tween “ the more mysterious' truths of Christianity," and its “ great and uncontroverted doctrines.” We wave, however, the investigation of this difficulty, that we may attend to the leading subjects, in the order in which they stand proposed, and in which they are treated by Mr. Mitchell. He expresses a doubt, we think with reason, of the extraordinary refinement which some writers have ascribed to Ancient India, (p. 23.): yet, with them, he regards “ the light of science as all along shining from east to west,” (p. 2.) We apprehend that it pursued, not "the path of the sun,” but the track of population; and, therefore, that it was diffused both eastward and westward, from the plains of Shinar. We think, also, that the following extract is not a fair statement of the progress of our countrymen in India.

* Their first object was traffic, not conquest : but circumstances, in the natural course of things, soon arose to embroil them with the natives; and the successful issue of these contests opened their minds to new views of aggrandisement.' p. 5.

Their only object was traffic. The overweening and restless ambition of the French East India company, seconded by their government, compelled the English company to interfere in contentions which had been excited by French intrigue. The latter nation pursued the same conduct then in India, which it is now exbibiting in Europe; and, for a time, with similar success. Selfpreservation constrained us, in both instances, to counteract its measures. This was ultimately accomplished in INDIA, and will be, we hope, in EUROPE.

Mr. M. thus describes the extent of our possessions in Hindostan,

• It contains a surface of yast extent; stretching, according to the latest accounts, with the addition of our recent conquests, from Delhi to Cuttach, a thousand miles south; westward, as far as Agra; and, upon the east, to Silhet, only twelve days journey from the borders of Yunan in China. Augmenting still, in the career of victory; embracing, in alliance or subjection, the greater part of the peninsula,' p. 35.

Here are some unaccountable errors. Agra is about one hundred, Cuttach nine hundred miles, south-eastward of Deihi; Bombay, nearly the same distance south-westward; and the peninsula, which stretches to an equal extent, southward of Bombay and Cuttach, may now be regarded as comprising the larger part of our Indian territory

While in these, and in some other instances, we object to Mr. M.'s introductory account of the present state of India, we concur in the inferences which he deduces from it, that the Hindoos might rise, under a wise administration, to a higher state of improvement-chat our present empire in India stands on a

very precarious footing: and that, in order to render it permanent, it is necessary to attach the natives to us, by a sense of their own interests and happiness. The last position, however, does not appear to us to stand in need of the following argument:

* Reflecting upon the history of the Roman empire, and the motives which operate upon human nature, is there no reason, considering the distance of the scene of action, to apprehend that temptations to throw off allegiance, too strong for some one of the chief servants of the Company to resist, and an army inured to the climate, and too great to be reduced by any force that can be brought to act against them from this country, may, at some future period, prove the most powerful engine for subverting the empire of Britain in India?' p. 44.

Insurrections in the Roman provinces, were usually conducted by military competitors for the empire. The late revolution in America might seem to afford a stronger motive for the apprehension here intimated by the author; but Mr. Wrangham has adduced satisfactory arguments (Dissertation, p. 27.) in proof, that no extent of colonization, which might be effected by Britain in Hindostan, could be likely to produce a similar result,

Mr. M. next considers, as obstacles to plans of civilization in that region, “the immense extent of country which our empire embraces,” the rapid succession of its governors, and the unfavourable opinions which he supposes our countrymen in India to entertain of such speculations. We do not know what ground the author has for this supposition. The proceedings of the college at Calcutta, certainly, speak a very different language. We were a little surprised that the writer did not, in this place, advert to the natural consequences of a mercantile government, and an exclusive commercial charter. In another part of this work, however, he supplies the deficiency; and Mr. Wrangham has given a concise, yet a clear, and we think a fair, statement, of arguments on each side of this question. (Dissertation, pp. 23, 26.)

As internal obstructions to civilization, Mr. M. distinguishes the Castes, the inveterate customs, and the indolence of temper, so prevalent ainong the natives. On the other hand, he regards their partial refinement, their habitual mildness, the affinity of their laws, and of their languages, and the character and authority of our government, heightened by our recent successes; as tending to facilitate this great object. We are fearful that his statement, under each of these particulars, will be found to err on the favourable side. With his general view of the plans that are most eligible to promote the improvement of the Hindoos, we have, notwithstanding, the pleasure fully to concur.

"They should be," says he, practicable, not Utopian ; progressive, pot precipitate ; gentle, not violent; frugal, not expensive; liberal, not selfish or contracted in their spirit; accommodated to present circum

stances, stances, and not to any supposable case which may occur in the course of affairs. Let them be founded not on theory alone, particularly not on visionary speculation; but on just views of human nature, and, if possible, on actual experiment. Let them proceed upon the incontrovertible truth, (a law observed throughout all the operations of nature) that great revolutions are to be effectuated only gradually; and that important changes in the government, the manners, the spirit, the views of any society, particularly of a great nation, are not to be produced instantaneously, and cannot be attempted, except by slow degrees, without the utmost hazard.' p. 58, 59.

That the accomplishment of such measures will depend on persons who are qualified by mature experience of Indian affairs, enabled by a long residence in the country, and stimulated by a joint interest in their success, to conduct them with skill, ardour, and perseverance, seems to us a natural inference from such premises. The stress, therefore, which our author lays on the personal character of the Governor-general, as the chief agent in this work, appears to us disproportionately great. He ought, doubtless, to be of the most respectable principles, talents, and rank: but it cannot be expected, nor perhaps is it to be wished, that he should retain his office, or prolong his residence in India, a sufficient time to accomplish plans like those which Mr. M. has judiciously recommended. It is to the members of council, and the high law-officers, in the respective presidencies, that we principally look, for the conduct of measures that may augment the civilization of Hindostan.

