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CHAP. XV.

An Armistice concluded by the Intervention of Austria.- Proposals for a Con

gress.The Armistice denounced, and Austria joins the silies. - Movements of the Armies.-Successes of Blucher and of the Crown Prince.-Repulse of an Attack on Dresden.

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The Emperor of Austria had, du- easiness the progress of the French ring the Russian campaign, taken but arms, and saw her frontiers in danger a reluctant part on the side of France, of being again encircled by them, she and after witnessing the disasters which determined to take an active part in befel that power, he gradually with. putting a stop to further hostilities. drew his troops into a neutral position. Under her mediation an armistice was The Austrian cabinet, however, took accordingly concluded; hostilities bea deep interest in the passing events ; tween the contending armies ceased on nor was it a timid or inactive neutrality the 1st of June, and the armistice was which this court was prepared to main- signed and ratified on the 4th. By tain. Armaments of unexampled mag. the terms of this convention the line of nitude were completed in every part of demarcation for both armies took its the Austrian territories ; troops were departure from the frontiers of Bohe. poured into Bohemia, and placed in an mia ; that of the allies passing through attitude of observation. It appeared Landshut to the Boberg-following probable that the scale into which that river to Ruderstadt, and towards this power might throw herself would Bolkenhiem and Striegau,-pursuing at once preponderate ; and to court the course of the Strieganerwefar to her favour became the grand object of Canth, and extending to the Oder the belligerents.-Buonaparte, before through Olfaschin and Althof. The leaving Dresden, published a bulletin, line of the French army, on quitting the announcing that he had acceded to a Bohemian frontier, stretched to Alt proposition made by Austria for as. Ramhitz and the Bober, as far as the sembling a congress at Prague. Aus- town of Lahn; thence it traversed the tria afterwards declared that no such territory between the Bober and the proposition had been made to her; Katzbach to the Oder. Breslan was beand an assertion thus unauthorised ap- tween the two armies, and was declared peared singular and offensive. This neutral; it was not to be occupied by power, however, was not unwilling to anytroops, not even by the Landsturm. interpose; and as she viewed with un- Such was the line of demarcation

between the two main armies. The cils of this power. All the men of line which separated the detached influence began to exclaim, that now corps was continued from the mouth was the time to retrieve at once so of the Katzbach along the Oder to many losses, which had reduced Austhe frontiers of Saxony and Prussia, tria to a state of degradation. Ruswhere it joined the Elbe. The French sia offered, now that she had delivered were of course to occupy Hamburgh, herself, to assist in the liberation of one of the articles stating “ that they other nations; and from all the neighwere in possession of the isles in the bouring states ample co-operation Eibe, and every thing which they oce might be with certainty expected.cupied in the 328 military division on Austria, however, after such a succesthe Sth of June at midnight.” The be- sion of disasters, and so many disapsleged and blockaded fortresses were pointments, shrunk from taking at once to be revictualled every five days. By any decided step. She even employed the 10th article it was stipulated, that a considerable share of dissimulation to on the i2th of June, all the corps of conceal from the French the change the combined army beyond the Elbe, which had taken place in her councils. or in Saxony, were to return into Buonaparte lavished offers, entreaPrussia. Buonaparte was thus left un. ties, protestations; half of the Prusdisputed master of the mouths of the sian monarchy was to be the reward Elbe and the Weser. The duration of the co-operation of Austria, which of the armistice was fixed to the 20th would restore to him all his former asof July inclusive. It was agreed that cendancy. Austria turned a deaf ear six days notice should be given of the to such proposals ; she recalled the resumption of hostilities.

auxiliary corps which had acted with Preparations on an extensive scale the French army, and remained a mere were, in the mean time, carried on spectator of the campaign in Saxony throughout all the provinces of the and Silesia. She had, however, alrea. Prussian monarchy, as well as the dis• dy gone too far to render it safe for tricts of northern Germany, which had her that France should resume its been liberated from French influence. former power, and again surround her The events of the recent campaign af- territories with its armies. Such views forded on this subject a most salutary of policy rendered her active in nego. and important lesson. Every private ciating an armistice, and in forwarding object gave place for the moment to the assemblage of a congress at Prague. the grand views of national safety. They determined her also to support Levies for the augmentation of the re- no terms of peace, which should not gular army were made to a very great have for their basis the limitation of extent. A numerous and well-disci- the French influence in Germany. The plined militia, cailed Landwehr, was precise character of the overtures first also raised; to which was added a made by her has not been ascertained ; levy en masse, under the appellation of but it is certain that from the moment Lanciturm.

