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horting them to take up arms in this ces belonging to Prussia, which were sacred war,-telling them that they ceded by the treaty of Tilsit. “ It was knew the fate of the French grand ar- neither," said the king, “by my choice my, which had been entirely destroy- nor your fault, that you, my beloed on the plains of Russia, and as- ved and faithful subjects, were torn suring them that powerful armies were from my paternal heart. The force of hastening to their support. “May events brought on the peace of Tilsit, , disgrace overtake every one," said he, by which we were separated. But “ who in these eventful times, when even that convention, like all others the struggle is for the greatest bless. since made with France, was broken ings of the human race, can sit with by our enemies ; they themselves have, his arms folded.” The people were by their infidelity, released us from our invited to raise a volunteer corps in connection with them ; and God, by Hamburgh, Lubec, and Bremen, to the victories of our powerful allies, has bear the name of “ The Hanseatic prepared the liberation of Germany. Legion," and form a part of the army Neither are you, from the moment of the north of Germany.
when my faithful people flew to arms A small detachment of veterans sent for me, for themselves, and for you, by Colonel Hamilton to Cuxhaven, any longer bound by that compulsive marched to Bremerlee to occupy the oath which connected you with your battery at that place, and to afford new ruler. To you, I therefore speak support to the insurgeot peasantry.- in the same language as I did to my The enemy, however, collected a force beloved people, concerning the causes of five or six thousand men at Bremen, and objects of the present war. You and a detachment of about seven hun. have now again the same claim to my dred of them marched rapidly upon affection, and I to your obedience.Bremerlee, dispersed the peasants, and Again joined to my people, you will forced the bridge, which was bravely share the same danger, but you will defended by a party of the 1st veteran likewise partake of the same reward, battalion. The enemy then attacked and of equal glory. I depend upon the battery where the remainder of the your attachment ; our native country veterans, and a body of peasants, were relies on your strength. Join your stationed. These people capitulated youths to my warriors who have latein the hope of saving their lives. The ly renewed the glory of the Prussian French spared six or seven of the Bri- arms. Seize your swords, and form tish veterans, but treacherously mas- your insurrectional levy according to sacred every one of the peasants ; they the example of your noble brethren, pillaged the town and returned hastily whom with just pride I call my subto Bremen.
jects. When you shall have fought The King of Prussia, meanwhile, with us for our common country, when was busily employed in extending over by your exertions you shall have asthe continent a spirit of insurrection sisted in establishing its independence, against the French. He perceived the and proved that you are worthy of advantages which had resulted from your ancestors, and of the Prussian the animating addresses of the Empe- name, then will futurity heal the ror Alexander, and he embraced every wounds inflicted by times past, and we opportunity of profiting by the same shall find the happiness that has been expedient. On the 6th of April, he lost to us in the conviction of a faithissued from Breslaw, a proclamation to ful attachment, and in the undisturbed the inhabitants of the German provin- enjoyment of liberty and peace.!!
According to the dispositions made and sixty men prisoners.-Generals by General Wittgenstein on the left Dornberg and Tchernicheff were inbank of the Elbe, the three Hying formed that General Morand with a corps under the command of Generals corps of upwards of 3000 infantry, 11 Dornberg, Tchernicheff, and Tetten. cannon, and 300 cavalry, was pressing borne, were ordered to precede the ar. forward by the way of Jottstadt to my, and to pass the Elbe between Luneberg, to punish the inhabitants Hamburgh and Magdeburgh. While of that town for having dared to take preparations were making for the pas. up arms. The Generals resolved to sage of the river, the French army con- hasten to Luneberg to protect the centrated in the vicinity of Magde. brave inhabitants from the fate which burgh, and strengthened itself by re. threatened them. As the troops had inforcements from the troops round lately made a forced march of ten GerDresden and Leipzig. Its left wing man (forty English) miles in 24 hours, consisted of three considerable corps, they could not be brought up until the encamped near Luberitz and Stendal; 2d of April, in the morning, 12 hours and the whole army was under the after the entry of the French into command of Marshals Davoust and Vic. Luneberg. The Russians were inform, tor.-General Dornberg arrived first ed that on this very forenoon several at Havelberg, and afterwards crossed executions were to take place in the the Elbe at the village of Guitjobel, city, and that a number of victims were opposite to Werlen. The enemy, four again to attest the cruelty of the eneor five thousand strong, approached mies of Germany. They therefore de. from Arneberg, and obliged the Rus- termined instantly to attack the town. sian corps to quit the town of Wer- Scarcely had two of the corps aplen, and re-cross the Elbe. The Rus. proached it on the right bank of the sians lost in this affair one officer and Elmenau, within the distance of two 18 dregoons, who had remained too cannon shot, and drawn themselves up long at Werlen.
