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the colony, and it was at length resolved to solicit the assistance of Great Britain, and to put the island into the hands of her forces. The first succours sent were feeble, and answered no other purpose than that of inuring the blacks to arms, and teaching them to conquer by perseverance. Such contests usually bring into action those ardent spirits, which are otherwise doomed to evaporate in obscurity. Many of the black leaders were men of genius, and opposed the skill and courage of the British troops, with a spirit every way worthy the cause of freedom. Toussaint L'Ouverture, a black, born on the island, was of the number, a name that will shine in the records of honourable fame, when that of the proud tyrant, who basely destroyed him by treachery, shall be marked with infamy and execration. He opposed the English successfully, straitened their quarters, and, by avoiding a general action, left their armies to perish, from the sure and resistless inroads of disease, Thirty thousand British troops, and thirty millions of money, were unprofitably wasted, and Toussaint, in compelling the Jast of our generals to quit the island, saw the freedom of the blacks firmly established.
But previous to these great events, the national convention was not inactive, and though unable to assist the colony with more than 300Q troops, sent out two commissioners in 1792, who were among the most violent jacobins of Paris : by fraud and violence they soon became absolute masters of the almost ruined colony. With that canting eloquence, so peculiar to their associates in iniquity at Paris, they assured the planters that nothing was further from their views, than to decree free, dom to the blacks. Having shipped off one governor for France, where he soon perished on the scaffold, and deposed another sent out by the convention, they called in the negroes to their assistance, and on the goth of June 1793 issued the decree, which gave the fatal blow to St. Domingo, by emancipating all the sluves in the colony. Half the capital, the finest city in the new world, was the very next day reduced to ashes, by the blacks and mulattoes, and an indiscriminate and extensive slaughter succeeded, of all the white inhabitants, except those who were so fortunate as to reach the shipping in the harbour.-The mulattoes, many of whom were possessed of slaves, now found they had been made the tools of the society Les Amis des Noirs. Part of the slaves still adhered to their masters; many joined the treacherous and sanguinary commissioners; and a far greater number retired in savage bodies to the mountains. Of the ruined proprietors many emigrated to America, others invited the British government to take possession of the colony, to which after some hesitation it consented; while the
remainder, professedly republicans, adhered to the commissioners, and prepared to repel by force, the intended invasion. : Our respectable and intelligent author, considers the under-' .' taking as reflecting some disgrace on the British nation for want of foresight, for the inadequacy of the force provided, and for extreine ignorance of the strength and resources of the enemy, by whom they were to be opposed The Charibbs of St. Vincent should have taught them better; like them, the blacks of St. Domingo, were contending both for life and freedom; the nature of a contest of skill and intrepidity, on the one side, with superior numbers, and the frenzy of despair, on the other, was easy to be anticipated. We have already noticed the issue, and the vast loss in troops and money sustained by Great Britain. The plains of Hispaniola became the sepulchre of her best soldiers, and the diseases of the climate fought the battles of the enemy. The British however, had the consolation to compel the republican commanders to fly from the colony, after sending away an immense mass of wealth, of which they had stripped the island, during its convulsions. About this time the yellow fever made its first appearance, and within two months after Port au Prince, the capital, had been taken by the English, forty officers, and six hundred rank and filc, had become its victims. The blacks, under general Rigaud, aware that the English aimed at a permanent possession of the island, carried on the war with increasing activity. In April 1795, a reinforcement of 980 British, was reduced by disease in six weeks to 350. And in 1796, a still greater body amounting to 7000, were in a very short period nearly annihilated. • In March 1796, expense and misfortune increasing daily, the government sent out general Simcoe, an officer of approved merit; but it was now too late, The blacks grew more acquainted with the art of war. The English had little left beside the capital, and the French government, by sanctioning the appointment of Toussaint L'Ouverture to the chief command, found full employment in his great talents and activity, for all the skill and resources of the British general, who could do little more than act on the defensive.
In April 1799, he was succeeded by general Maitland, who made immcdiate arrangements for the final evacuation of the island, being compelled to take this step, by the triumphant negro commander. Such was briefly the progress of Toussaint, which was marked by many circuinstances thạt reflected the highest credit on his character, and gave dignity to his dominion. He had throughout been the moderator of all the different factions in the island, and was every way fitted for its legislator as well as its chief. His intercourse with general Maitland was of the noblest kind; though he had to combåt
with the prejudices of his followers, he preserved their confidence in his integrity, and their obedience to his wishes; and he was justly hailed, by common consent,'as the consolidator of the independence of St. Domingo.
The fourth chapter contains an interesting account of the manners of the natives of Hayti, after its evacuation by the English: adorned with a view of the temple erected by the blacks, to commemorate their emancipation. The once superb city of the Cape is represented as a scene of desolation. The manners of the blacks are stated to be such as do honour to their character; and civilized to a degree that has never been imagined in Europe. This part of our author's narrative, where he is frequently an actor, we have perused with no small degree of interest, in which, wc think, most readers of his work will participate. Captain Rainsford's visit to St. Domingo, was occasioned by a hurricane, which obliged the Danish schooner, in which be was proceeding from Jamaica to join his regiment in Martipique, to put into cape Francois. This happened, it seems in 1799, but we are not informed of the date, nor of the duration of his residence on the island. The vessel being repaired, he again put to sea, and was compelled by a violent storm to put into Fort Dauphin, or Egalité. Under these suspicious circumstances, he was apprehended as a spy, and soon afterwards tried and condenined by a court-martial of twelve black generals; at this trial, which was conducted with great order, skill, and solemnity, Christophé presided. Toussaint, not approving the sentence, released our author from his chains, observing that he must never return to the island without proper passports. He shortly after left the island and arrived at Martinique,
The following is an abstract of Mr. Rainsford's memoir of his magnanimous deliverer.
