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pecially the newly-built part of the Electoral palace, as well constructed of stone ; and they prove, says he, that this country is not void of capa. ble architects : but the public walks, and the houses of recreation, are in the old-fashioned style ; and some of them are whimsical enough.
We learn however, that if the arts have made no great progress at Hanover, public instruction is patronized with considerable munificence. A striking proof of this is the " Schoolmaster's seminary ;" wherein moral and literary information is combined with practical instruction. It includes, in distinct divisions, the education of both sexes, from eight to fifteen years of age. The girls are taught to sew, knit, spin, &c.; the boys to write, cypher, &c.
In the Secondary or medium schools, additional instruction is communicated : such as geography, history, drawing, &c. with the modern languages, French and English. In the schools of the Third order, the students are prepared for the university of Gettingen.
There are also institutions at Hanover and Lunenburgh, exclusively re.. stricted to the children of the nobles. Another was established, by the present Elector, in 1796, for the sons of Hanoverian nobility, instead of an ancient institution of twenty pages; the expence of which now coma pletely educates forty pupils. This is called the Georgianum. • The university of Gottingen, wherein the higher branches of education are completed, was established by George II. in 1734. · It is conducted by six professors. There is also a Philological Seminary.
Zell has famous schools for surgery. At Hanover are the establishments for teaching the Practice of Artillery ; and Engineering. The public libraries of Gottingen and of Hanover, are distinguished ; the edifice of the latter is respectable, and it is open twice a week. Leibnitz was its founder.
Since the Electors of Hanover have been Kings of England, the Electoral government is entrusted to a Regency, composed of seven ministers; of which four reside in the capital. The fifth, the Chief Justice, who also directs the police, and presides in the High Court of Appeal, resides at Zell, where that court holds its sittings. The sixth, the President of the College of Nobility, is at the head of the subordinate regency of Bremen and Verden. The seventh accompanies the Elector-King, with a train of counsellors, and secretaries of the embassy. The Regency has all the power of Royalty. The members of it are usually chosen, by his present Majesty, from among the nobles. Beside the subordinate regencies of Bremen and Verden, there are two others ; one for the duchy of Saxe-Lunenburgh, the other for that of Osnaburgh.
Hanover has three classes of political powers : the clergy, the nobles, and the people. These have their respective duties, rights, and privileges : and may call the attention of the Elector, as he may call their attention, to the correction of defective laws, or other requisite regulations. The legal adjudicatories of this country, comprise only two degrees; that of the cities and the nobles : and that of the provincial courts. In the latter the expences are trifling : not so in the former, says our author, the vexations practised in these have sometimes occasioned vehement murmurings, and exercised the utmost vigilance of the regency. The High Court of Appeal, resides, as already noticed, at Zell, and its President communicates with the regency on events of magnitude. It is related of M. Wrisberg, President of this court, in the time of George
II. that when the kinig said to him one day, * How is it that I lose every suit I bring before your tribunal? he answered “ Because your Majesty is always in the wrong." “ M, de Wrisberg,” replied the sovereign, " you speak to me like a Chief Justice.” The income of the judges of the highest rank is but small : the provincial judges are rather cultivators than casuists : and rather conciliators than lawyers. We are sorry to learn, that among punishments, the wheel, though with previous strangulation, is retained : and so is torture, in certain cases. But, we presume that this must refer to Hanover only ; Mr. Howard's representations to the Duke of York, when at Osnaburgh, having pro, cured the abolition of it in that bishoprick.
Only two Religions are known in Hanover ; Judaism, and Christianity, which latter is divided into the Catholic, the Calvinist, and the Lutheran persuasions. Before the union of Osnaburgh with the Electorate, the Jews were the most numerous body after the Lutherans. They have here, as every where else, a commercial disposition. In the great cities they are bankers ; in the villages many of them are butchers; their children partake in the advantages of public instruction. There are a few Catholics in Hanover; they were twenty times more numerous, a eentury ago. They have adopted the religion of the prince Calvinism is scarcely ever mentioned in Hanover, Lutheranism prevails throughout the Electorate. The Elector is the chief of this persuasion; in his absence, the second minister, who presides in the Consistory, inspects the other sects. The whole of the ecclesiastical establishment announces the prevalence of toleration. It is true, that the Lutheran ministers receive part of the incomes formerly appropriated to the Catholics : but the destination of the benefactions is not changed, though communicated by different hands. The salaries of these ministers are respectable, but moderate: and the Clergy, in general, is most favourably and honorably spoken of by this traveller ; who commends their attention to study, their manners, their simplicity, and their attachment to their country, The university of Gottingen, and other public literary establishments, are supported partly by the former revenues of certain great benefices, now secularized; and partly by other Romish endowments, now suppresssed.
