hereupon retired from public life, took up his abode at Tunbridge Wells, and thence-forward has chiefly employed his time in the composition of various works, well known to the public.

A curious transaction is recorded p. 238, which reflects so much bonour on Mr. Cumberland's character as a man of priuciple, that we must present the substance of it to our readers. An old gentleman wholly unknown to him, of whimsical manners and grotesque appearance, called one morning at his house very unexpectedly, and declared his intention of bestowing upon Mr. C. the whole of his property; at the same time producing title deeds, which he was resolved to transfer by an absolute deed of gift. Mr. C. discovered him to be the Rev. Decimus Reynolds, a distant relation, and warmly remonstrated against the injustice of excluding his natural heir from the succession. The old gentleman persisted, alledging that he had no children, and that he had not derived any of this property from his ancestors; and at length overcame Mr. C's scruples. The latter prevailed so far as to have a clause of resumption inserted in the deed, much against the wish of his benefactor, who feared his inability to resist the importunity of his relations. His apprehensions were verified ; after ten years of uninterrupted cordiality, he suddenly revoked his grant; and Mr. C., who had a large fainily to maintain in embarrassed circumstances, restored the deeds exactly as he had received them.

He, who at the age of seventy-two years retraces the journey of life, will find hiinself treading, at almost every step, on the graves of his former fellow travellers; and his history will resemble a burying ground, crowded with the monuments and memorials of the departed. In this mournful point of view Mr. Cumberland's volume is peculiarly striking; it is the record of one life, the register of many deaths : relations, friends, and companions,enemies, rivals, and false patrons, he has survived, and inscribed their tombs; with grateful affection remembering the former, and with generous forbearance disdaining to dishonour the latter. His work abounds with anecdotes and characters,written with spirit and vivacity, yet bearing the semblance of truth.

Among many amusing and skilful delineations of the eminent dead, the portrait of Lord Melcombe is drawn with a master's · hand, and deserves to be prefixed to the next edition of his lordship's celebrated Diary, which would then exlıibit such a full length picture, body and soul, of a man of the world,' as the records of history never parallelled. The account of Lord Vicount Sackville, though written with the amiable partiality of friendship, is deeply interesting; and had our limits permitted we should gladly have copied it. On the whole, this work is highly creditable to its veteran author, whose owo

chacharacter is certainly displayed in it with very little disguise: Vanity is the only covering which he puts on to conceal himself, and that, like a fashionable female dress, only betrays more distinctly the shape of the wearer. Indeed Mr. Cumberland hardly needs any other veil; as a man he appears amiable in every relation of life; as a politician be has been ill-treated and unfortupate; as an author he imagines that his talents lrave been underrated by his contemporaries, and it is no wonder, with that persuasion, that he overrates them himself. His style in this volume is generally lucid and easy, sportive and harmonious; rarely elegant or energetic. In light humorous sketches his pencil is free, and his colouring agreeable ; in his graver pictures the outline is hard, and the execution feeble. Weak, ungraceful, anomalous phrases occur too frequently in the pages of a writer, who boasts, perhaps not without some reason, that he has improved the English language. There is a miserable deficiency of dates throughout the narrative, for which no satisfactory apology is given.

As one of Mr. Cumberland's favourite objects, in writing these memoirs, has evidently been the vindication of his literary claims, which he thinks have been too much neglected, we shall make a few remarks on his most popular productions. Among these, perhaps, merely considered as works of genius, we must, however reluctantly, assign the first place to his comedies; which, with more sprightliness of dialogue and originality of character, are on the whole less immoral, than dramatic pieces generally are: We regret that Mr. Cumberland should have sacrificed thie Rower of his talents to objects so exceptionable. Without repeating the numerous unanswered and unanswerable objections whichi have been urged against theatrical performances, it is sufficient to seal their condemnation that we have reason to say, the manners, characters, conversations, and incidents, which are exhibited at a playhouse, are contrary to that purity of heart, which the religion of Christ enjoins and requires. And here we agree with Mr. Cumberland (though from different motives,) in censuring the recent rage for infant actors. Language cannot express our abhorrence of the conduct of parents, who thus expose their offspring to the pollution of the stage; is it not making their children pass through the fire to Moloch? What virtue can live in such flames ?

Of Mr. Cumberland's novels, Henry, in four volumes, is considerably superior to the common herd of this inflaming or insipid race; but we remember thinking that its interest gradually declined from the first volume, and that the flimsy morality which it occasionally inculcated, was completely counteracted by the very exceptionable scenes and characters which it introduced.

A more permanent though less dazzling reputation, Mr. Vol. If.


CumCumberland has obtained as an Essayist. The Observer is at least as much above the Triflers, Loiterers and Saunterers, as he is below the Spectators, Tatlers, and Ramblers.

Mr. Cumberland has made a bold attempt to force himself into the highest class of British Poets, while he would exclude Goldsmith and Pope from that rank, because they had not made any work large enough to constitute ó molus a poet. Whether Mr. C. is singular in this decision we have not the means of ascertaining. He certainly has failed of convincing us: but not having room to state our reasons for dissenting, we shall only mention that his pretensions are founded on a Heroic Poem, in eight books, written in Miltonic blank verse; and entitled, Calvary, or The Death of Christ. This task, the author informs us, was undertaken with ardour 'and soon dispatched at the average of fifty lines a day!' Perhaps no work of enduring celebrity was ever completed in such haste; but we do not imagine that Mr. C. would have inade this ten times better, if he had composed only five lines a day: for his thoughts - seem to be rather in paired than improved by the labour which he occasionally bestows upon them. The soil of some minds teems spontaneously with rapid, thick, and Heeting vegetation, which is lovely and luxuriant in proportion to the unchecked freedom of its growth; that of others, like the mountain of Lebanon, puts forth cedars, slow in rising, inajestic and perennial in maturity, unrivalled in excellence and uuration.

