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TABLES OF JEWISH MONEYS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.
MONEY
MEASURES-Liquin.

MEASURES OF LENGTH.
REDUCED TO WARS AND CENTS
REDUCED TO ENGLISH WINS MEASURE

paces. . D.

gall, gis. pes. A Digit for finger) nearly A Shekel of Silver 30A Log (1-79d of an ephah) about

0 04 A Palm, or Hand's breadth Date of told 9 An Ourer 1.10 to)

A Span (three palas) nearly Alachu silver) 018 A Cab (11 ditto)

3) A Sacred ditto Akah Dadrachma, or Half shekel ~ 24 A Hinil 6th ditto)

A Common Cubit Atithiwth of dittu) abut 2 Adahil ditto)

A Fathom
A moh, w Mua (w shekels)

43an Exhaher Bath
7 04A Pace

5 1.319 34 Au Hount (themah), or Cor

75 2 1
A Furlong, or Stadium

145 carefully distinguish between an Omer and A Sabbath Day's Journey, about an English mile. * Siver is here reckoned at $1. 12, and Gold at a Homer, which contains 100 Onuers. $17.73, ver ounce.

ROMAN MONEYS
DRY, OR CORX MEASURE.

MENTIONED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
WEIGHTS --Tkor.

Reduced to Dours and Cenas.
A Cad, nearly

3
04. drets. grs An (unter (or Gomer)

D A Cerer 191 Asah

i A Mite, about equal, in our money, to A Stekel revahal 10 As Ephah

3 A Farthing (two mites) A leteh, or Hair Romer

• A Penoy (denarias) Atalat (30 maneb o A Homer, or Cor

A Pound (min)

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Entered, acconting to the Act of Congress, in the year 1933, by JAMES Conner and WILLAN R. Cooxs, in the Clerk's Ociep of the District Court of the Southern District of New York.

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THE Sacred Volume, which we term the BIBLB, or the Book, by way of the Jews were divided after their canon was closed ; as well as their disper einence, consists of two grand parts, the Old Testament and the Nero Tes- sion into every part of the globe, concurred to render any attempt at fabrica assent; containing conjointly a variety of different compositions, historical, tion improbable and impossible before the time of Christ, and after that poetical, and judicial, moral, preceptive, and propheticai, written at various period, the saine books being in the hands of the Christians, they would intimes by different persona, through a space of fifteen hundred years, and stantly have detected the fraud of the Jews, if they had endeavoured to afterwards collected into a volume.

accomplish such a design ; while the silence of the Jews, (who would not

have failed to notice the attempt if it had been made,) is a clear proof that GENUINENESS.

they were not corrupted by the Christians.

2. Equally satisfactory is the evidence for the integrity and incorruptness That these books are genuine, that is, were written by those persons whose of the New Testament. The multiplication of copies, both of the original, names they bear, we have the most satisfactory evidence; and have no and of translations into a variety of foreign languages, which were read, not por reason to doubt, than that the histories which we have under the only in private, but publicly in the religious assemblies of the early Chrig. maines of HERODOTUS, XENOPHON, or TACITUS, were written by those au- tians; the reverence of the Christians for these writings; the variety of sects thors. For,

and heresies which soon arose in the Christian church, each of whom ap. I The books of the Old Testament have always been received as genuine pealed to the Scriptures for the truth of their doctrines, rendered any material by the Jews, and those of the New Testament by Christians, from the earliest alteration in the sacred books utterly impossible; while the silence of their perlai to the present time; and, in addition to the earlier books being cited acutest enemies, who would most assuredly have charged them with the e aileded to by subsequent sacred writers, we have ample evidence afforded attempt if it had been made, and the agreement of all the manuscripts and of the genuineness of the Old Testament by Jewish Translators and Writers, versions extant, are positive proofs of the integrity and incorruptness of the and of that of the New, by a regular succession of Christian Writers, who New Testament: which are farther attested by the agreement with it of all quite or allnde to a number of passages as we now read them, from the the quotations which occur in the writings of the Christians from the earliest sues of the Apostles to the present hour ; nor was their genuineness ever age to the present time. In fact, so far from there having been any gross augned by the most determined and acute Jewish or heathen adversaries, adulteration in the Sacred Volumes, the best and most able critics have asof heretics

serted and proved that, even in lesser matters, the Holy Scriptures of the 2 The language and style of writing, both in the Old and New Testaments, New Testament have suffered less from the injury of time, and the errors of prove then to liave been composed at the time and by tho persons to whom transcribers, than any other ancient writings whatever; and that the very they are ascribed. Their diversity of style proves them to have been the worst manuscript extant would not pervert one article of our faith, or destroy works of various authors; and competent Hebrew scholars have shown, that one moral precept. the difference of character and style of the language in the Old Testament, 28 well as the introduction of certain foreign words, can only be accounted

