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resee, that by the occupation of riod, had not exhibited more numerous fortresses, Buonaparte would be instances of fickleness and falsehood e in effect master of that country,

than
any
other power.

He stated that might avail himself of it as an ad. it was against Buonaparte's feelings to ed post in his future hostilities a. declare war merely for political convest Russia. He was not only ena- nience! He would have made Prussia

to exhaust it by grievous exac- a mediator between France and Russ, under the name of military con. sia ; " and would have consented to utions, but to ruin its finances by aggrandize for the interest of his sys

deceitful and ingenious mode of tem, and for the peace and repose of overishing his neighbours, which the world, which formed his sole view, ermed the continental system. In a power, whose sincerity had been put

wretched situation was Prussia to the proof.” Buonaparte would have ed, when Buonaparte's plans a. aggrandized Prussia ! “ made her act ist Russia began to be devoloped. a fine part," and manifest decided senable to stand alone, her circumstan- timents ; “but," said the Duke of did not allow of neutrality; and Bassano," he did not suspect the du. was unwillingly dragged along as plicity of a power which had solicited isal in the train of the ruler of the the honour of an alliance with France." inch nation. But even if she had While the diplomatic arrangements suffered severe oppression in time were concluded between Russia and peace, she was at once plundered, Prussia, the commanders of the French mpled on, and insulted, during the armies in vain attempted to make a T. Buonaparte acted over the king- stand at Berlin. The inhabitants man of Prussia the sovereign, or rather nifested a spirit no less formidable to : conqueror, without ceremony or them than that of the army; and the traint. He seized on Pillau and French themselves confessed, that the jandau by a sort of military surprise ; Russian light troops which approachkept possession of Glogau and Cusa ed Berlin, were conducted and reinforh, in express opposition to treaties: ced by the young men of that capital ; subsisted his garrisons in those pla- several of whom were killed in the s by levying contributions for ten skirmishes which took place in the subaques around; he seized no less than urbs. 1,000 horses, and 20,000 carriages ; Very different from the conduct of gether witb every other article of the King of Prussia was that of the hich his commissariat happened to misguided sovereign of Saxony. The and in need ; and he even sent or• approach of the allied armies 'alarmed ers to General Bulow to join Vic- him, and he determined to quit Dresor's corps without consulting, the den, and to cling to the interests of Sing of Prussia on the subject. These, the common enemy. Before abandonund many other equally serious grounds ing his capital, hé issued a proclamaof complaint, were distinctly recapi- tion recommending a peaceable deizated by Count Krusemarck in his meanour to his subjects. He told them, ufficial communication to the French at the same time, that the political government.

system to which he had for the last six The Duke of Bassano, in reply, be- years attached himself, was that to gan by a sarcastic allusion to the ver- which the state had been indebted for satile politics of the Prussian cabinet its preservation amid the most immisince 1792, as if France, since that pe. nent dangers. This was strange lan

guage,

when his adherence to this very tem of policy to carry its ambitious political system now compelled him to and depraved views into effect, to deabandon his capital.

mand the blood of your sons, dry up General Blucher, however, took a the springs of your commerce, depress different view of the interests of Saxo. your industry, destroy the liberty of ny, and addressed from Bruntzlau, a your press, and turn your once happy proclamation to the people, stating country into the theatre of war. Al. that he entered their territory to offer ready has the Vandalism of the oppres. them his powerful assistance, and call. sive foreigner wantonly destroyed your ing on them to raise the standard of most beautiful monument of architecinsurrection against their oppressors. ture, the bridge of Dresden. Rise ! His language on this occasion was sin- join us : raise the standard of insurrecgular and characteristic :-" In the tion against foreign oppressors, and be north of Europe,” he said, “ the Lord free. Your sovereign is in the power of Hosts has held a dreadful court of of foreigners, deprived of the freedom justice, and the angel of death has cut of determination, deploring the steps off 300,000 of those strangers by the which a treacherous policy forced him sword, famine, and cold, from that to take. We shall no more attribute earth which they, in the insolence of them to him than cause you to suffer their prosperity, would have brought for them. We only take the provinces under the yoke. We march wherever of your country under our care, when the finger of the Lord directs us, to fortune, the superiority of our arms, fight for the security of the ancient and the valour of our troops, may thrones and our national independence. place them in our power. Supply the With us comes a valiant people, who reasonable wants of our warriors, and have boldly driven back oppression, in return expect from us the strictest and with a high feeling have promised discipline. Every application to me, the liberty to the subjugated nations. We Prussian General, may be freely made by announce to you the morning of a new all oppressed persons. I will hear comday. The time for shaking off a de. plaints, examine every charge, and setestable yoke, which, during the lastverely punish every violation of disci. six years, dreadfully crushed us down, pline. Every one, even the very meanhas at length arrived. A new war un- est, may with confidence approach me, luckily commenced, and still more un- I will receive him with kindness. The happily concluded, forced upon us the friend of German independence will, peace of Tilsit ; but even of the seve. by as, be considered as our brother : rest articles of that treaty, not one has the weak-minded wanderer we will lead been kept with us. Every following with tenderness into the right road; treaty increased the hard conditions of but the dishonourable, despicable tool the preceding one. For this reason we of foreign tyranny, I will pursue to have thrown off the shameful yoke, the utmost rigour as an enemy to our and advance to the heart-cheering com- common country.bat for our liberty. Saxons ! ye are Prussia now became one great camp; a noble minded people ! you know, the supple instruments of French ty. that without independence all the good ranny were banished from the cabinet

