul, are one and the same word. And the progress to Ibo is not very circuitous nor unnatural. It is Iboul, Ibou, Ibo. The termination Bo (for Bovdew) may therefore well be applied to denote the future time of the Latin Verbs; since its meaning is I Woll (or Will.) So it is, Amaloul, Amabou, Amalo, &c. Part II. p. 432-434.

Here, we confess, the author has puzzled us. We cannot decide whether he is imposing on others, or on himself. We are inclined to think it impossible for him to have forgotten, that the first person does not, in every tense of the verb eo, end in o! What representative of ego, or of ich, can he find in ibam ? why should the b represent Boua, and wol, in the future tense, when it cannot have that sense in the imperfect? .

So flagrant an imposition as this, throws no slight suspicion on the integrity of the rest of this singular performance; and tempts us to conclude, that Mr. H. Ti's well-known talent at hum-bug, after having failed of success on the political stage, and been excluded from the Church, the Bar, and the Senate, is now exerted, with more auspicious omens, on philological topics. His method, and his style, certainly give colour to such à supposition. The former bids defiance to systematical investigation: the latter is so paradoxical, as to render his book a string of conundrums, which are ofien very equivocal, and sometimes incapable of solution.

Leaving this problem to the mature consideration of the public, we would remark, that to accomplish the object which he proposed, to an extent which might establish a new basis of grammatical arrangement, appears, from the nature of language, to be impracticable. In the instances of that and if, we have shewn, that the manner of signification, which the author pretends to explain from writers of two or four centuries old, was the same, at the earliest periods to which the Gothic and Saxon languages can be traced, as it is at the present day. That he would have succeeded better, had he been more versed in those languages, and others of similar origin, is likely. Adequate information might have preserved him from many gross inistakes : but we apprehend, that, if he really aimed at truth, it would have compelled him altogether to relinquish his hypothesis. Yet, whatever was the design, and much as he has failed in the execution, of his work, it has an indisputable claim to the merits of labour, ingenuity and acuteness and, if used with due judgement and precaution, it may be applied to valuable purposes. For this effect, however, his book must be considered as having no reference beyond the fourteenth entury; and even those abbreviations in the 'manner of sig.

nification nification of terms, which have evidently been introduced since that period, must be decided from the extracts which he has col. lected, not from the glosses that he has attached to tliem.

Of the political farrago with which the author has contaminated his work, little needs to be said, at a period when the English nation has learned to judge from facts, rather than from theories; and from practices, rather than from professions. We shall, therefore, only take a brief notice of an attempt, at the commencement of his last volume, to found the rights of man,' on what he calls the laws of human nature,' p. 14. What those Laws are, or who is to interpret theni, he does not inform us. We have heard them explained, by an adept in the Francotheotisc Neology, as the dictates of every man's conscience, however corrupt or obdurate; and we have heard it maintained (with the most evident sincerity and seriousness) on this principle, that any man who thinks it right, on whatever ground, to rob, or murder, is right in doing so. . · Happily for us, as a nation, we have the laws of God, recorded in the Sacred Scriptures, for the 'obedience of Faith;' and the laws of England, to restrain the frantic advocates of such laws of Nature. To the former, we thankfully resort, as the only, and all-sufficient rule of conscience: to the latter, we commit the decision, whether the wild ravings of Mr. H. T. have been effectually reduced, by the numerous chasms which the publisher has discreetly left in them, from a corrupt mass of sedition to the caput mortuum of stark nonsense.

Art. VI. 'AIPEEENN ANAETAEI£; or, a new Way of deciding old

Controversies. By Basanistes. 8vo. pp. 194. Price 2s. 6d. Johnson.

1805. TO enumerate the various trials incident to men in their dif

1 ferent employments, is a common and useful exercise from the pulpit. But there is one trial, and a heavy one too, which we do not recollect either to have heard in sermons, or to have met with in treatises of instruction; and that falls to the lot of Reviewers, who are obliged to read books which are not worth the reading; and to toil through volumes where, in every page, they find nothing but matter of unmingled disgust. Hercules himself would have shrunk from such a labour. He would never have got to the end of Aireseon Anastasis: but we have; thanks to the perseverance of the reader of our corps, and to our own unconquerable patience.

If we do not mistake, we had, in the course of the last year, a publication of the same author, on the present miserable state of Christianity, and the reviviscence of Socinianism, which is to regenerate the world.

The The design of the present volume is to confute the doctrine of the Trinity, and the divinity of Jesus Christ, and what may be called the distinguishing principles of the Gospel. In order to effect this, B. sets himself to prove the divinity of Moses, and thus to establish what he calls a quaternity in the Godhead. In this way he imagines, no doubt, that he shall make the orthodox doctrine appear ridiculous, and serve the cause of his own creed. This is that species of Socinianism, which rejects a part of the Sacred Scriptures; which allows inspiration to a small portion of the rest, and in a very low degree; and which, in its tenets, scarcely differs from the Deism of the school of Shaftesbury and Bolingbroke.

Perhaps our author imagines, that in his mode of attack, he bears away the palm of novelty: but he is mistaken. Cicero, in his book De Natura Deorum, informs us, that Empedocles maintained that there was a quaternity in the Deity. This Empedocies, from vain glory, it is supposed, (whether for having made such a discovery we do not know, afterwards threw himself headlong into the crater of Mount Etna. There is no necessity that in this too, his disciple should imitate him. If, however, he should be resolute, and should set our opinion at defiance, divine ļruth will have no cause to weep for the loss she has sustained.