AUTHENTICITY. for be the supposition that they were composed at different and distant pe. riods, and by the authors to whom they are attributed; while the Greek, in It is no less certain that the Sacred Writings are authentic, that is, relate vluch the New Testament is written, which is intermixed with many Ho- matters of fact as they really happened; and consequently, that they are brew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Latin words and idioms, accords only with the entitled to the fullest credit, and possess the greatest authority. For, tise, situation, sunuy, and circumstances, of the persons to whom it is 1. The Sacred Writers had the very best means of information, and could ascribed.

not be deceived themselves. They were, for the most part, contemporary 2. The moral impossibility of their being forgeries is an additional evidence with, and eye-witnesses of the facts they record ; and those transactions of their genuineness; for, it is impossible to establish forged writings as which they did not see, they derived from the most certain evidences, and genuine in any place where there are persons strongly inclined, and well drew from the purest sources. Thus, in the four last books of the Pentawalified, to detect the fraud. Now, if the books of the Old Testament be teuch, Moses had a chief concem in all the transactions there related ; and for series, they must have been invented either by Gentiles, Jews, or Chrig. the authors of the subsequent historical books, as Joshua, Samuel, Ezra, and trans Pat they could not have been invented by the Gentiles, because they Nehemiah, as well as the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, ere alike ipnorant of the higwry and sacred rites of the Hebrews, who relate those events of which they were witnesses; and, when they relate Dost gestionably would never have given their approbation to writings events that took place before their own times, they refer to certain public invented by them, nor yet to any fabrications of the Christians, by whom, it documents and annals, then extant, which might be appealed to by their is evident, they could not have been forged, as they were extant fong before readers. In like manner, the writers of the New Testament, as Matthew, the Christian name had any existence; and it is equally certain that they Jolin, Peter, James, and Jude, were the immediate disciples of our Saviour; were not invented by the Jews, because they contain various ditficult laws his constant attendants and companions throughout his ministry ; eye-wit. and preopts, and relate all their idolatries, crimes, and punishments, which riesses of the facts and miracles, and ear-witnesses of the discourses they would oot have been inserted if they had been forged by them. Equally im- relate; and the other sacred writers, as Mark and Luke, though themselves possible is it, that the books of the New Testament were forged; for the Jews not apostles, yet were the contemporaries and companions of apostles, and were the most violent enemies of Christianity; they put its founder to death ; in habits of society and friendship with those who had been present at the and both Jews and Gentiles persecuted his disciples with implacable hatred, transactions they record ; as St. Luke expressly affirms in the beginning of Hence, if the New Testament had been forged, the Jews would certainly his Gospel : 'Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a lace detected the imposture; and the inhabitants of Palestine would not declaration of these things which are most surely believed amongst us ; even tase received the Gospels, nor the churches of Rome and Corinth acknow as they delivered them unto us, which, from the beginning, were eye-witnesses Lodges the epistles addressed to them, if they had not had sutficient evidence and ministers of the word, it seemed good to me, also, having had perfect inof their genuineness. In fact, these arguments are so strong, that if we deny derstanding of all things from the very firsi, to write unto thee, in order, most the genuineness of the Sacred Writings, we may, with a thousand times excellent Theophilus, that thou mightest know the certainly of those things Dute propriety, reject all the other writings in the world as spurious. wherein thou hast been instructed.'

2. As the sacred writers could not be deceived themselves, so they neither UNCORRUPTED PRESERVATION.

could nor would deceive others. They were so many in number, and lived

at such a distance of time and place from each other, that it was utterly im. That the Sacred Writings are not only genuine, but have been transmitted possible for them to carry on any forgery or fraud without being detected; 15 u entire and uncorrupied, and that they are, in all essential points, the and the writers of the New Testament, in particular, were plain, honest, same as they came originally from the hands of their authors, we have the artless, unlearned men, in very humble occupations of life, and utterly incaDit satisfactory evidence that can be required. That, in the various tran- pable of carrying on such a refined and complicated system of fraud, as the Eripts of these writings, as in all other ancient books, a few letters, syllables, Christian religion must have been, if it was not true. The principal facts

even words, may have been changed, we do not pretend to deny; but that and everts themselves are of such a nature as totally precludes the possi. there has been any designed or fraudulent corruption of any considerable bility of imposition; facts which appeal to the very senses of the men to part, especially of any doctrine, or important part of history or prophecy, no whom the histories were first addressed. Thus Moses could not have perone has ever atternpted to prove.