, things of this life are to poble minds and the generals known by their reso. of little value,—that subjection is the lute opposition to French influence, greatest disgrace. You neither can nor were invested with new and effectual will bear slavery any longer. You will powers. The whole country between not permit a cunning and deceitful sys• The Elbe and the Oder was divided in

to four military districts, under the naparte ; and it appeared that they command of L'Estocq, Tauenzien, would embrace the first opportunity of Massenbach, and Gotzen ; the mili- deserting. In these circumstances he tia was called out; the levy-en-masse thought it necessary to make an addiwas ordered ; volunteers enrolled them. tion, even to the immense preparations selves on all sides ; no less than 20,000 which he had already contemplated.-of the militia were collected at Ko- Ninety thousand men of the conscripningsberg ; and the national enthusi- tion of 1814, who had been originally asm was universally directed to one destined for the reserve, were now rengreat object.

dered disposable ; and ninety thousand The King of Prussia, on the 20th of more were raised by a sort of retroMarch, 1813, published an edict, abo- spective conscription. The cities and lishing the continental system, and re. municipalities were invited to equip gulating the duties to be collected in

new corps of cavalry, to replace that future on goods imported into Prus- part of the army which had entirely sia. All French goods were prohibit- perished during the Russian campaign. ed under severe penalties.

Buonaparte, however, was aware that The French troops having

quitted he could not at once lead these raw Berlin, the Russian General, Tcherni. levies against the enemy ;-every recheff, arrived in that city amid a great source, therefore, which experience concourse of people :-the Russian and ingenuity could suggest, was extroops were received with kindness and hausted to confer on them that dishospitality. On the 11th of March, cipline in which they were deficient. Count Wittgenstein made his public officers were procured either by drafts entry into the capital, and was recei- from Spain, or by selecting the subal. ved with the greatest enthusiasm. terns of the regiments which had cs

The torrent from the north rolled caped from Russia. A large camp was on; the barriers of the Vistula and the formed upon the Maine, where the preOder proved inefficacious to stem it. paration of the young soldiers for the The accession of Prussia and Sweden, field, could be carried on without danand the great armaments which were ger of interruption from the approach preparing in the north of Germany, of the enemy. The immense armies swelled the single power of Russia in which Buonaparte was accumulating to a formidable confederacy. The fide. proved the unequalled vigour of his lity of all the foreign troops in the despotism, and the great resources of French service was suspected by Buo. his empire.

CHAP. XIII.

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Progress of the War.--Buonaparte takes the Command of the French Armies.

Battle of Lutzen - Battle of Bautzen, and Retreat of the Allies. The combined irmies retire, and Buonaparte enters Dresden.

As the allied sovereigns were fully lay down their arms, until the foundapersuaded that their chance of success, tions of the independence of every Euin the great enterprize which they had ropean state should have been estaundertakin, must depend upon the blished and secured. soudness of their principles, no less The unprosperous state to which than upon the numbers and valour of the affairs of the French were reduced, their armies, they hastened to announce had, as it was natural to expect, a great the maxims of policy by which they influence on the policy of their allies. were guided.

