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ble, a Highland lady let us know, that we might spare our commiseration ; for the dame whose milk we drank had probably more than a dozen milk-cows. She seem: ed unwilling to take any price, bụt being pressed to make a demand, at last named ą shilling. Honesty is not greater where e. legance is less. One of the bystanders, as we were told afterwards, advised her to ask more, but she said a shilling was enough. We gave her half a crown, and I hope got some credit by our behaviour; for the conipany said, if our interpreters did not flatter us, that they had not seen şuch a day since the old laird of Macleod passed through their country.
The Macraes, as we heard afterwards in the Hebrides, were originally an indigent and subordinate clan, and having no farms nor stock, were in great numbers servants to the Maclellans, who, in the war of Charles the First, took arms at the call of the heroic Montrose, and were, in one of his battles almost all destroyed. The wo: men that yere left at home, being thus de. prived of their husbands, like the Scythian ladies of old, married their servants, and the Macraes became a considerable racę.
way since that thour into
THE HIGHLANDS. As we continued our journey, we were at leisure to extend our speculations, and to investigate the reason of those peculiari. ties by which such rugged regions as these fore us are generally distinguished.
Mountainous countries comnionly contain the original, at least the oldest race of inhabitants, for they are not easily conquered, because they must be entered by ñarrow ways, exposed to every power of mischief from those that occupy the heights; and every new ridge is a new fortress, where the defendants have agairi the same advantages. If the assailants either force the strait, or storm the summit, they gain only so much ground; their enemies are fled to take possession of the next rock, and the pursuers stand at gaze, knowing neither where the ways of escape wind among the steeps, nor where the bog has firmness to sustain them; besides that; mountaineers have an agility in climbing and descending, distinct from strength or courage, and attainable only by use.
If the war be not soon concluded, the invaders are dislodged by hunger ; for in
those anxious and toilsome marches, pro. - visions cannot easily be carried, and are never to befound. The wealth of moun. tains is cattle, which, while the men stand ' in the passes, the women drive away. Such lands at last cannot repay the expence of conquest, and therefore, perhaps have not been so often invaded by the mere ambition of dominion; as by resentment of robberies and insults, or the desire of enjoying in security the more fruitful pro. vinces,
As mountains are long before they are conquered, they are likewise long before they are civilized. Men are softened by intercourse mutually profitable, and instructed by comparing their own notions with those of others. Thus Cæsar found the maritime parts of Britain made less barbarous by their commerce with the Gauls, Into a barren and rough tract no stranger is brought either by the hope of gain or of pleasure. The inhabitants hav. ing neither commodities for sale nor money for purchase, seldom visit more polished places, or if they do visit them, seldom re. turn.
It sometimes happens that by conquest, intermixture, or gradual refinement, the
cultivated parts of a country change their language. The mountaineers then be come a distinct nation, cut off by dissimili. tude of speech from conversation with their neighbours. Thus in Biscay, the original Cantabrian, and in Dalecarlia, the old Swedish still subsists. Thus, Wales and the Highlands speak the tongue of the first inhabitants of Britain, while the other parts have received first the Saxon, and in some degree afterwards the French, and then fornedathird language between them.
That the primitive manners are continued where the primitive language is spo. ken, no nation will desire me to suppose, for the manners of mountaineers are com: monly savage, but they are rather produced by their situation than derived from their ancestors.,
Such seems to be the disposition of man, that whatever makes a distinction pro. duces rivalry. England, before other causes of enmity were found, was disturbed for some centuries by the contests of the northern and southern counties ; su that at Oxford, the peace of study could for a long time be preserved only by chusing annually one ofthe Proctors from each side of the Trent. A tract interseeted by many
ridges of mountains, naturally divides its inhabitants into petty nations, which are made by a thousand causes enemies to each other. Each will exalt its own chiefs, each will boast the valour of its men, or the beauty of its women, and every claim of superiority irritates competition ; injuries will sometimes be done, and be more injuriously defended; retaliation will sometimes be attempted, and the debt exacted with too much interest.
In the Highlands it was a law, that if a robber was sheltered from justice, any man of the same clan might be taken in his place. This was a kind of irregular justice, which, though necessary in savage times, could hardly fail to end in a feud, and a feud once kindled among an idle people with no variety of pursuits to divert their thoughts, burnt on for ages, either sullenly glowing in secret mischief, or 0penly blazing into public violence. Of the effects of this violent judicature, there are not wanting memorials The cave is now to be seen to which one of the Campbells, who had injured the Macdonalds, retired with a body of his own clan. The.MacdonAlds required the offender, and being re