Mr. then changes his armour, and fights with different weapons. By some of those who have held the great truths of Christianity, many hasty, unwise, and improper expressions and arguments have been used. These, Mr.-mm has been at great pains to collect, and to retail in his work. But what do they prove i Not the falsehood of the doctrines, but the haste, the heat, the misapprehension, or the mistake of individuals. • Through the whole, there is an attempt to be witty; and part of it consists in wearing the cloak of a violent orthodox bigot, But wit is a weapon which few are qualified to handle with effect; and our author as little as any that ever attempted it. la Voltaire, while he combats the truth, we meet with the delicacy of wit, the charms of language, and the beauties of composition: but none of these is to be found in this performance. The author is virulent as that aged infidel, but he resembles him in nothing else. From beginning to end he is so “hot and heavy," that we have been continually reminded of a certain adage, in which a tailor's GOOSE makes a conspicuous figure. He appears to be merry while he writes: but we are confident he will be grave when he comes to settle with his bookseller; for, if there be fifty people in England who will read this work to the end, there is more patience in the country than we could have conceived.

We have not treated this writer with undue severity. When, instead of reasoning fairly and candidly, a Polemic endeavours to țurn the most important principles of religion into ridicule, and


at the same time shrouds himself beneath a fictitious appellation, we feel it our duty to remember, that the same Sage who extols “a soft answer," has also recommended "a rod for a fool's back !"

Art. VII. A Dissertation on the best Means of Civilizing the Subjects of the British Empire in India, and of diffusing the Light of the Christian Religion throughout the Eastern World. By the Rev. Francis Wrangham, M. A. F.R.S. of Trinity College, Cambridge. 4to. pp. 46

Price 3s. Mawman. 1805. Art. VIII. An Essay on the best Means of Civilizing, &c. to which the

University of Glasgow adjudged Dr. Buchanan's Prize, By Joha Mitchell, A. M. Minister of the Gospel, Anderston. 4to. Pp. 242.

15s. Cadell and Davies. 1805. THE subjects of these publications are so interesting to hu

manity, to religion, and to the welfare of the British empire, that their respective merits, as compositions, are of com. paratively small importance. The same topics, necessarily, occur in both; and the variety which they must be expected to afford, is rather that of form than of substance, and of style than of ideas. On this account, we should willingly have deferred our review of Mr. Cockburn's Disseftation, (vol. i. p. 668,) to have included the present pieces in the same article, had they come to hand in time: and for this reason alone, we have postponed till now, our remarks on Mr. Wrangham's performance, which reached us soon after the former was gone to press. Between his tract and Mr. Mitchell's volume, there is hardly a greater contrast in magnitude, than in manner. The first is an elegant composition, founded on considerable appropriate information, but defective in method; and, in a comprehensive view of the subject, the latter, so far as it relates to the civilization of India, is laboured, distinct, and minute. It enters into the inquiry more fully than any other treatise that we have seen. The author is, notwithstanding, unfortunately mistaken in some of his positions, which tend not only to weaken certain points of his argument, but to diminish the general interest which it might properly have claimed. The religious department of his work displays clear theological knowledge, and fervent evangelical zeal; but he is inferior to Mr. Wrangham in that kind of information, which peculiarly affects their common object. This part of his essay betrays, also, marks of haste; probably in consequence of the laborious attention which he had given to the former division of it, and of the time to which he was limited. That the same effect should likewise be apparent in Mr. Wi's dissertation, is not surprising; as he was a competitor for the poetical prize, on the same occasion. His exertions in both instances, although not fortunate, were highly respectable; and


we should regret an intimation which he has given, of declining future competition on the academical arena, if it did not suggest a hope that his sphere of literary usefulness may be rendered thereby the more extensive.

Of the justice of the general remarks which we have suggested, our readers will be enabled to judge, by the references which we shall have occasion of making to each of these publications, while we attempt a more distinct discussion of the momentous subjects of which they treat. On the preliminary question, whether civilization or conversion should be first promoted, Mr. Mitchell observes, that

Some have contended that, to those who have made no progress in the arts and sciences, many of the allusions used in scripture must be unintelligible that their language, scanty in terms, and low in its range of ideas, must want expressions corresponding to the sublime and various truths of Christianity and that a missionary, who has been educated in a refined state of society, will find it extremely difficult to bring down his thonghts and terms to the degraded level of their understanding and speech.'--pp. 185, 186.

The truth of these remarks is indisputable; but it does not follow, that, because a high state of civilization presents advantages for the introduction of Christianity, it may not be attended with disadrantages which over-balance them. The obstacles stated by our author, exist in a great degree among the poor in England; yet here, and every where, the success of the Gospel is, and always has been, greater among the lower and the middling classes of society, than among the rich, noble, and wise. On the same topic Mr. Wrangham observes,

“That the Gospel was the last of a series of dispensations, each adapted to the increased civilization of its respective period; and was itself revealed amidst the high lustre of the Augustan age, when Rome had comprehended within the pale of her dominion the whole of the polished world: and that, even subsequently to its first.disclosure, various measures of instruction were studiously accommodated to the varying degrees of ignorance, which prevailed ainongst the objects of its author's diving mission. But these are investigations, more strictly applicable to the sluggards of Greenland, or to the sensualists of the South Sea, than to the partially-refined subjects of our Indian empire. To the latter, if we impart the great and uncontroverted doctrines of our faith, in luminous ar. rangement and perspicuous language, the communication will assist our temporal efforts in diffusing amongst them the blessings of science and civilization; while these, in return, will prepare their minds for the reception of the deeper and more mysterious truths of Christianity,' pp. 6, 7.

On the latter part of this paragraph, the author grounds the division of his subject; but we confess, that his manner of dis. cussing it, has not enabled us satisfactorily to discriminate beo


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