ページの画像
PDF
ePub

Parsing and Analysis have not only been made full, but stripped of much superfluous machinery. Doctrines and classifications have, in many places, been simplified and abridged; and for some of the insufficient articles in our grammars have been substituted others that are altogether more substantial. The book comprises both a Primary and a Higher Grammar, and is, in the highest sense, progressive and philosophical. It is built up, in Part First, by a regular synthesis, from the Alphabet to Analysis; in Part Second, from Pronunciation to Versification; and closes with a thorough and well-authorized section on Punctuation, as teaching the finish to the whole. In other grammars, most of the doctrine is printed in small type, and the exercises are printed in larger. This may be more agreeable to the teacher, but it is less so to the learner. I have given the main principles first, in large type, and apart from the examples; then the exercises in type sufficiently large; and, lastly, the unimportant doctrine in smaller type, under the head of Observations, and at the end of each section. The best modes of teaching and learning have been constantly kept in mind; but, of course, no reasonable teacher or learner will imagine, that the grammar of a mighty language-of a language that reaches into every fibre of human knowledge-can be learned without labor, or in “six lessons !" A full preface, explanatory and defensive, would require many pages. I therefore leave the work, without further remark, to the candor, judgment, and research of the reader.

TO TEACHERS. Since almost every teacher has his own views about teaching, it is probably needless to add any suggestions. It may be proper, however, to state, that the pupil should learn, of the irregular verbs, only those forms which are in good present use; the others having been inserted merely for reference. The exercises from p. 36 to p. 44, should be used constantly with the recitations on tho parts of speech. While the pupil is engaged in the parsing exercises, pp. 47–57, it may be well for him to strengthen himself by reviewing several times what precedes them. Indeed, while the pupil is passing through the exercises near the end of each section, ho should repeatedly review the principles of the same section over which he has just passed; so that the principles and the exercises may act and re-act upon cach other, till both are mastered. The numbers over words show the Rules of Syntax. The section on the Derivation of Words may be omitted, if taught in some other book. For a few of its words, tho pupil will have to consult his dictionary. It would be a useful exercise for the pupil to copy the sentences given as examples in Part Second. lIe would thus learn to spell, to punctuate, to use capital letters, and would become familiar with all the various sentences which make language. The exercises for correction, it is probably best for the pupil to write off corrected, and bring them to school as a part of his evening task. If they be corrected orally, I would recommend that it be not done with too much ceremony or mechanical mannerism. In the sentence, “ Him and me are of the same age,” for instance, the pupil may simply say, "Incorrect: him and me, in the objective case, should be he and I, in tho. nominative case, because 'A pronoun, used as the subject of a finite verb, must be in the nominative case.'" For additional examples in analysis and parsing, may be used the numerous examples from p. 291 to the end. The section on Analysis should be reviewed frequently; and especially in connection with Punctuation, to which it is of the greatest value. A Key to the Exercises will be furnished, if it should be found necessary. It was my design to add an article on Composition; but, as this is not necessarily a part of grammar, and as it would have much enlarged the size of the book, I have omitted it. Should the present work be favorably received, however, I may add, as a sequel to this book, a small but adequate treatise on Composition; so that the two books will make a course of Grammar, Rhetoric, and Composition.

PAGE

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

. 2, 122

31, 32

.

296, 297

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

PAGE
Abbreviations,
337, 341 Nouns, Principles,

123-50
Accent, 92, 93; Poetic, · 311, 312 Nouns, Exercises,

151-65
Adjectives,
10, 181-90 Nouns, Observations,

166-72
Adjectives, Principles,

181-83 Numbers, 6, 13744; of Verbs, • 209-12
Adjectives, Prouoniual,
135-7 | Observations, General,

283-9
A ljectives, Exercises,
189-93 Orthography,

90, 97-113
Adjectives, Observations,
193–6 Parsing,

47-57
Adjuncts,

33, 249, 250 Participles, 12, 21, 22, 197, 214-8
Adverbs,

30-2, 240-49 Parts of Speech,
Adverbs, List of, .