The author seconds Mr. Cockburn, in his arguments for the importance of establishing the tranquillity, in order to promote the civilization of India: and he surpasses him, in suggesting appropriate measures for effecting that purpose. Without adverting, as yet, to the probable result of throwing open its commerce, he considers the controul of the British government over the East India company, as indispensable; and he proposes a respectable standing army, to be properly distributed; a constant attention to the essential welfare of the natives; and alliances with neighbouring, or more distant, Oriental states. He also concurs with Mr. Wrangham, in inculcating due vigilance against the insatiate ambition, and the avowed purposes of France; especially in connexion with the present state, and evident disa position, of the Mahrattas; and likewise in urging an application of the colonial system. The gradual and extensive introduction of British settlers into Hindostan, is a topic of so much importance, that we should gladly enlarge on its discussion, if our Jimits would permit. The undertaking must evidently be attended, in India, with difficulties which few other countries present; the conduct of it would require the utmost circumspection, moderation, and firmness; and the result, whether favourable or



otherwise, would certainly produce a very sensible change, both in India and in this country. We refer our readers to the arguments on the subject, in Mr. Wrangham's Dissertation, pp. 27, 33.; and in Mr. Mitchell's Essay, pp. 69, 72. The latter (pp. 77,79.) recommends, moreover, the construction of new towns, in connexion with the progress of colonization.

Under the heads of internal regulations, and polity, he has many judicious observations; especially respecting the detrimental influence which a residence in India seems, in too many instances, to have had on the British character, (pp. 88, 90.); and concerning the proper treatment of the native princes, (pp. 94, 96.) The topic of laws is properly discussed, in the subsequent pages. The author. then reconsiders the internal obstructions which he had formerly stated, and examines the most eligible means of subverting them. On this subject, there is a visible resemblance between the two performances now under review; especially in reference to the distinction of Castes. Both the authors very properly deprecate any violent attack on the inveterate habits of the natives ; while they agree on the necessity of obviating so formidable an obstacle to the general melioration. Mr. Wrangham proposes the establishment of a Christian Caste; but he has not sufficiently explained the object that he would recommend; and we confess our inability to connect the ideas of Christianity, and of Caste, with each other. As the converted Jews persevered in adhering to the ceremonial of the Mosaic law, long after they joined with converted Gentiles in the peculiar ordinances of Christianity, they may be regarded as having formed a sort of Caste; but they did so, evidently, not as Christians, but as Jews. There are, obviously, various sects ainong Christians, which too strongly resemble the Hindoo Castes; but we are far from esteeming that resemblance as congenial with Christianity. We apprehend that the author has used the term Caste, in this connexion, without due attention to its essential import. We doubt, also, whether the palliative measures proposed by Mr. Mitchell, would ever accomplish the designed effect. The prerogatives of Caste, like those of Judaising Christians, will probably be abrogated only by the growing prevalence of Christian knowledge and habits. • The attention of Mr. Mitchell is, next, very laudably, directed to the state of the female sex in Hindostan; an object, which is inferior to none, in its influence on civilization. In no respect, perhaps, has that purpose been promoted by Christianity more effectually, than by the abolition of polygamy. Yet we doubt, whether the legislature should interfere with connexions of this kind, that have previously been formed. The grand evil would be effectually prevented, by a future prohibition of the practice. As to the enormities of female suicide, the drowning of infants,


and other idolatrous murders, the capital punishment of accomplices in these crimes is peremptorily demanded, both by the laws of God and the general interests of mankind.

He proceeds, in closing this division of his Essay, to treat distinctly of the common arts, husbandry, architecture, ship-building, and manufactures; of commerce and revenue; of the fine arts, and of morals; with respect to their influence on the advancement of Hindoo civilization. On all these topics, he suggests useful remarks; as Mr. Wrangham has also done, concerning some of the principal objects. But we must refer our readers to the publications for the whole, and shall close our observa tions on this subject for the present; reserving to a sequel, those which we mean to offer on the still more important theme, the EXTENSION OF CHRISTIANITY THROUGH THE EASTERN WORLD.

(To be concluded in our next Number.)

nacter period, mariano d anaborative relatie

Art. IX. The Elements of Greek Grammar; with Notes for the Use of

those who have made some Progress in the Language. By Dr. Valpy. Part I. pp. 112. Price 5s. Pridden, Richardsons, &c. 1805. " THE true principles of the philosophy of language, are

among the discoveries of recent times. The greatest Dames of classical antiquity laboured under comparative darkness, with respect to the origination and analogy of their own languages. Alexandrian grammarians, and those of the Eastern empire, at a later period, have preserved much. valuable and recondite matter; but they rather furnish the materials for ascertaining the analogical structure of the Greek language, than make any successful advances towards it themselves. Soon after the revival of Greek literature in Europe, Angelus Caninius published a Grammar at Paris, in 1555, entitled, Hellenismus; in which he set a good example by reducing to better order the principles of his predecessors, and retrenching many of their superfluous anomalies. Much stil remained to be performed, which, unhappily, was long neglected. Succeeding grammarians contented themselves with handing down, from one to another, little more than transcripts of Caninius. Nor was it till near the middle of the eighteenth century, that our countryman Dawes, of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and especially the very learned Hemsterhuis, in Holland, pointed out the true way of ascending to the sources of the Greek vocables, and of partly exploding, and partly orga'nizing, the vulgar mass of intricate rules, contradictory exceptions, and dislocated principles. Joseph Scaliger, the Casaubons, and Salmasius, indeed, had held out many valuable lights; but there was wanting a philosophical genius to employ them to


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