On a comparison of Paradise Lost with Calvary, (waving all religious objections to either as subjects for poetry,) we never think of the latter, in reading the former; Mr. C.'s poem, on the contrary, continually reminds us of Milton's, rather by the feebleness than by the force of his imitation. Yet it is a work of considerable merit, even without estimating its value by its bulk.

Voluminous as Mr. Cumberland's publications are already, we are promised, at a period that we hope is still distant, as many posthumous works as may build his monument.

Art. III. A Clinical History of Diseases. Part First; being I. A

Clinical History of the Acute Rheumatism. II. A Clinical History of the Nodosity of the Joints. By John Haygarth, M. D. F. R. S. &c. &c. 8vo. pp. 168. Price 5s. Cruttwell, Bath; Cadell & Davis, London, 1805. THE accurate and impartial reports of his practice, which the

experienced physician preserves, we regard as of high and intrinsic value ; their publication therefore is a benefit to the public, which deserves the warmest acknowledgements. By the facts they communieate, rashi and obtrusive systems are checked,


the progress of medical science is promoted, and, consequently, the sufferings of the sick are more speedily and effectually removed.

The present work of Dr. Haygarth contains the Clinical History of a disease, which, from the tediousness of its duration, and the long lasting injuries by which it is frequently succeeded, may be reckoned among the most distressing.

Since the year 1767, Dr. Haygarth has constantly recorded, in the patient's chamber, a full and accurate account of every important symptom, the remedies which were employed, and, when an opportunity offered, the effects which they produced. The observations thus sedulously collected, Dr. Haygarth has arranged in an appropriate tabular form; and thus he has been enabled to exhibit, at one view, the most important facts which have occurred, during an experience of thirty-five years. Every symptom, and every remedy indeed, are not thus noticed; butthe omissions are of trivial consequence. We can readily join with Dr. Haygarth, in the observation, that, considering the urgency of medical duties, the intelligent reader will rather be surprised that so many circumstances are preserved, than that some are omitted.

After separating nodosity of the, joints, Tic Doloureur, sciatica, Juinbago, and other diseases wbich nosologists have improperly, in Dr. Haygarth's opinion, placed under the denomination of rheumatism, there still remained, among the Dri's cases, 470 which actually belonged to rheumatism. Of these only 170 were accompanied with fever; and come under the title of acute rheumatism. These exclusively form the subject of the first part of this most useful work; the principal purpose of which is, to recominend the peruvian bark, in preference to all other remedies.

The most interesting deductions, founded upon the facts noted in the tables, appear to be that more males are attacked with this disease than females; probably because men are more exposed to cold and rain thao women-it affects all ages from below 5 to above 60-it is more frequent in the colder than in the warmer seasons. Exposure to cold and moisture, is its principal cause; the latent period, between the proximate cause, and the first symptoms of disease, exceeded fortyeight hours, in only four cases out of twenty-one; persons who have been previously afflicted with the chronical rheumatisin, the gout, or sore throat, especially the first, are most liable to suffer attacks of this disease; although the acute rheumatism is chiefly seated in the joints, it is manifest that it sometimes attacks the muscles. But little is here added to our stock of knowledge, with respect

· Ees


to effects of the remedies which have generally been employed, in this malady. We were rather surprised to find only one instance of the exhibition of the volatile tincture of guiacum; since, from the very high character this medicine obtained from Dr. Dawson, we should have wished its real merits to have been determined by so accurate an observer as Dr. Haygarth. With respect to the remedies in general use, the Dr. presents us with the following reinarks.

In most of the cases of acute rheumatism, blood was taken from the arm by the lancet, before I received the interesting intelligence of the efficacy of the peruvian bark in this fever. Even subsequent to the time when this important information was communicated, I did not neglect this proper and powerful remedy, though I gradually employed it seldomer and in diminished quantities, as the successful use of the bark inereased my confidence in its salutary effects.

For the same reason, leeches were much more frequently employed in the former than the latter period of my practice.

Only 20 cases are noted in which sudorificks were administered, which were composed of opiates generally with antimony, sometimes with ipecacuanha. The omission of so usual and so important a remedy must be ascribed to the same reason as the neglect of letting blood by the lancet and leeches. Saline medicines were given in 54 cases, as, acetated ammonia, the effervescing draught, and nitre.

Antimony has been employed not only as a febrifuge and antiphlogistick remedy, but principally with an intention to cleanse the stomach and bowels, as a preparation for the exhibition of the bark. The rheumatism was frequently relieved by antimony, and for some years I waited for this relief by antimony, bleeding, leeches, and saline medicines, before the bark was administered. But, for a considerable period of time, after sufficient evacuations were obtained, the bark has been exhibited without any farther delay.

The antimonial powder has been given in 55 and the tartarised antimony in 35 cases, being ninety in all.

The warm bath was employed in 11 cases. It is superfluous to remark that this remedy is chiefly useful in the chronical rheumatism.'

Pp. 42–44. The chief purpose of Dr. Haygarth's clinical history of acute rheumatisin being to explain why, in what manner, and with . what effect, he has employed the peruvian bark as a remedy

in this disease, it is necessary that we should place these before · our readers. The circumstances which led him to the adoption .: of this mode of practice, are thus related.

. For several years after the period when I commenced the practice

of physic at Chester, that excellent physician the late Dr. John · Fothergill used annually to retire from the fatigues of his profession during about two months in the summer to Lea-Hall in Cheshire. In this pleasing rural retreat, I had frequent opportunities to enjoy his very improving and entertaining conversation. He allowed me the very

« 前へ次へ »