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efficient purpose. That genius appeared in Hemsterhuis, and continued with his followers, Valckenaer, Ruhnken, and Lennep. It was a pleasing coincidence, that the illustrious Schultens, should then also have been applying to the Hebrew and other Oriental tongues, the same sound principles of elucidation.
From the little advantage which the Greek Grammars pubJished in England, have derived from such discoveries, it is not surprising that the generality of those productions have been held in low estimation, by sound scholars, both here and on the continent. This reproach, we trust, will soon be wiped away, and the work before us, from the judicious hand of Dr. Valpy, authorizes this expectation.
The present volume contains the etymological part only. The rules are expressed with admirable conciseness and exactness: and the examples are better selected and more advantageously displayed to the eye, than we remember to have observed in any other grammar, except Thompson's. More paradigms of substantives, especially the contracted ones, would have been very desireable. We hope this instance of parsimony will disappear in future editions: and, indeed, the symmetry of the work seems to require it, for the examples of the declension of adjectives are so numerous, as quite to coincide with our ideas on this head. We also think it would have been an advantage, though a little circumstance in itself, had Dr. V. completed the synopsis of the moods and tenses of the verbs in Mi, by including all those tenses which flow regularly from the primitive forms in w. But no part of this little volume appears to us entitled to higher praise than the reformed arrangement of irregular and defective verbs. To enable our readers to judge of this, we shall select one or two instances, which they may compare with the account of the same words, given in the Westminster catalogue, the best, perhaps, of all former ones. The first column presents the verbs whose present and imperfect tenses only are in use, the second states the obsolete verbs, and the third the tenses formed from those disused primitives.
The indeclinable parts of speech are dispatched with a brevity which we should be obliged strongly to censure, had not the author announced his intention of resuming the consideration of the prepositions and conjunctions, in the syntactical part of his work. "We hope that he will devote an adequate portion of his pages to those very important parts of rational grammar. The doctrine of the Greek particles is of prime consequence and interest to the classical student; and, happily, its difficulties, formerly looked upon as insuperable, are now much diminished by the labours of Clarke, Dawes, Hoogeveen, and the school of Hemsterhuis. But, above all, the praise of philosophical felicity in analogical investigation is due to Mr. Bonar's Dissertation on the Greek prepositions, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
The design of ihe Notes is expressed in the title. Our principal observation on them is, that both their excellence, and the very nature of the subjects to which most of them relate, excite our wishes that the learned author had allowed himself ampler scope. This is particularly a subject of regret in the verbs. In a second edition, to which this valuable elementary work cannot but soon. arrive, we recommend it to Dr. V. to revise his theory of the tenses, and to give a more detailed account of the origination, the forma vicine, and the ancient mode of conjugating the Greek verbs.
The typographical execution of this work (a circumstance of great importance, though often scandalously neglected in elementary treatises) is clear, elegant, and correct. We congratulate our youth, and all competent classical instructors, on their possessing, at last, such a Grammar of the noblest language ever used by mortals, as will meet their wants, and their wishes, The Second Part, we understand, is already published, and will shortly come under our observation.
Art. X. Greek Exercises, in Syntax, Ellipsis, Dialects, Prosody, and
Metaphrasis : to which is prefixed a Concise, but Comprehensive, Syntax. By the Rev. William Neilson. 8vo. pp. 126. Printed at
Dundalk. Price 5s. 5d. [Irish currency.] Longnan and Co. Art. XI. A Key to the Greek Exercises. By the Rev. W. Neilson. 8vo.
pp. 69. Price 3s. 3d. [Irish.] Longman and Co, London. THIS work strictly fulfils the professions of the title page.
1 The Syntactical, which is by far the largest part of the Exercises, is formed pretty closely upon the excellent plan of Main's · Introduction to Latin Syntax. Besides the author's own rules, he gives references to the Eton, to Wettenhall's, and to other grammars. The passages are selected from the best authors, and the selection is to the credit of Mr. N.'s taste and judgernent. The chapter on Ellipsis is a collection of instances froin Lambert
Bos, Bos, and the pupil is required to fill them up. That on the Dias lects contains some well chosen extracts from Herodotus, Theocritus, and Homer, with the celebrated ode of Sappho, proposed to be rendered into Attic. The Exercises in Prosody consist of a few passages from Homer, Hesiod, and Theocritus, turned into prosaic order, for the sake of being reduced to Hexameters again by the scholar. The chapter on Metaphrasis assigns the passage in the Diad, B. I. 12–43, which Plato in his Republic has turned into plain prose, in order to be so metuphrased, as a useful exercise to the student of Grecian literature.
From this short account, which is as much as the nature of the work will admit, the reader will perceive that Mr. Neilson's plan is considerably different from that of the learned Bishop of Gloucester, to whose valuable Greek Exercises this volume will form a very proper companion.