they reached the ear of Buonaparte, Austria was scarcely less indefatiga- he accounted her his enemy, and de. ble in completing her establishments— termined again to try the fate of in raising new levies and in pouring arms. numerous corps into Bohemia. From Efforts were made accordingly by the moment that the Russian arms ac- the French ruler to draw reinforce, quired the ascendancy, an extraordi- ments from every quarter. Some corps lary impulse was given to the coun- of the army of Spain, which had hitherto been left untouched, began their explaining its principles and policy. march for the Elbe. Eugene Beau., This paper began by declaring his imharnois repaired to Italy, and assem-' perial majesty's love of peace, and by bled an army upon the Adige, with assuring the world that he was free the view of overawing Austria on from all thoughts of conquest and ag. that side. Buonaparte, at the same grandisement, and had entered upon time, interposed every species of delay war only to avert the danger to which in the negociation, by complaints rela- the social system was exposed of betive to the character of the persons sent coming a prey to a lawless and ambi. to the congress, and by disputes upon tious power. The emperor complainmatters of form. His object, which he ed of the destructive system adopted scarcely hesitated to avow, was, that by the enemy, by which commercial hostilities should be renewed during intercourse, and, indeed, almost all inthe continuance of the negociations. tercourse, was suspended between na. Thus he probably hoped to deceive tions. — The manifesto touched upon Austria, and prevent her from imme. the marriage of the Austrian princess diately taking an active part in the to Buonaparte, ma marriage consented war; and if he should succeed in drie to with the hope of inclining him to a ving the armies of Russia and Prussia sense of moderation and justice beyond the Vistula, and cutting them hope in which his majesty was the more off from all communication with the justified, because when this union was Bohemian frontier, he might then accomplished, Buonaparte had reached give the law to all his enemies. Aus- that point of his career, when the desire tria, however, had formed her resolu- of preserving his conquests seemed to tion, and had fully determined, if the be more natural than a restless struggle war should be renewed, to take the to acquire new possessions. If these most decided part in it. At the ex. flattering prospects were destroyed, the piration of the armistice, she propo- misfortune was not to be imputed to sed an extension of it for three weeks, Austria.—The year 1810 was not yet to which Buonaparte reluctantly ac- closed, when, in an evil hour, Buonaceded. His views evidently were of parte resolved to seize a large portion such a character as to remove all pros- of North Germany, and to rob the free pects of a pacific termination to the cities of Hamburgh, Bremen, and Ludiscussions; and Austria had, perhaps, beck, first of their political, and then no other object in this delay than to of their commercial existence. This mature her preparations, and arrange scheme was adopted upon the arbitrary the plan of the approaching campaign. pretext, that the war with England reBuonaparte still continued to raise dif. quired it; and seemed to be the foreficulties ; and as there appeared to be runner of greater usurpations, by which no prospect of his acceding to reason- one half of Germany was to become a able terms, the armistice was denoun- French province, and Buonaparte the ced, and Austria issued her declara: absolute ruler of the continent.-Al. tion of war. This event, which will be luding to the war against Russia, and ever memorable in the annals of Eu- the inotives which determined the po. rope, and which of itself involved the licy of Austria in that war, it was recomplete re-establishment of the long- marked in the manifesto, that "The lost balance of power, occurred on the campaign of 1812 furnished a memo10th of August, 1813.

rable example of the failure of an unBefore entering on hostilities, the dertaking supported by gigantic powcabinet of Vienna issued a manifesto er, conducted by a captain of the first

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k, when, in the confidence of great tertained hopes of peace, when Buoitary talents, he despises the rules naparte had, in the meantime, expressed prudence, and o’ersteps the bounds sentiments which could tend only to nature.” Then was brought on an perpetuate war. portant revolution in all the politi. in the month of April, Buonarelations of Europe. The confede- parte suggested the dissolution of the y of Great Britain, Russia, and Prussian monarchy as the natural conieden, presented a point of union to sequence of a defection from France, neighbouring states. Prussia seized and observed, that it depended upon it favourable moment, and threw Austria herself to add the most imrself into the arms of the allies. The portant and flourishing of the Prustred of foreign dominion burst forth sian provinces to her own states. Aus.

