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lion of men had been sacrificed in less and hopes of the whole army."-Upthan two years ; and instead of being wards of 6000 letters were seized upon near the accomplishment of his wishes, a French courier.--- These,” said Sir he was now forced to tell France, that Charles, “ give the most doleful deshe might expect to be invaded, unless tails of the French army and their des she consented to make unparalleled ef. feats; the whole are in the most deforts. The empress endeavoured to sponding style.” raise a suspicion, that the allies meant Great, however, as were the advan. to dismember France; but they had tages of the allies, yet in the present realready declared, that “they had no lative position of the armies there was designs against France; but that they little prospect that they might immewere determined to be governed by diately inflict any fatal blow by the their own princes and their own laws.

superior forces which they had at their For the “ agitations of a degraded disposal. Buonaparte, from his centhrone, and a crown without glory,” tral situation, could still command a to which the empress alluded in her temporary superiority at any point speech, Buonaparte had to blame him. which was seriously threatened. The self alone.

grand army had appeared before DresThe increasing embarrassments of den, but had again retreated. Blucher the French army no longer admitted had repeatedly approached from the of concealment. Sir Charles Stewart, other side of the Elbe; but 100,000 an accurate observer, and a very able men defended the passage of the river ; man, made some judicious reflections, and he beat in vain against that imin one of his dispatches written about pregnable barrier. The Crown Prince, this period. " His (Buonaparte's) however, was preparing to pass at plan seems to have been,” said Sir Rosslau, and to advance. This operaCharles, “ to attack the allies, if he tion led to a series of skirmishes. could do so with an evident advantage; Buonaparte had given orders that if not, to impede their advance, and his generals should take Dessau, cost by menaces gain time either to extri- what it might. Information of this cate himself from the dangerous pre- was received, by the Crown Prince, in dicament in which he stands, or to sufficient time to give Major-General manæuvre the allies out of their posi. Schulzenheim notice to evacuate the tion. The latter he had not done, for place, and retire upon the works at the after all his

marches to and from the tete-du-pont. This service was perBohemian frontier, the grand allied formed without loss; and the enemy army remained on the spot to which did not undertake any thing against it retired after the attack upon Dres- Schulzenheim. The party covering den; and Buonaparte had entered the the workmen at the tete-du-pont, howBohemian passes one day, only to quit ever, advanced to reconnoitre nearly them the next. So that in this quarter as far as Dessau ; the posts of the his movements had been of no avail, enemy, having ventured out of the while time had been given to the al- city, were driven into the streets, and lied armies in other parts to press for the reconnoitering party retired beward and close upon him. Meanwhile hind the entrenchments. Bernadotte his numerical strength was decreasing soon after obtained information that daily. The sword had done much, the enemy at Dessau had received reinsickness had scarcely done less, and forcements, and was advancing against repeated defeats, with the accompany- the tete-du-pont. Field-Marshal Count ing privations, depressed the spirits Stedingk accordingly sent Col. Bjornes.

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tierna against him with 1000 infantry, Janitz, and a junction with Blucher's some cavalry, and two pieces of artille. army was thus accomplished. As the ry. The enemy hastily retired into the third Prussian corps d'armée, under: town, and shut the gates; a few young the command of General Bulow, and officers and soldiers, hurried on by the corps of General Tauentzein, had r too much bravery, threw themselves, already crossed the Elbe, General in spite of the enemy's shower of bul. Thumen remained before Wittenberg. 1 lets from the houses and walls, on a This general was induced to continue : gate, and endeavoured to cut it open the siege with vigour, since it was obwith axes; but nails and iron bands vious that the possession of Wittenberg rendered this impossible. Colonel must render the allies masters of the Bjornestierna ordered his troops to Elbe, as this fortress would at once fall back to the tele-du.pont; but cover Berlin, and serve as a depot for when he had retired about one hundred the allied armies. yards, the enemy opened the gate, and An expedition undertaken by Genefired on him with three pieces of ar. ral Tchernicheff against Cassel was tillery. The colonel halted, returned attended with brilliant success. Never the fire with his artillery, and marched were boldness, talents, and valour, more on the enemy, who retired into the eminently displayed than on this occa. town, and fastened the gates after sion. The general marched on the 24th : them. In the evening the enemy again to Eksleben, the 25th to Rosslau, and, left the town, and took a direction to avoiding a Westphalian corps under wards the bridge across the Mulda, the orders of General Bastinellar, posto which was entrusted to a battalion un- ed at Heilligenstadt, he made a lateral der the command of Colonel Alder- movement, passed through Sonders. creutz. This officercrossed the bridge, hausen, and arrived on the 26th, in the attacked the enemy, and drove him evening, at Muhlhausen. Thence he briskly into the town, the gates of marched upon Cassel. Investing the which were again closed.

