important privilege of stating to him the doubts and difficulties which often perplexed me as a young physician. With a truly liberal and enlightened mind he freely and generously communicated to me his opinion and advice whenever he was thus consulted. · In one of these friendly visits I solicited his counsel for a patient ill of a rheumatic fever. He recommended that the peruvian bark should be administered. At this advice I expressed great surprise ;, that it was directly contrary to the mode of treatment which I had been taught by the most judicious and learned authors and professors ; and that I had always understood the bark to be highly improper in all inflammatory disorders.

To my objections he replied, “ when I was a young physician, being twice called out of my bed to visit patients in a frosty night, I

caught a very severe rheumatic fever. By the advice of my medical · brethren I had been blooded repeatedly and largely, even to 70 ounces. My disease yet remained unsubdued, and my blood still exhibited an inflammatory crust. Hence I was convinced that the method of curing this fever by such copious evacuations was erroveous. Soon after my recovery, I was desired to visit a patient ill of an acute rheumatism. At my request, Sir Edward Hulse, at that time the most eminent physician in London, was consulted. He proposed that we should order the peruvian bark. I gladly agreed to the proposal, as I thought there were several analogies between an ague and a rheumatick fever. In both diseases, the urine lets fall a similar lateritious sediment. In intermittent, as well as rheumatick fevers, the blood when left is covered with an inflammatory crust. The pain and fever of rheumatism have certain periodical, though not quite regular paroxysms and intermissions.

In this consultation with Sir Edward Hulse, the bark was given with such manifest advantage, that I have ever since adopted the practice in this disease, and recommend it to you in spite of all medical authorities to the contrary." pp. 45-48.'

Dr. Haygarth is very much pleased at being able to trace the traditional authority, by which the benefit to be derived froin the peruvian bark, in the acute rheumatism, had been secured to us; having discovered by examination of Dr. Richard Morton's treatise on fevers, that Dr. Hulse had derived this remedy from that physician..

It appears that in 35 out of 66 of the cases which were noted, the bark was given in the first fortnight, and of these it was given in only 8 cases within the first week. In the remaining 31 cases its employment commenced from the 16th. to the 40th. day. But being unable to give to this useful and respectable work all the attention we could wish, we must briefly observe, that after the stomach and bowels had been sufficiently cleansed by antimonials, the bark was given in doses of gr. v. x, xv. every two, three, or four hours; and if this quantity had a salutary effect, it was gradually increased to xx. xxx. or xl. grs. with sedulous attention, never to add inore than what perfectly

agreed agreed with the stomach of the patient. The salutary effects of this remedy were so considerable, as to induce Dr. Haygarth to make the following conclusion.

Except Mercury in the Syphilis, there are few or perhaps no examples where a remedy can produce such speedy relief and perfect recovery in so formidable a disease. For many years I have been thoroughly convinced that the peruvian bark has a much more powerful effect in the rheumatick than any other fever: and that it does not even

cure an ague so certainly and so quickly. p. 91. . We are confident that this publication will be highly useful,

and that it will serve to establish the practice which it so strongly recommends; yet it is necessary to observe, that the practice of administering the bark, in acute rheumatism, after sufficient evacuation has been secured, is by no means uncommon in the metropolis.

We regret that we are obliged to notice but briefly Dr. Haygarth's clinical history of the podosity of the joints; a disease, which he conceives to be clearly distinguishable from all others, by syinptoms manifestly different froin the gout, and from both acute and chronic rheumatism. This disease appears to be almnost peculiar to women, and chiefly affects the joints of the fingers. For further inforination respecting this most distressing and, we lament to say, frequent disease, we must refer our readers to Dr. Haygarth's correct history; especially since an opportunity will soon offer for making farther observations on this malady, in compliance with the urgent claim of this truly benevolent and intelligent writer, who says,

'The faithful picture drawn from nature is here exhibited to excite the compassion and exertion of my professional brethren to prevent, if possible, so distressful a malady at its commencement. As the Nodes at first produce but little pain or inconvenience, and are seldom or never dangerous, they rarely excite the notice which they deserve, and would obtain, if the patients were fully aware that this insidious disorder would continue for life, and would make every future day more uncon. fortable. pp. 157, 158.

It affords us considerable satisfaction to find that Dr. Hay, garth proposes spon to publish similar records of his practice in che treatment of herpes or scorbutic eruptions, of indigestion, and of hypochondriacism : being of opinion that experience has suggested some important improvements in the method of curing these diseases,

Art. IV. Playfair's Inquiry into the permanent Causes of the Decline

and Fall of powerful and wealthy Nations, &c. concluded from p. 332. TN the next division of the work, Mr. P. proceeds to examine

the nature and effects of interior causes of decline, which follow the possession of wealth. The increase of the riches of a country 'cannot but produce visible effects on the morals and manners of its inhabitants. Habits of industry become relaxed ; imaginary wants are created; the number of idle members of society, whose chief occupation it is to invent new modes of dissipation and frivolity is increased, and thereby contagion is imparted, which, by degrees, corrupts the better principles of those who become exposed to its indiuence.

