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Richard the Second.
1377. On the death of Edward, his grandson Richard was crowned without any opposition, though only eleven years of age. His three uncles, the Dukes of Lancaster, York, and Gloucester, were appointed regents.
The House of Commons, which was now growing into great consequence, for the first time chose a speaker, Peter de la Mare.
1378. The war was carried on between England and France, but in a very languid manner, when Charles V. died and was succeeded by his son Charles VI. a minor.
1381. To assist the government to carry on the war with France, the Parliament ordered a poll tax, which led to the rebellion of Wat Tyler, Jack Straw, and others, who march. ed to London at the head of 100,000 men. The King held a conference with Tyler in Smithfield, where the latter was put to death by Walworth, the Mayor of London, and his followers submitted to the King.
The King married Anne of Luxembourg, daughter of the Emperor Wenceslaus.
1385. The Scots, having no cavalry, applied to the regency of France, who sent over John de Vienne with 1500 men ; on which an army of 60,000 men, with Richard and the Duke of Lancaster at their head, entered Scotland by Berwick. The Scots, leaving their country to be pillaged, entered England by Carlisle, and committed horrid devastations in Cumberland and Westmorland; but Richard, in
stead of waiting for the enemy on the west borders, returned to England, to his pleasures and amusements.
1386. The Duke of Lancaster, having some pretensions to the kingdom of Castile by marriage, carried over the flower of the English army to Spain.
Great discontents arose in England, amongst the nobles headed by the Duke of Gloucester, against Richard, on account of his unbounded affection for the Earl of Oxford, whom he created Duke of Ireland, and whom he allowed to govern the kingdom as he pleased. Richard retired to Eltham ; but the Parliament sent him a message, saying, that if he did not return and consent to the banishment of his favourites, they would proceed to choose another King. He then banished his favourites, but soon afterwards recalled them.
1387. The favourites stirred up the King to revenge ; on which the Duke of Gloucester and other lords took to arms. The Duke of Ireland fled to Cheshire, and raised some forces, with which he was marching to London to the relief of the King, but was encountered in Oxfordshire by Gloucester and, totally defeated. He fled into the Low Countries, where he died in exile a few years after : his papers being taken exposed the King's pernicious designs. A parliament was assembled, by which several of the King's ministers were sentenced to be hanged at Tyburn, and others banished. To restore peace entirely, the King was persuaded to issue a general pardon.
1389. The Duke of Lancaster, having sold all right to the crown of Castile, returned to England.
Richard took the reins of government into his own hands, and changed the ministry. He made William of Wickham, Bishop of Winchester, his Chancellor.
2. The Scots made an irruption into England, when a battle was fought near Otterbourne, in which the son of