The taxes of the Electorate are simple, and attended with little expence in collecting : they are derived from, 1. Imposts on Land, and the occupiers of Land, in grain, money, and labour. 2. A Capitation 'tax, differing according to rank. 3. A tax on Cattle. 4. On pleasure grounds, and mills; tithes, rents, cus oms, grants, forests, hunting grounds, and fisheries.-5. Salt-pits, coal-mines, and turferies.-6. Mines in the Hartz.-7. The coinage.-8. Postage of letters, and travellers.9. Taxes on consumption and luxuries.
The income derived from these sources is employed in 1. Salaries to overseers, and others.-2. The construction, and reparation of public buildings.--3. The conservation of the forests; which is so decidedly considered as a science throughout Germany, that, especially in Hạnover,
every person who offers himself to become superintendant of a forest, .. must have studied this profession, in a regular course, at Gottingen.
-4. Bridges and roads.-5. Charitable foundations. 6. Justice and Police.-7. The expences attending the provincial states.
The surplus is received by the Chamber of Finances, wbich is under the direction of the Regency, It defrays-1. The expences of govern
ment. 2. Those of the court, palaces, studs, stables, parks, gardens, &c.-3. Salaries to the colleges of state, the tribunals, and other administrative bodies.-4. Contributions to the Germanic body.-5. Diplo, macy.-6. Public Institutions.--7. Highways, maintained by the Electorate.--8. Pensions.-9. Interest of the public debt, which was contracted in the Seven Years' War, and is not yet paid off.-10. A considerable part of the pay and support of the army; the remainder is said to be furnished by the Elector, from the income of his own personal demesnes.
The Hanoverian military establishment includes 17,381 regular troops, and 5,500 militia. The militia are veterans who have passed twenty-.. five years in the service; their organization and equipment is the same as that of the regulars. The invalids amount to 7,000. There is no military hospital in Hanover ; the city hospital answers that purpose. After twenty years of service a soldier may demand his dismission, and with it he receives a small pension. The manufactory of arms at Hertzberg, is in great repute throughout Germany. The foundery for cannon, is on the glacis of the city of Hanoyer. The population of the Electorate is taken at 8 to 900,000 persons, about 1,500 inhabitants to a square German mile. One half of the land in Hanover is not cultivated. The duchy of Saxe-Lunenburgh is the only district of the Electorate which is fully cultivated : this is said to have arisen froni an agreement between the nobles and the husbandmen ; whereby the latter exchanged the right of feeding cattle in the forests, for a liberation from a tax on their lands; at the same time procuring an additional extent of land as their property. In crossing the heaths, the eye discovers too many turf bogs and morasses. The soil wants management, and spirited cultivation, to become rich : too much stagnant water has impoverished it ;, were it drained, as a few places lately are, the most profitable results would follow.
The cattle of this country are of a middle size : but the beef is finely flavoured ; and the pork is excellent. The mutton is greatly esteemed, but the wool of the sheep'is of very inferior quality, harsh and thick, more like goat's hair than wool, except in a few cross breeds from the merinos, procured by the government from Upper Saxony. Goats and hares are numerous ; the rabbit is rare. The rivers and brooks furnish plenty of fish; especially monstrously large eels.
The fruits are middling : the apple good; the grape, imperfectly ripe, is fit only for the table. The gardens of Herenhausen, and a few others, afford pine apples.
The manufactures of Hanover are in rather a low condition. The linens are inferior to those of Prussia and Friezland. The woollen cloths are employed only by the poor, and in the army. The manufactories of paper do not excel. The tanneries have little reputation. Glass has arrived at considerable goodness. The workmanship in copper, iron, tin ; and in dyeing, is equal to most that can be shewn. Works in jewellery, silver plate, gold lace, &c are not without merit. The Hanoverian workmen excel in manufacturing yellow amber.
The exports of this electorate are horses, cattle, wax, lead, fleeces,
ins, salts, of Lunenbourg, especially. . Also, wheat, barley, and other grain ; thread; iron ; and copper, from the Hartz mines, turf from the duchy of Bremen; timber, boards, small másts, and some knees.
Every influx of the tide brings regularly on to the beach at Stade, a quantity of floating wood (trieb-holz) in billets of different dimensions , it is a deep brown or black; and is bitumenous. Its concentric layer's may still be distinguished; but to determine its kind is difficult. What has led M. Blumenbach, the naturalist, to consider it as a true fossil wood, is, that in many specimens which he possesses, he has found native prussiate, blue ochre of iron, or Prussian blue..