in order of battle, under cover of the The corps of General Tchernicheff bushes and hedges, when Baron Pahlen, in the meantime arrived at Havelberg, with great skill, commenced the attack and a council of war was held concern. on the other side, and met with coming the future operations. General plete success. The enemy advanced Tcheroicheff, in consequence, first against him with two battalions of in. passed the Elbe with his corps, and fantry and three pieces of artillery, and took possession of Seehausen and Lich- attempted to cut him off from the road terfield, to secure the passage of the to Bienenbuttel. The parties encouncorps of Dornberg. The necessary dis- tered at this place, and charged each positions, however, were scarcely made, other briskly. The enemy, who was when Major Count Puschkin, who was ignorant of the strength of the Russian posted with a regiment of cossacks at and Prussian corps, and imagined that Lichterfield, was attacked by three he had only to act against a few cosbattalions of French infantry and 200 sacks, was surprised. At the same cavalry, with two pieces of artillery time General Dornberg, at the head This officer succeeded in keeping the of a Prussian battalion of infantry, enemy employed, until a regiment of rushed on the enemy's battalion, and cavalry of the division of the Baron drove it along the bridge close under Pahlen came to his support. This re. the town, on the right bank of the El. giment attacked the enemy, drove him menau. The assailants found the gates, back to Werlen, and made two officers the walls, and even the houses in the town defended by the enemy's infan, through Saxony, and although treated try; the situation of the place was fa. by the sovereign as hostile, by the peovourable for making a vigorous resist- ple they were every where hailed as ance, and here an obstinate and bloody deliverers. The entrance of the Rusengagementensued. Russiansand Prus- sians into Leipzig revived the droopsians vyed with each other in noble ing spirits of the people. The allies imemulation ; and the artillery, which mediately advanced, crossed the Saale was not more than one hundred paces at different points, occupied Gotha distant from the enemy, made great and Weimar, and began to penetrate havoc among the French in the streets through the forest of Thuringia. of the town. At length the Prus- Buonaparte in his former campaigns sians succeeded, after the battle had had generally succeeded in obtaining raged with the greatest obstinacy at the most accurate information of the the entrance of the town for more designs of the enemy opposed to him. than two hours, in possessing them. The French were, however, at this pe. selves of one of the gates. This suc- riod, kept in the utmost ignorance of cess forced the enemy to quit the the movements of their adversaries, town, which he did in such haste, that while the allies contrived to obtain a one of his battalions was separated.-- correct knowledge of their plans. Thus A brisk fire of infantry was maintain. it happened to the enemy in an attempt ed; the battalion which had been cut which he made to recover Berlin.off, when discovered by the Russian While Beauharnois, ignorant that Wit. yagers, made a charge with the bayo. genstein was near him, flattered him. net ; but this was the last effort of self that he should march on unimpethe enemy. A heavy fire of grape- ded to the Prussian capital, the latter shot convinced them that there was no took the most skilful measures to sur. possibility of escape, and they laid round and attack him with his whole down their arms.-The trophies of this force. For this purpose he collected day were nine pieces of artillery, 100 the corps of D'York and Berg at Zenofficers, and 2200 privates, prisoners. list and Leitzkau, on the great southThe zeal, assiduity, and judgment, ern road from Magdeburgh to Dessau, evinced by the generals in this trial while he stationed those of Borstel and of the combined Russian and Prus- Bulow at Nedlitz and Yiesar, to the sian troops on the left bank of the northward of Magdeburgh. It was ar. Elbe, reflected the greatest honour on ranged that the whole army should them. This was the first affair of any move forward simultaneously from the importance which the allies had with opposite points and join in the attack; the enemy upon German ground. this plan succeeded. The French, who
The King of Saxony, after quitting had the advantage of the ground, re. his capital, followed the retreating sisted with bravery ; but they were French army, and repaired to a place successively driven, by the separate deof security in Franconia : his troops, tachments of the allies, from the posihowever, did not imitate the example. tions which they endeavoured to main. They separated from the French, and tain at three different villages, and afshut themselves up in Torgau, where ter having two regiments of cavalry they concluded a treaty of neutrality, cut to pieces, they owed the preservawhich but for inauspicious events might tion of their remaining force only to soon have been converted into an ho. the darkness of the night. Thus fanourable league. The allied forces voured, they retired at all points ; they proceeded almost without opposition did not even attempt to maintain the de
files, but retreated to Magdeburgh, Hanover, Hesse, Brunswick, the Hanse which was afterwards closely blocka- Towns, and Saxony, were expected to ded. Thus had the French already furnish. been twice defeated by the united Rus. These magnificent expectations, how. sian and Prussian forces ; their first at. ever, were not realized. The Russian tempts on each side of the Elbe were army which crossed the Vistula never frustrated. The victories of Luneberg amounted to 220,000 ; while the force and Mockern were hailed as omens of brought to the Elbe by this power the success of the campaign.