Toussaint was born a slave in 1745. He was first taught the use of letters by his masters' attorney; at a very early period, his humanity was exemplified in tenderness towards the brute creation. His desire of knowledge was ardent, and among his earliest intellectual acquisitions, was an acquaintance with the works of the Abbé Raynal and Epictetus. He was amiable in private live, wise and just as a legislator; brave, vigilant, active, and skilful as a chief. During his short administration, agriculture began to revive, the manners of the people were softened; and he longed to effect a further ainelioration, by the introduction of commerce, literature, and religion.
But in an evil hour, the head of the French government determined to invade St. Domingo, and reduce to slavery, a people declared free and independent seven years before, by the national convention. Toussaint, with an army of 100,000 men, nobly
from their At length Staliated, and ackest
resisted the French troops under general Le Clerc, the brotherin-law of Bonaparte. Deeds of death, in all their worst shapes, succeeded the landing of the French, who introduced bloodhounds, and a war of extermination, unequalled in the blackest pages of human deprayity. Tie negroes retaliated, and thousands perished on both sides. At length some of Toussaint's chiefs were seduced from their allegiance, and their example becoming contagious among his party, he was decayed into a treaty with the treacherous Frenchman, and after a short interval of unmolested repose, was seized in the night, without pretext, and carried off in a ship of war to France, where he was destroyed in a dungeon, at Besancon. The remainder of this most eventful and interesting history, reflects perpetual disgrace on the present turbulent ruler of France, and conducts us to the full establishment of the independent empire of Hayti. • The various circumstances which preceded this definitive triumph of the negroes, are sufficiently known from the public journals. Le Clerc died in 1802, after only eleven months residence on the island ; Rochambeau, who succeeded him, after various bloody contests, was driven to the Cape, by the 're-united blacks, under the command of Dessalipes, and at length, surrendering to a British squadron, was conveyed, with his staff, as prisoner of war to this country. The conqueror. was invested for life with the supreme dignity; and, in 1804, was proclaimed, with much solemnily, EMPEROR OF HAYTI.
We cannot view such a sovereign power, in the unidst of the British West Indies, without serious apprehensions. But, having observed the situation of the slaves in many of the islands, and being fully satisfied that entire freedom in their present state of mental ignorance, would be more injurious than beneficial to themselves, we see nothing that can prepare their minds for its possession, but the introduction of Christianity. It has already made some progress in a few of the wind ward isles. We have witnessed its effects in Antigua and St. Kitt's, where 10,000 blacks bear slavery with patience, cheered by the hope which the Gospel reveals, as the end and compensation of all their sufferings; lill, however, there be a considerable advance in the moral improvement of the negroes in general, their complete emancipation would introduce fresh scenes of calamity.
Though we have extended this article to a considerable length, and must acknowledge that Captain R. has acquitted himself well as an historian, yet, as a writer he deserves severe censure. Throughout the whole work we have been disgusted with scandalous negligences and obscurities of style, and an unnecessary introduction of French words and pbrases; the plates are wretchedly executed, and disfigure, rather than adorn, the book.
Among these, however, is a fac simile of Toussaint's hand-writing. In the appendix the author has fallen into an inconsistency, by following and recommending Mr. Colquhoun's plan for the cultivation of the sugar colonies, which his own previous repre. sentation of the climate of St. Domingo, shews to be impracticable. After making great allowances, for the scenes of woe which he was obliged to detail, we are persuaded that his readers will derive considerable pleasure and information from perusing his work, and allow him that praise which is due to a fair delineation of facts. He has had to record the establishment of a most extraordinary empire, and his opportunities of information have been singularly fortunate; we are sorry that he has not availed himself of these advantages in a manner that might de werve unqualified commendation.
Art. II. Memoirs of Richard Cumberland; Written by himself ; cor
taining an Account of his Life and Writings, interspersed with Anccdotes and Characters of several of the most distinguished Persons of his Time, with whom he has had Intercourse and Connexion. 4to. pp. 533. Price 21. 2$. Lackington, Allen & Co. 1806. THE man, who undertakes to be his own biographer, places
himself in a very difficult and delicate situation. Before he can gain credit for one honourable motive, every sinister object, that can be imagined, will probably be laid to his account; and in very few instances can he hope to obtain from his judges that impartiality in hearing his story, which they re. quire of him in relating it. This narrow-minded jealousy arises from that pride of heart, which almost every man tolerates in himself, and persecutes in all beside; it is the beam in his own eye, which seems to quicken his sight in searching out the mote in his brother's. Conscious of this perversity in buman nature, from which we pretend not to be exempt, we are disposed, on the present occasion, to view with indulgence a species of history, which possesses some peculiar advantages, and is seldom fraught with danger except to the author.
Whatever a man says of himself is genuine: whether it be true or false it is equally his own. Even in hypocrisy he is no hypocrite, for deceit then is natural in him; if he assumes á virtue which he has not, he exposes a vice which he has; if he pretends to talents which he does not possess, he disproves his claim, by the inability with which he asserts it. One part of his character he may conceal, but the very act of concealment betrays another; if he covers his breast with both bis hands, he may be shewing us that these are not clean; if he turns away his head to hide his face, perhaps he is discovering to us his baldness behind. Let him represent himself as he will, we shall see him more nearly as he is, than any other