Words of Different, 274, 275
Adverbs, Principles,

240-43 Pauses,

97 ; Poetic,

310
Adverbs, Exercises,
243-7 Period,

386-8
Adverbs, Observations, 247-9 Persons, . 6, 136, 137; of Verbs, 209–12
Analysis of Sentences,
58–87 Phrase,

3, 69, 86
Arrangement,

294, 295 Pleonasm,
Articles,
9, 172-81 Poetry,

808-34
Articles, Principles,

172-4 Predicates,

2, 3, 58-60, 68-87
Articles, Exercises,
174–8 Prefixes,

114-6
Articles, Observations,
179–81 Prepositions,

32, 33, 249-62
Articulation,

96 Prepositions, Principles,

249, 250
Brackets,

862 Prepositions, Illustrations, 251-55
Cases,

7, 144-51 Prepositions, Constructions, 255-8
Clauses,
3, 58, 59, 704 Prepositions, Exercises,

258-61
Coloa,
338-41 Prepositions, Observations,

261, 262
Coinma,
343-50 Pronouns,

4, 5, 126-72
Comparison, Degrees of, 11, 182–5 Pronouns, Principles,

126-51
Conjugation,
23-9, 219, 220 Pronouns, Exercises,

151-65
Conjunctions,
33–5, 262–72 Pronouns, Observations,

166–72
Conjunctions, List of,
34, 35 Pronunciation,

90-97
Conjunctions, Principles, 262-4 Propositions,

3, 58, 85, 87
Conjanctions, Illustrations, 264–7 Prosody, .

90
Conjunctions, Exercises, 268-71 Punctuation,

335–74
Conjunctions, Observations, 271, 272 Quantity,

311
Curves,

360, 362 Questions for Review, 120, 121, 290—3
Dash,
355–9 Quotation-marks,

366, 367
Declension,
8, 9 | Rhetorical Devices,

294-8
Derivation of Words,
. 113–20 Roots of Words,

113-9
Discourse,
3, 58, 85, 86 Scanning,

315-32
Ellipsis,
296 Semicolon,

341-3
Emphasis,
96 Sentences,

3, 58–87
Equivalent Expressions, 294, 295 Spolling,

108-13
Etymology,

90 Subjects,

2, 3, 58-60, 68-87
Exclamation-point,
352-4 Suffixes,

117-20
Exercises, General, 36-44, 68-85, 275–82 Syllables,

107, 108
Figures, Rhetorical,

298–307 Syntax,

44, 90 ; Rules of, 45-7
Forms of the Verb, 20, 24–9, 219 Tenses,

18, 19, 203-8
Genders,
5, 6, 133-6 Tones,

96
Grainmar,

89 Underscore,
Hyphen,
363-5 | Verbs, .

12–30, 196
Joinitives, 12, 21, 22, 197, 214-8 Verbs, Auxiliary,

22, 23, 212-4
Interjections,
35, 36, 272-4 Verbs, Irregular, List of,

13-16
Interrogation-point, 50, 351, 352 Verbs, Principles,

196–220
Letters, 1, 90-92; Capital, 97-107 Verbs, Exercises,

221-36
Marks, Miscellaneous,
. 371-74 Verbs, Observations,

236-40
Members of Sentences,
68, 86 Versification,

308–84, 87
Moods, .
17, 18, 200-3, 207, 208 Voices,

17, 199, 200
Nouns,

4, 123–72 Words,

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

.

365, 866

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

1, 2, 87

For any thing not found among the general principles, see the Observations at
the end of the section.

SYNOPSIS OF PARF FIRST.

1. Introductory View, or an Outline.--Letters, syllables,

words, subjects, predicates, phrases, propositions, clauses, sentences,

discourse.

2. Nouns and Pronouns. CLASSES :

nouns, - proper and

common; pronouns,-personal, relative, and interrogative. PROPER-

TIES: genders,—masculine, feminine, common, and neuter; persons,--

first, second, and third; numbers, — singular and plural; cases, -

nominative, possessive, and objective. Declension. Exercises.

3. Articles.—Kinds; definite and indefinite. How a and an

should be used.

4. Adjectives.-CLASSES: descriptive and definitive ; definitive,

with sub-classes. Degrees of comparison ; positive, comparative,

superlative. List of adjectives irregularly compared.

5. Verbs.-CLASSES : verbs finite, participles, infinitives, regular

verbs, irregular verbs, list of irregular verbs ; transitive or passive,
intransitive or neuter. PROPERTIES : voices, ---active, passive; moods,
-indicative, subjunctive, potential, imperative, infinitive; tenses,-
present, past, future, perfect, pluperfect, future-perfect, with forms-
common, emphatic, progressive, passive; persons and numbers. Par-
ticiples and infinitives. Auxiliary verbs. . Conjugation. Exercises.

6. Adverbs.—Their chief characteristics. Full list, carefully

classified.

7. Prepositions. - Their chief characteristics. Adjuncts.

List of prepositions.