city on every side, he ordered the cosThe enemy once more shewed him. sacks and the hussars of Jzum to atself with a corps of 7 or 8000 men be- tack the enemy's battalions, stationed tween the Mulda and the Elbe. As the at Bettenhausen, with -six pieces of allies had drawn their posts in, the ene- cannon. By a brilliant charge the my seemed disposed to march against guns were taken, the enemy dispersed, the entrenchments, and to force them. and more than 400 prisoners made. Lieutenant-General Sandals put him- The fugitives were pursued into the self at the head of three battalions, city ; but, as the streets were barricaand advanced from the lines upon the doed, the Russians at length fell back. enemy. He overthrew him and drove Jerome Buonaparte, the intrusive him briskly back. As this general King of Westphalia, collected two batbad received orders to return to the talions of guards, and a thousand horse, tete-du.pont, he executed them with and fled from Cassel by the road leadsuch precision as could not have been ing to Frankfort. Colonel Benken. excelled on the place of exercise. The dorff charged four squadrons of light French in this affair lost upwards of horse, forming part of the escort, not 600 men.—The Swedish army having one of whom escaped; he took 250 thrown a bridge of boats over the men and 10 officers.--Tchernicheff Elbe, at Rosslau, passed the river, and received information that General Basagain moved upon Dessau. Its ad. tinellar, with a French corps, was advanced posts extended to Raguhn and vancing to the relief of Caesel. He

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marched during the night of the 28th other provinces formerly Prussian, and upon Melzulgan, in order to meet the secured to Blucher the passage of the enemy with his entire force. The hos. Elbe at Elster, his march upon Leiptile corps dispersed ; only twenty cui. zig by turning Wittenberg, and his rassiers and two guns were taken. The communication with the army of the troops who followed the king disper- north of Germany. sed in like manner; more than 300 of The Russian and Prussian armies, them joined General Tchernicheff, and immoveable in the position which they marched with him on the 30th against had chosen in Bohemia from Toplity Cassel. The Russian general made use to the Elbe, waited the enemy in the of the artillery captured from the ene. fatal valley of Culm, received him with my, and cannonaded the town. The courage, drove him back as often as Leipzig gate, with the cannon planted he dared to descend from the mounthere, was carried by Colonel Benken- tains, wasted him with famine, and dorff. Tchernicheff' then offered terms demoralized his armies. Dresden, in: of capitulation to the general of division stead of being a point from which Alix, who obtained a free passage for Buonaparte attacked, now became to the French and Westphalian troops him a point of retreat. Meanwhile, with their arms and military baggage. the Austrian army extended itself on The city was occupied on the evening one side as far as Freyberg, Chemnitz, of the 38th by the Russians ; the joy of and Altenburg; and on the other tothe inhabitants was enthusiastic. The wards Thuringia and Bavaria ; it greater part of the Westphalian troops pushed forward strong detachments, ranged themselves under the banners and covered powerful diversions, acof the allies ; and a fatal blow was complished by partisans at once brave thus_struck against the influence of and fortunate. Where was Buona. the French in the kingdom of West- parte during the whole of September? phalia.

At Dresden and its vicinity ; again at This chapter may be concluded, by Dresden and its vicinity. He sent his a recapitulation of the important events sick and wounded to Leipzig and Er.