Even Denmark now expressed a disPrince Kutousoff, the commander- position to join the great confederacy in-chief of the Russian and Prussian of Europe ; she proposed, however, armies, accordingly published an ad. the most extravagant terms. She sent dress to Germany in the names of the an ambassador to London, who tenEmperor of Russia and King of Prus- dered to England the benefit of a Da. sia. In this address, the two monarchs nish alliance, on the following condi. gave a solemn pledge of their inten. tions:-Ist, That all the territories of tions. They desired to re-establish Denmark (Norway of course included) Germany in her rights and indepen- should be guaranteed to her. 2d, dence. They would not tolerate that That all her islands should be restored. badge of a foreign yoke, the confede- 3d, That her fleet should be given up, ration of the Rhine. They declared and a large indemnity allowed for its that they had no intention of disturb capture. A considerable sum was also ing France, nor of forcing with their demanded, as a compensation for what armies her rightful frontiers. They de- the Danes had suffered during the occusired that she might occupy herself in pation of Zealand by the British. 4th, her own concerns, and not disturb the That the Hanse towns should be as. repose of other nations. They were signed to her. 5th, That a subsidy anxious for peace, but for such a peace should be granted to pay the troops as should be founded upon a solid necessary to enable her to take posbasis ; and they concluded with an- session of these towns. And upon nouncing their determination not to the accession of the British govern.

it to these reasonable terms, Den- wards marched to Bergedorf. Genek would make peace, and join ral Morand then attempted to march

common cause. Such demands, from Bergedorf to Hamburgh, but course, could not require a mo- was prevented by the Danish troops, it's deliberation, and the Danish 3000 of whom, with a numerous ar. ister took his departure.—Engtillery, were stationed on the borders d was the last of the allied powers to maintain their neutrality. d by Denmark. She began at Colonel Hamilton, the governor of tersburgh under French influence, Heligoland, was induced by the sucI there she failed; she continued cess of the Russian arms, and the fazotiations at Copenhagen under the vourable reports from different parts ne influence, and again she failed; of the Hanoverian coast, to take every

then turned her attention towards step which an inconsiderable force at ondon, where there could be no such his disposal would admit of, to proluence, and there she failed also. mote the common cause, and to assist it although her attempts at negotia. the operations of the allied arries in a had no success, the momentary this direction. Lieutenant Banks ac. ange which was thus produced upon cordingly proceeded to Cuxhaven, policy, had considerable influence whence the French had departed with the affairs of Hamburgh, which great expedition, after destroying all out this time excited great interest their gun-boats, and dismounting the England.

guns from the strong works construct. The grand French army (inclu• ed for the defence of the harbour. On og the division of General Grenier, a summons from Lieutenant Banks, noonting to 20,000 men, which in the castle of Ritzenbuttle, and bat. te beginning of January bad hastened teries of Cuxhaven, were surrendered om Italy to the north) had been re- by the burghers, and the British and aced by many severe engagements Hamburgh Aags were immediately disith the cossacks to about 18,000 men, played. The peasants assembled in ad had quitted Berlin to lay the basis considerable numbers, and took the I future operations in a more solid strong battery and works at Bremerlee. janner behind the Elbe. General A corps of about 1500 French hakorand, in the meantime, who had ving been collected in the vicinity, cept possession of Swedish Pomerania threatened to retake the battery, and vith about 2500 men, and had been application was made to Major Kentzastructed to maintain himself there at inger, at Cuxhaven, for assistance. li events, put himself in march to fol. This officer

having left Cuxhaven with ow the grand army, whose left wing a party of the soldiers in waggons, was was formed by the army of Pomerania met by the peasants, who informed ander his command. Baron Tetten- him that the enemy had marched off borne, colonel.commandant of a corps in great haste, in consequence of the of General Wittgenstein's division of landing of some British troops. the army, marched at the same time Tettenborne, after this, entered in the direction of Hamburgh ; his Hamburgh, amid the acclamations of vanguard was at Limburg, when the citizens. In consequence of this Morand, on the 15th of March, en. happy event the ancient government tered Mollen. As some parties of was restored.-.Colonel Tettenborne cossacks had been detached in front, addressed the inhabitants of the left and were approaching Mollen, the ar- bark of the Lower Elbe, and the inmy of Pomerania halted, and after- habitants of the city of Lubec, ex

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