did not exceed 100,000 effective men. The Russian force was about this An unfortunate relaxation in the ef. time divided into three armies—one un- forts of Russia had become mani. der Wittgenstein, a second under Tchi: fest between the months of January chagoff, and a third under Winzenge. and May; and the expectations so rode ;-Prince Kutusoff commanded eagerly indulged, that the allies would the whole. Wittgenstein's main force have appeared on the Elbe with a had crossed the Elbe in order to drive force so preponderating, as to defeat the French back upon the Maine.- any attempt of Buonaparte to main. One of the corps of this army under tain himself between that river and General Berkendoff had entered Lu. the Rhine, were wholly disappointbec, and other corps were on the Elbe, ed. near Boitzenburg. Part of Tchicha- Buonaparte thus had leisure to asgoff's army was in the vicinity of semble and organize a force which en. Thorn, while another division was em- abled him to resume the offensive, and ployed under Platoff in the siege of to recover the support of the small Dantzic. Winzengerode's army was auxiliary states. The Russians, it divided at Custrin, Lansberg, and would seem, had determined in Janu. Dresden; while another corps had ary, that the Vistula should bound the passed the Elbe at Schandau, to turn advance of their main force ; and when Davoust. Russian reinforcements were circumstances produced a change in this on the Vistula.—The Prussian force determination, the arrangements for was thus distributed : General Blucher bringing forward the reinforcements had removed from Silesia into Saxony, and reserves were not in sufficient proand General D’York was at Berlin gress. The allies were now aware that with the main army. Detachments had the French were debouching from the been sent to Hamburgh and Rostock, Thuringian mountains, with a view to which were now occupied by Prussian join Beauharnois, who, to favour this corps ; and another Prussian detach- movement, proceeded from Magdement had invested Stettin.-A Swe. burgh towards the upper part of the dish force was at Stralsund ; and it Saale. The plan of the allies was forme was expected that by the commence. ed on such knowledge,-for the expement of the campaign, the Crown rience gained at Jena was not thrown Prince of Sweden would have the away upon them. They used every efcommand of 50,000 men. The whole fort to prevent the junction of so vast Russian force, with which it was ex. a body of French forces. In conse pected the campaign would open, was quence of Beauharnois' retreat from most erroneously estimated at 220,000; Magdeburgh it became less practicable the Prussian at 70,000, and the Swe- and less important to maintain his comdish and Pomeranian at 50,000; a- munications with Davoust; the latter, mounting in whole to 340,000 men. therefore, uniting with Sebastiani and To these were added the force which Vandamme, was at liberty to attempt
the great object of Buonaparte's wishes as that, without risk, they might be -o cut off the troops sent to orga- brought into the field. The army on nize insurrection in the neighbourhood the Maine was therefore directed to of the Weser. In this, however, Da- move forward; and their leader left voust was in a great measure disap- Paris, to place himself at the head of pointedGeneral Dornberg, with that the united forces. His presence, it skill and activity which always mark- might seem, must have been more ed his conduct, removed his troops to wanted, amid the difficulties under the right bank of the Elbe. Here they which the French army had laboured ; covered Hamburgh, against which Da. but it suited that policy which he has voust continued to make a demonstra- always followed, to stand aloof till the tion, though with very little effect, completion of his preparations affordfrom the opposite bank of the river. ed a fair promise, that victory would
On the 16th of April, the garrison soon follow his arrival. of Thorn, consisting of 400 Poles, The forces which Buonaparte had 3500 Bavarians, and 90 Frenchmen, now assembled were very great, and surrendered to the Russians under Ge. considerably out-numbered those which neral Count Langeron. The trophies hisopponents had collected on the scene of this success were 200 pieces of can. of action. With regard to the general non ;-nearly the whole of the Bava. conduct of the allies, although it be riansand Polesafterwardsenlisted under impossible to withhold a tribute of the patriotic standard. General Lange- applause from it, there yet appear some ron's co:ps, amounting to 15,000 men, points in the arrangements of the pre. was now enabled to co-operate with sent campaign, which may afford room the force employed before Dantzic.- for criticism. The Russians, as already Spandau, situated on the river Spree, remarked, had set out upon the prinand not far distant from Berlin, capi- ciple of not suffering their advance to tulated to the Russians on the 18th of be retarded by the fortresses which April ; the garrison engaging not to they might find in their route, but, serve against the allies during one year. leaving each of them watched by -The fortress of Czentokaw surren- a detachment of troops, of proceeding dered on the 4th of May to a Russian with their main body to the Elbe and force, commanded by Lieutenant-Ge. the Rhine. This measure, circumneral Von Sacken, after the batteries stanced as they were, seems to merit had been opened two days.
the highest approbation. They had The French armies were now placed thus, without sustaining any inconvein a critical situation. The main body nience, left behind them three succes. of the active military force extended sive chains, including some of the from Magdeburgh to the Saale, while strongest fortressess in Europe. It the new levies, raised by the late con- seems evident, that the success of their scription, were forming on the Maine. plan depended upon the amount of the The advance of the allies tended to force which they might bring to the interrupt the communication between front of their line. If they maintainthese two armies, and to compel the ed their ground there, the fortresses, one, either to engage singly, or wholly deprived of succour, must sooner or to withdraw itself from Magdeburgh. later be compelled to submit; if, on The time was therefore come for the the contrary, they were unable to hold French corps, if possible, to unite and their advanced position, the fortresses to act ; and Buonaparte conceived would soon be relieved, and the allies them to be already in such a condition would lose the ground which they had