. which had lately occurred. In the furt; kept the King of Saxony and month of August, the French attempt his whole family at Dresden, to give ed to invade at once Mecklenburgh, himself the semblance of security, and Swedish Pomerania, the Middle Mark, continued to exercise a despotic sway, Silesia, and Bohemia. In the month which was now confined to the capital of September, after vain efforts, repel- of a petty kingdom. From Dresled on all sides, they were driven den those bags of letters were dispatchacross the Elbe near Hamburgh, wed- ed, which being intercepted and pubged into a corner of Lusatia, expelled lished, communicated just ideas of the from Bohemia, with considerable loss of true situation of the French army, and men and cannon, and disturbed in their of the disposition of the troops. line of communication between Dres- The treaty of alliance, concluded den, Altenburg, Leipzig, and Erfurt. at Toplitz, between Austria, Russia, Towards the end of the month, the and Prussia--the negociations opened combined armies passed the Elbe. Vic- with Bavaria—the unequivocal movetory opened to the corps

of General ments of the grand combined army Walmoden, the Old Mark, Luneberg, towards the Maine-the siege of Witand the route of Hanover and Bohe- tenburg resumed with vigour-the junce mia ; made the Crown Prince mas- tion of the army of Blucher with that ter of the duchies of Anholt, and of the Crown Prince, proved to Buo

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naparte the difficulties of his situation Tchernicheff, had placed its keys in more effectually than his minister and the hands of the Crown Prince. The generals had hitherto been able to do. old order of things succeeded to the

Russia, Austria, and Prussia, mu- most oppressive tyranny. The trenches tually guaranteed their states on the were opened before Dantzig, Stettin, footing of 1805; they set out with and Glogau. These garrisons were the unchangeable principle of not per- destitute of necessaries; they had many mitting a single French bayonet to re- sick. Magdeburg also was ill provisionmain in Germany. Already the sceptreed; and Buonaparte was placing even of the intrusive King of Westphalia the fortresses on the Rhine in a state was broken in pieces. The city of of defence. Cassel, by the exertions of General

CHAP. XVI.

Grand Movement of the Allied Armies.-Decisive Battle of Leipzig, and Rout of the French. Their Flight to the Rhine.-The Combined Armies pass the French Frontier.

The operations of the allied armies, the Rhine. Platoff, with his cossacks, although they had already been at. led the advance, and cut up a French tended with important results, had not corps, under Lefebvre, which had been been of so decisive a character as to in. sent by Buonaparte to clear the road. terrupt altogether the communications, from Dresden." The Bohemian army or to break the strength of the grand proceeded in three divisions towards French army at Dresden. Should Buo, Chemnitz and Freiburgh,—the Rusnaparte be able to maintain his ground sians by Commotau,ấthe Prussians by in that capital, until the immense levies Brix, and the Austrians from Toplitz. now raising in France could arrive to The force of the Russians and Prus. his support, it became evident that the sians amounted to 90,000, that of the contest might be prolonged to an in Austrians to 100,000 men. definite duration ; the allies, therefore, General Blucher and the Crown perceived the necessity of more vigor. Prince at the same time advanced, and ous efforts. Their forces had been formed a junction. The march of augmented by the arrival of General Blucher was truly astonishing. He Beningsen, at the head of a Russian had with him about 60,000 men ;-he corps of 40,000 men. Platoff, the cos brought also all his cannon and bagsack chief, who had been for some gage and a bridge equipage ; and yet time absent from the scene of active he effected this great movement with operations, now re-appeared ; his war. incredible velocity. The Crown Prince riors formed part of Beningsen's corps having forced the Elbe on the 3d of which joined the grand army in Bohe. October, and carried the entrenched mia. So great and seasonable a rein- village of Wertemberg, passed over his forcement determined the leaders of whole army the next day at Acken and the Bohemian army to make a grand Rosslau. Ney immediately fell back movement on their left, and, ascending from Dessau. Bernadotte established from Bohemia, to interpose between his head-quarters there on the 4th, and Dresden and the communication with proceeded next day to Reguhn, on the

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