suaded a body of six hundred thousand men (to whom he appeals for the I With regard to the Old Testament, the original manuscripts were long truth and reality of those facts, De. xi. 2.) that they had seen rivers turned preserved among the Jews, who were always remarkable for being most into blood,-frogs filling the houses of the Egyptians,-their fields destroyed faithful zuardians of their sacred books, which they transcribed repeatedly, by hail and locusts,-their land covered with palpable darkness,-their firstand compared most carefully with the originals, of which they even num-born slain in one night,-the Red Sea forming a wall on the right hand and bead the words and letters. That the Jews have neither mutilated nor cor. left for the passage of the Israelites, but overwhelming their enemies, –a rupted these writings, is fully proved by the silence of the prophets, as well pillar of cloud and fire conducting them.-manna falling down from heaven as of Christ and his apostles, who, though they bring many heavy charges for their food,—water gushing out of the rock to quench their thirst, and against them, never once accuse them of corrupting one of their sacred wri- the earth opening and destroying his opponents,-if all these things had tings; and also by the agreement, in every essential point, of all the versions been false. Nor could the Evangelical historians have succeeded in per. and manuseripts (amounting to nearly 1150) which are now extant, and suading their countrymen and contemporaries, that a man, whose death was which fertiishes a clear proof of their uncorrupted preservation. In fact, public and notorious, was risen again from the dead, -that markness had the constant reading of their sacred books, (which were at once the rule of covered the land at the time of his execution.—and that there had been an teir faith, and of their political constitution,) in public and private ; the earthquake at the moment of his decease, -if all these events lød not taken Derous copies of the original, as well as of the Septuagint version, which place. And, as it is thus evident, that the sacred writers cou pot possibly was widely spread over the world; the various sects and parties into which I impose upon others; so it is equally certain that they were Ix make the

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TABLES OF JEWISH MONEYS, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.

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MONEY.
MEASURES.-LIQUID.

MEASURES OF LENGTH.
REDUCED TO DOLLARS AND CENTS.
REDUCED TO ENGLISH WINE MEASURE.

paces. n. ir.
D. C.
galls. qis. pes. A Digit (or finger) nearly

0 A Shekel of Silver 050 A Log (1-72d of an ephah) about

0 04 A Palm, or Hund's breadth

0 0 3 Ditto of Gold 8 9 An Omer (1-10 ditto) 0 3 0 A Span (three palms) nearly

11 A Drachm (silver) 0 18 A Cab (1-19 ditto) 0 0 34 A Sacred ditto

0 1 A Bekah, Didrachma, or Hali-shekel 0 24A Hin (1-6th ditto) 1 1 0 A Common Cubit

0 1 6 A Geral (1.20th of ditto) about 0 2 A Seah (1-3d ditto) 2 2 0 A Fathom

7 3 A Maneh, or Mina (50 shekels) 25 43 An Eplah, or Bath

2 04 | A Pace,

0 5 0 A Talent of Silver 1,519 32 An Homer (Chomah), or Cor 75 2 1 A Furlong, or Stadium

145 4 7 Ditto of Gold

23,309 0 ** Carefully distinguish betwoen an Omer and A Sabbath Day's Journey, about an English mile. ** Silver is here reckoned at $1.12, and 'Gold at a Homer, which contains 100 Omers. $17.75, per ounce.

ROMAN MONEYS
DRY, OR CORN MEASURE.

MENTIONED IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.
WEIGHTS.-TROY.

pks. gals. pts.

Reduced to Dollars and Cenis.
A Cab, nearly

0 0 3
W. oz. drots. grs. An Omer (or Gomer)

0 5 1

D. C A Gerah 0 0 0 12 A Seah

1 0 i A Mite, about equal, in our money, to 0 A Shekel (90 geraha) 0 0 10 0 An Ephah 3 0 3 A Farthing (two mitos)

0 3 A Maneh (60 hkels) 2 6 0 0 A Letech, or Hair-homer 16 0 O A Penny (denarius)

0 13 A Talent (50 manehs) 125 0 0 O A Homer, or Cor

32 0 1 A Pound (mina)

14 9

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Entered, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1833, by JAMES Conner and William R. Cooke, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York.

INTRODUCTION.

TTIE Sacred Volume, which we term the BIBLE, or the Book, by way of the Jews were divided after their canon was closed ; as well as their disper eminence, consists of two grand parts, the Old Testament and the Nero Tession into every part of the globe, concurred to render any attempt at fabrica tament; containing conjointly a variety of different compositions, historical, tion improbable and impossible before the time of Christ and after that poetical, and judicial, moral, precoptive, and prophetical, written at various period, the same books being in the hands of the Christians, they would inlimes by different persons, through a space of fifteen hundred years, and stantly have detected the fraud of the Jews, if they had endeavoured to afterwards collected into a volume.

accomplish such a design ; while the silence of the Jews, (who would not

have failed to notice the attempt if it had been made,) is a clear proof that GENUINENESS.

they were not corrupted by the Christians.