8. Conjunctions.-CLASSES; coördinate, subordinate, corre

ponding. List of conjunctions, classified according to their meanings.

9. Interjections.—List, classified according to the emotions.

10. Exercises on all the Parts of Speech.

11. Rules of Syntax.–The relations of words to one another,

in the construction of sentences.

12. Parsing.- Formulas, models, and examples.

13. Analysis of Sentences. Principles, with exercises.

Sentences analyzed. Exercises. Observations. Summary of anal-
ysis and description.

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]
[blocks in formation]

What is a letter?

A letter is a character that denotes one or more of the elementary sounds of language. EXAMPLES: A, b, c; a ge, a t, a rt, a ll; bubble; cent, cart.

Always read the examples carefully, reflecting upon each, so that you may learn clearly and fully what is meant by the definition or description.

How many elementary sounds has our language, and how many letters to represent them ?

About forty elementary sounds, and twenty-six letters to represent them.

Into what two classes are the letters divided ?
Into vowels and consonants.
Which are the vowels ?
A, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y.
What is a syllable ?

A syllable is a letter, or two or more combined, pronounced as one unbroken sound. * Ex.-A, I, on, no, not, stretched, barb’dst, a-e-ri-al, pro-fu-sion. What is a word ?

A word is a syllable, or two or more combined, used as the sign of some idea.

Ex.-Man, tree, world, sky, pink, beauty, strikes, well, fair, alas, because.
An idea is the picture or notion of a thing, in the mind.
How are words classified according to the number of syllables composing them ?

Into monosyllables, dissyllables, trisyllables, and polysyllables.

Define these classes,

A monosyllable is a word of one syllable ; a dissyllable, of two; a trisyllable, of three ; and a polysyllable, of four or more,

Ex-1, song; baker, railroad ; ornament, commandment; customary, incomprehensibility.

How are words classified according as they are formed, or not formed, from one another Into primitive, derivative, and compound.

Use the exercises on pp. 36–44, with each lesson.

Define these classes.

A primitive word is not formed from another word ; a derivative word is formed from another word ; and a compound word is composed of two or more other words.

Ex:-Primitive: Breeze, man, good, build, up: Derivative: Breezy, manful, goodness, builder, rebuild. Compound: Sea-breeze, mankind, dew. drop, newspaper, upon, sewing-machine.

How are words divided according to what they denote ?
Into nine classes, called PARTS OF SPEECH.

Name them

Nouns, Pronouns, Articles, Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.

FAMILIAR EXPLANATION.-I might present to your mind, by words alone, all that I have ever seen or experienced. "To do this, I should have to use norins and proniuns, to denote objects; articles, to aid the nouns; adjectives, to express the qualities, conditions, or circumstances of objects; verbs, to express their actions, or states of existence; adverbs, to describe their actions, or to show the nature or degree of their qualities; prepositions, to express their positions or relations to one another; conjunctions, to continue the discourse, or to connect its parts; and interjections, to give vent to any feeling or emotion springing up suddenly within me.

Ex.-Noun 8: “In spring, the sun shines pleasantly upon the earth, leaves
and flowers come forth, and birds sing in the woods."
Pronouns: “Roses encircle my window, and the roses adorn the window."

they adorn it."
Articles: " The church stands on a hill."
Adjectives: Ripe strayberries are good.That man owns troo farms."
Verbs: “Rivers flow, stars shine, men work, and boys study and play."
Adverbs: “Below us, a most beautiful river flowed very smoothly.
Prepositions: “There are cedars on the hill beyond the river.”
Conjunction 8: John and James are bappy, because they are good."
Interjections: “We all seek for happiness ; but, alas / how few of us
obtain it."

SUGGESTION TO THE TEACHER.—Take a walk with your class, during some leisure interval, and teach them the parts of speech, from the surrounding scenery.

וו

Since the world furnishes thousands and thousands of objects for us to consider, or think about, and since we never speak without having something in mind, what is essential to every thought or saying?

A SUBJECT and a PREDICATE.
What is meant by the subject !

The subject denotes that of which something is said or affirmed.

Ex.-" The cannons were fired.” “ Trs leaves and forers in the garden have been killed by the frost."

What is meant by the predicate ?
The predicate denotes what is said or affirmed.

Ex.-" The capnons were fired.” “The lexves and flowers in the garden have been killed by the frost.'

How are subjects and predicates classified ?
Into simple and compound.

[ocr errors]
« 前へ次へ »