The effects of such a state of things is in no respect more evident, than in education. The end and the means are equally perverted. The nature of man, the design of his existence, his relations and obligations, especially towards the Supreme Being, are left in the shade; and the heir of iminortality is treated as if he were merely an ephemeron sporting in the transient gleam of human life. There is frequently to be found, at the same time, a remarkable inattention to the appropriate qualifications of that sphere, which the pupil is destined to occupy, even in this state of things; and not seldom a glaring want of necessary qualifications in those, who take upon them the responsible office of instructors. Many of the author's observations, on these topics, are worthy of attention ; and to remedy the evils complained of, it is recommended, that government employ its influence in establishing a proper mode of education, and in taking care that those who undertake that duty are sufficiently qualified to discharge it. For our part, we should be sorry to see any government of the present day, reducing theories of educa·tion 10 a law. We should not be content to commit the task of legislation on this subject, even to our enlightened author, One pagsage in his observations we must pointedly condemn, although some statesmen might be found, who would approve of it;- reading and writing are of a very doubtful utility to the labouring class of society. This is a sentiment worthy of the sages who composed the decrees of the council of Trent; but it surely merits reprobation in every country, in which the Bible is translated into the vernacular tongue. Religion is not so much as named among the chief parts of education.' It may, indeed, be supposed to be included in the terms. ' good principles','good habits,' but if so, it deserved, to say the least, a distinct mention.

The other interior causes of decline in nations, considered by the author, are those arising from increased taxation : froin the


encroachments of public and privileged bodies ; from the unequal division, and partial distribution of property ; from the produce of the soil becoming insufficient for the sustenance of luxurious people; froin the continual increase of the poor ; and from the tendency which capital and industry have to leave a wealthy country. In treating of these topics the author displays much real philosophy, and knowledge of men and things. We are frequently struck with the accuracy of the traits given of present times, and tremble at inferences which he appears so naturally to draw. It cannot, we fear, be denied that all the causes just mentioned, are to be found strongly operating against the welfare of our country; and we think with even a more powerful moral effect than the author has ascribed to them.

That commercial prosperity, which has obtained us the distinction of a powerful and wealthy nation, resulted to us from causes apparently casual, and has been carried to its present pitch, by events altogether extraordinary. From the excessive increase of taxation, it is now, apparently, become necessary to our well-being, if not to our independence; and has obtained an importance, to which nothing is thought too sacred to be sacrificed. For its sake the principles of truth and justice are openly violated; the declared laws of heaven are infringed ; and the plainest rights of humanity are trampled underfoot. Nay, we fear, that in the sight of God, commerce is with us an object of idolatry, as much as fire ever was with the inhabitants of the East. Nor is this done so tacitly as some may suppose. What is the language of those decisions, in our highest legislative assemblies, which declare that so corrupt a limb of our commerce as the Slave Trade shall be preserved, in pointed contradiction to the authority of God, and the declared end of his providential and moral government? Decisions such as these, passed by the constituted representatives of a nation, are formal acts by which national character is to be estimated, and may be appealed to, by the Almighty ruler, in the sight of all intelligent beings, as a justification of his severest judgements against a people protessing to acknowledge his authority.

There are other points in our cominercial and financial arrangements, which are making deep inroads on moral principle, upon which, could we find room to dilate, we should have reason to utter the voice of warning to our country. We can only hint at' some of thein; such as, the inducement to the destructive passion of gaming, held out by our lotteries; the natural transition to higher branches of it, to which our funded system yields such facilities; the iinpatient efforts to become rich, excited by the luxuriousness of the age, prompting to ruinous speculations, and abuses of credit; and the habitual yiolations of the solemnity, not to say verity, of oaths, which

Our our revenue laws, in every department, have a tendency to produce. The following extract adds another instance;

When a nation becomes the slave of its revenue, and sacrifices every thing to that object, abuses that favour revenue are difficult to reform ; but surely it would be well to take some mode to prevent the facility with which people get drunk, and the temptation that is laid to do so. The immense number of public houses, and the way in which they give credit, are undoubtedly, in part, causes of this evil. It would be easy, to lessen the number, without hurting liberty, and it would be no injustice if publicans were prevented from legal recovery for beer or spirits consumed in their houses, in the same manner that payment cannot be enforced of any person under twenty-one years of age, unless for necessaries. There could be no hardship in this, and it would produce a great reform in the manners of the lower orders.' P. 226.

The external causes of decline in nations, originating in the envy and enmity of other countries, and manifested by rivalship in peace and open aggressions in war, are much more simple in their operations, and visible in their consequences."

The former of these kinds of hostility is annong the refinements of modern times, and has been not inaptly called the war of the custoin-house. When will men act towards each other upon the immutable principles of equity, and the war of rivalship, as of violence, be known no more!

The following extract will present the author's views of the manner and degree, in which the several causes enumerated affect our own country.

• The power and wealth of Britain, according to the definition given at the beginning of this work, are founded not on conquests, extent of territory, superior population, or a more favourable soil or climate, or even iv bravery; for in those it is but on a par with other nations. The only natural advantages of Britain are, its insular situation and the disposition of the people, and the excellent form of its government. From the two first have arisen that good government, commerce, and industry; and on those have arisen again a great naval power, and uncommon wealth. In arms, it does not appear that England is so powerful by land, in proportion as in former times : her power must then be considered as a naval power, and that founded principally on commerce.

* As such then we have only to examine the foundation on which she stands, and find in what she is vulnerable.

We must first begin with the interior situation, to follow the same order that has been attended to in the rest of the work.

Changes of manners, babits of education, and the natural effects of luxury, are as likely to operate on the British empire, as on some others which they have destroyed.

From the unequal division of property, there is perhaps less danger, þut from the employment of capital there is more than almost in any other nation,


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