all sides. The crisis was not ne- tria, however, felt that the restoration ?cted by the Emperor of Austria. of the Prussian monarchy was the first the beginning of December, steps step to be taken. d been taken to dispose Buonaparte With reference to the assertion of a quiet and peaceful policy. But a Buonaparte, that he had proposed a iking constrast was soon observed congress to be held at Prague, the tween the sentiments of Austria and Austrian cabinet declared, that it was e conduct of Napoleon. He decla. only acquainted with this proposal 1, he would hear of no proposition through the public prints. Aware of * peace that should violate the all the obstacles to a general peace, rench empire in the French sense of Austria had long considered the possie word. 'At the same time eventual bility of obtaining the object progresnditions, with which this self-created sively, and first by a continental peace yundary did not seem to have any re. -not that the Emperor of Austria, tion, were spoken of at one time with “ imagined that the continent could enacing indignation, at another with exist, if the separation of England tter contempt, as if it had not been were not considered as a most deadly assible to declare in terms sufficiently evil.” Towards the close of the month stinct the resolution of Buonaparte, of June, the Austrian cabinet (said ot to make to the repose of the world the manifesto,) sent a minister to ben one single nominal sacrifice. Dresden, and a convention was conThese hostile demonstrations were cluded, accepting the mediation of ttended with this particular mortifi. Austria in the negociation of a ge. ation to Austria, that they placed neral peace ; if that could not be ef. ven the invitations to peace, which fected, of a preliminary continental his cabinet, with the knowledge and peace. The congress was to be opened pparent consent of France, made to on the 5th July; and the armistice was other courts, in a false and disadvanta. afterwards extended to the 10th Au. geous light. The sovereigns united gust. In the mean time Austria resol

gainst France, instead of giving any ved once more to try the British goanswer to the propositions of Austria, vernment. Buonaparte received the for negociation and mediation, laid be- proposal with apparent approbation, fore her the public declarations of the and off, red a passage to the Austrian French ruler. And when, in March, messenger through France. But difhis majesty sent a minister to London, ficulties arose, the passports were deto invite England to share in a negocia.. layed from time to time, and at last tion, the British ministry replied, they refused. During the interval, the Ruscould not believe that Austria still ena sian and Prussian plenipotentiaries were

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named, and arrived at Prague. The of reserve under Augereau ; and an ar• negociations were not to be protracted my of Bavarians, about 25,000 strong, beyond the 10th August, unless they was stationed near Munich. A conafforded a confident hope of a favour. siderable force under Davoust defended able result. But it was soon evident Holstein and Hamburgh, and threatthat France procrastinated ; a French ened Pomerania. The communication minister arrived, but had no orders to of this corps with the army at Dresproceed to business until the appear- den, and the preponderance of the ance of a plenipotentiary, who did not French on the middle Elbe, were imjoin the congress until the 28th of Ju- perfectly maintained by the garrison ly. Formal and minute discussions of Magdeburgh. rendered all the endeavours of the me. The allies occupied a line of much diating power abortive. The powers greater extent. The accession of Aus. of the French negociator were unne- tria, besides making a large addition to cessarily circumscribed ; and it was their force, brought with it also the not till the 6th of August that he gave advantage of turning the barrier of the in a new declaration, by which the ne- Elbe, as that

river flows for many gociation was not brought one step miles through Bohemia, and might nearer to a close. After an useless thus be passed by the allies without exchange of notes, the 10th of August opposition. In Bohemia, therefore, arrived--the congress was at an end, the grand army took its position. It and Austria had no remedy, no re. consisted of the whole Austrian force, source, but to take up arms. --Such augmented by large Russian and Pruswas the substance of this important sian detachments from Silesia. The document.

head-quarters were at Toplitz, whence The French army, at the close of the combined armies threatened Saxony this discussion, equalled perhaps in and the rear of the French army. numerical amount those of all the Blucher commanded a very large force other powers united. At no former in Silesia, consisting partly of Russian period, probably, had Buonaparte been and Prussian regulars, and partly of at the head of one more numerous. a large body of well-organised militia, The main body, under his own imme. the whole amounting to about 100,000 diate command, may be estimated The Crown Prince of Sweden, without exaggeration at 300,000 men. who had his head-quarters at Berlin, He had established a strong fortified commanded the army of the north of line to the Bohemian frontier, begin- Germany. This force was composed

, ning at Wittenberg and passing through of the whole Swedish army, of large Torgau and Dresden to Konigstein corps of Russian and Prussian regulars, and the entrenched camp at Pirna- of the militia of Brandenburgh, and the a fine military line, no doubt, to resist troops levied in the Hanse Towns and an army advancing against him from other districts which had thrown off the Silesian frontier. Between this the French yoke. On one side, this line and the Silesian frontier his main army observed Davoust and the gararmy was stationed ; in Upper and rison of Magdeburgh ; on the other it Lower Lusatia, Mortier was posted covered Berlin, and was prepared to with 70,000 men, including a large act as circumstances might require force of cavalry at Luckaw; and Ney, against the French grand army. It with about the same numbers, occupied was estimated at 120,000 men. Bautzen. The Saxons were at Goer- This position of the allies does not, litz. On the Maine there was an arıny with a view to military movements,

men.

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