Art. XI. The Age of Frivolity: a Poem. Addressed to the Fashionable, the Busy, and the Religious World. By Tinsothy Touch'em. 12mo.
pp. 99. Price 2s. 6d. Williams and Smith. 1806. DF the inefficacy of satire to banish either vice or folly from the
world, we are fully convinced. The taint from which they spring is too deep in the human heart, to be discharged by such feeble solvents. We have, indeed, been told that,
Of all the ways that wisest men could find
And cures, because the remedy is loved: ". but, in our opinion, the sentiment is not justified by correct views of human nature, or by experience. The remedy has, certainly, been tried under every possible advantage, arising from consummate ability in those who employed it, and preposession on the part of those for whom it might be intended.. . Indeed, if we examine the subject a little closely, it only ex
cites surprize that such effects should have been expected from it. Who was ever sufficiently convinced of the sincerity of that zeal, which the satyrist pretends to manifest against the vices lashed with his pen, to believe that he really abhors them? Were Horace and Juvenal supposed to be more chaste 'and temperate, because they satirized debauchery and drunkenness?
The means employed are, likewise, inadequate to the end. A conflict of passions may be expected, in which one may yield a temporary ascendency to another, yet reinain unsubdued, and retain every tittle of its secret influence. If, in modern times, a few instances may be adduced, apparently contradictory
to our opinion, we are persuaded that such cases are to be attributed to the intermixture of principles foreign to the thing itself, and which, even improper association could not deprive of their efficacy.
It will be evident, that it is but a low rank in the scale of utility, that we can assign to the satyrist. If he confines his expectation to the praise of affording innocent amusement, this, small as it is, we can rarely grant, without a drawback; for, if he innocently amuses one person, he culpably employs a hundred.. Satire is not contented with general objects; and it is in propora tion as we think we can apply the wit to existing, or known cha- : racters, that the satisfaction it affords is heightened. Thus, if a work have' merit enough to make it generally read, it is much : oftener that we may attach the ridicule to our neighbours follies than that we may discover and correct our own.
We do not think that the author of the work before us, has rightly estimated his powers in determining his plan; or that he is happy in the title, or execution of it. In the Age of Frivolity” we find mingled together, the extremes of what is honourable and debasing in the human character. The painting is often rough, and the features harsh; and it will be well, if he has not, unintentionally, hurt the feelings of some, and gratified the spleen of others, by the supposed fitness of his caricatures to some respected living persons.
In-point of poetical merit, this performance is very unequal; almost every page betrays a great want of neatness, firmness, and polish, in the sentiments, in the phraseology, or in the ver. şiffcation. The author professes to have wilfully neglected the grâces of composition; but we are ready to think that his determination was founded in misconception, and confirmed by the suggestions of indolence. He might have reflected, that the keenest weapons are those which are most carefully tempered and polished; and that the best joke in the world, if it is illa: expressed, will often fail. of its object, and yecoil upon the assailant. We could wish that lie had more successfully discriminated between vulgarity and wit, as we observe that he has mot seldar adopted an expression that pleased him, without waiting to remark that it was low as well as humourous. We think, indeed, that the buskin fits him much better than the cocki Whiere he assumes the tone of dignified censure, his lana guage is often elevated and impressive; and there are some sojemn adınonitory passages, which we could quote with great apa probation. The incapacity of worldly wisdom, to comprehend the divine plan of operation, is well represented in the following forcible, though not uncommon, illustration;
So might some little nauseous insect crawl,
And wonder what sad chance made such a smear! " . We suggest, for consideration, the inquiry, whether invocations to Sylphs, Morpheus, Plutus, and Mercury, be admissible in a Christian poet; and observe to the author, that, line 325 of the: first Canto is too long,by two syllables..
The volume concludes with a delineation of the character of a true Christian. The two last lines particularly struck us, and, we conclude with recommending them to the attention of our author and our readers.
Eternal things his better thoughts engage;
Art. XII. A Manual of Anatomy and Physiology, reduced as much as
possible to a tabular form, &c. &c. By Thomas Luxmoore, Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, &c. &c. Small syo. pp. 402.
Price 8s. 6d. Highley, 1805. .. IT is with regret we find ourselves obliged, on the very thres1 hold, to differ from the author of this little work. But we cannot, honestly, yield to him that merit, which he claims in his preface that he has supplied the students of anatomy with a work, the want of which has been long complained of.” That Mr. Luxmoore's work is itself free from defects, or that it is superior to others that have preceded it, we cannot admit; and, consequently, we cannot allow that it has supplied any want of which the public had reason to complain. Not to dwell on Mr. Fife's excellent Compendium of Anatomy, in which the principles of the science are laid down with as inuch briefness ås is compatible with perspicuity, there already existed a work, similar in nature and size, to that which now demands our attention. We allude to the Vade Mecum of Dr. Hooper, from which, to say the least, the student may derive all the advantages and information which Mr. Luxmoore's Manual can supply. Forbearing, however, to make any further comparison, we shall proceed to consider this work, independent of circumstances anterior to its publication.
The work commences with observations on the structure of the bones; here we find the opinion, that bones consist of fibres and lamellæ, rejected for that of Scarpa, who supposes that the