In spite of the care taken of the forests, fuel is dear; and the scarcity of wood occasions a great demand for a kind of pit-coal found in various places. Two pits in the principality of Osnaburgh,yield considerable quantities. There are several salt-works in the Electorate,
The Hartz offers the small remains of the ancient Hercynian forest. Here are the mines of this country, which were known and wrought in the sixteenth century. They yielded prodigiously in the time of the Emperor Otho; but those prosperous days are over. The metals now found in them, but in much less quantities than formerly, are iron, copper, lead, zinc, arsenic, silver, and even a little gold : these are usually combined with sulphur, which is separated in great furnaces. A small quantity of antimony, nickel, and molybdena, are also found. Cobalt is wrought, but hitherto they have procured no smalt from it, while Upper Saxony and other countries derive great profits from this mineral.
It is remarkable that in all the chain of hills which compose the Hartz, no mineral spring has hitherto been discovered. But in other parts there are several. The waters of Pyrmont are most celebrated, perhaps because most fashionable. Those of Limner, though thought to be derived from the same source, are less resorted to.
The temperature of Hanover is extremely variable, the winters are often very severe : even in hot weather, frosty days are not uncommon. At the approach of twilight, especially of the morning twilight, the dews and the vapours are very chilling. The north-west wind prevails during winter ; the east wind in spring; the south-east in summer. Among diseases, consumption is frequent and fatal. Other maladies are fevers, coughs, apoplexies, palsies i rheumatisms and gouty complaints are general.
Such is the information contained in this work. It does great credit to the author's industry, judgment, and readiness of observation. Whether it may be translated into English we do not know, and therefore have submitted a pretty full analysis of its contents to the reader. Art. XV. John Charles Woetzel's Relation of his Wife's appearing to
him after Death. : Among the literary productions of Germany, which have lately excited general attention, is a work recently published in Leipzig by Dr. John Charles Woetzel ; in which he affirms very positively, that his departed wife has twice appeared to him. The first time, he says, was during the night: the second in open daylight, when he was perfectly awake. He says, she spoke to him, in an audible voice. The author brings philosophical arguments in proof of the possibility of such a fact. He published this work at first without his name; but being publicly called on to avow himself, he obeyed, and added, “ Further Explanations,” in a second pumphlet. On a subject like this, opponents were to be expected of course: Among these are enumerated,
.. .]. Canglick's 1. Canalich's Thoughts respecting the human soul, its existence and
appearance after death. Leipzig. 1805. 2. Chelmuth's Epistle to Dr. W. relative to his wife's appearing, &c.
3. Wieland's Euthanasia, three Dialogues, on existence after death, &c. All these authors insist that Dr. W. was partly deceived by others, partly deluded by his own imagination. They adduce arguments from moral and natural philosophy, in opposition to his lıypothesis; and, indeed, are led by the impulse of their opposition, to promulgate principles subversive of truth itself. Wieland even thinks that departed spirits know nothing of their former relations and affections. In medio tutissimus. That the departed spirit should associate itself with the affairs of this life, would imply a very impertect separation from its eartialy residence ; on the other hand, to suppose that it should have no recollectioo whatever of the " deeds done in the body,” amounts to a denial of the retribution justly due to virtue and vice; a sense of which seems to be almost instinctive in the human mind, which the wiser Heathen admitted and expected, and which is one of the very foundations of Christianity. Art. XVI. State of Religion in SUABIA, Bavaria, and HUNGARY. We are enabled, by the favour of a Catholic.(ecclesiastic) correspondent in Germany, to report that the state of Religion in the Catholic parts of that empire manifests unequivocal symptoms of improvement. The old controversies are laid aside; practical Religion is enforced; good morals and useful instructions are inculcated instead of the mere frigid forms of worship. The clergy are enjoined by a solemn proclamation, published throughout Bavaria, to take an active part in the religious instruction of youth. There are several monthly publications, (one at Lintz, in Upper Austria ; another at Constance, in Suabia) intended to spread moderate maxims in Religion : and these have contributed to explode that abominable tenet, which admits of no salvation out of the (Romish) church. A writer in one of these works has even ventured to propose, instead of the mass, which is performed in Latin, the substitution of a prayer-book in German. Instead of the old catechism a new one is preparing ; in which Religion is earnestly recommended as a matter, not of form, but of the heart. .
. In the Bavarian dominions, many religious orders, monasteries, &c.;. have been abolished, as corrupt, and superstitious: many pilgrimages bave been prohibited'; and many saints' days have been abrogated. It must, at the same time, be acknowledged, that a spirit of infidelity makes rapid progress in the Catholic part of Germany. This indeed might be expected. To be offended with superstition, is not the same thing as to embrace religion : and, where pure religion is unknown, what other alternative has the thinking mind ?
A few years. ago, several Catholic divines, in the circle of Suabia, adopted a manner of preaching which excited general attention. They most strongly enforced by doctrine and example the necessity of vital godliness, and practical religion. Their churches were crowded. Thosc who adhered to the old system, caused them to be cited before the tribunal of the bishop of Augsburgh ; where they so effectually defended themselves, as 10 be dismissed to their respective parishes without further harm. In Hungary the animosity of religious party is peculiarly active. It was