2. Equally satisfactory is the evidence for the integrity and incorruptness That these books are genuine, that is, were written by those persons whose of the New Testament. The multiplication of copies, both of the original, names they bear, we have the most satisfactory evidence; and have no and of translations into a variety of foreign languages, which were read, not more reason to doubt, than that the histories which we have under the only in private, but publicly in the religious assemblies of the early Chris. HTEES of HERODOTUS, XENOPHON, or TACITUS, were written by those au- tians; the reverence of the Christians for these writings; the variety of sects thors. For,

and heresies which soon arose in the Christian church, each of whom ap. 1. The books of the Old Testament have always been received as genuine pealed to the Scriptures for the truth of their doctrines, rendered any material by the Jews, and those of the New Testament by Christians, from the earliest alteration in the sacred books uiterly impossible ; while the silence of their period to the present time ; and, in addition to the earlier books being cited acutest enemies, who would most assuredly have charged them with the of alluded to by subsequen! sacred writers, we have ample evidence afforded attempt if it had been made, and the agreement of all the manuscripts and of the genuineness of the Old Testament by Jewish Translators and Writers, versions extant, are positive proofs of the integrity and incorruptness of the and of that of the New, by a regular succession of Christian Writers, who New Testament; which are farther attested by the agreement with it or all Grote or allude to a number of passages as we now read them, from the the quotations which occur in the writings of the Christians from the earliest tienes of the Apostles to the present hour ; nor was their genuineness ever age to the present time. In fact, so far from there having been any gross urugeed by the most determined and acute Jewish or hicallen adversaries, adultoration in the Sacred Volumes, the best and most able critics have asor heretics.

serted and proved that, even in lesser matters, the Holy Scriptures of the 4. The language and style of writing, both in the Old and New Testaments, New Testament have suffered less from the injury of time, and the errors of prove then to liave been composed at the time and by tho persons to whom transcribers, than any other ancient writings whatever; and that the very lber are ascribed. Their diversity of style proves them to have been the worst manuscript extant would not pervert one article of our faith, or destroy work of vanous authors; and competent Hebrew scholars have shown, that one moral precept. Le difference of character and style of the langunge in the Old Testament, da well as the introduction of certain foreign words, can only be accounted

AUTHENTICITY. for by the supposition that they were composed at ditferent and distant periods, and by the authors to whom they are attributed; while the Greek, in It is no less certain that the Sacred Writings are authentic, that is, relate which the New Testament is written, which is intermixed with many Ho. matters of fact as they really happened ; and consequently, that they are brew, Chaldee, Syriac, and Latin words and idioms, accords only with the entitled to the fullest credit, and possess the greatest authority. For, time, aluation, country, and circumstances, of the persons to whom it is 1. The Sacred Writers had the very best means of information, and could arribed.

not be deceived themselves. They were, for the most part, contemporary 2. The moral impossibility of their being forgeries is an additional evidence with, and eye-witnesses of the facts they record; and those transactions of their genuineness ; for, it is impossible to establish forged writings as which they did not see, they derived from the most certain evidences, and genuine in any place where there are persons strongly inclined, and well drew from the purest sources. Thus, in the four last books of the Penta

ualified, to detect the fraud. Now, if the books of the Old Testament be teuch, Moses had a chief concern in all the transactions there related ; and forzenies, they must have been invented either by Gentiles, Jews, or Chris. the authors of the subsequent historical books, as Joshua, Samuel, Ezra, and tians. Rat they could not have been invented by the Gentiles, because they Nehemiah, as well as the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel, were alike ignorant of the histry and sacred rites of the Hebrews, who relate those events of which they were witnesses; and, when they rolate Iso:t urquestionably would never have given their approbation to writings ovents that took place before their own times, they refer to certain public invented by them, nor yet to any fabrications of the Christians, by whom, it documents and annals, then extant, which might be appealed to by their is evident, they could not have been forged, as they were extant long before readers. In like manner, the writers of the New Testament, as Matthew, the Christian name had any existence; and it is equally certain that they Jolin, Peter, James, and Jude, were the immediate disciples of our Saviour; were not invented by the Jews, because they contain various difficult laws his constant attendants and companions throughout his ministry ; eye-wit. and preopts, and relate all their idolatries, crimes, and punishments, which liesses of the facts and miracles, and ear witnesses of the discourses they woald pot have been inserted if they had been forged by them. Equally im- relate ; and the other sacred writers, as Mark and Luke, though themselves possible is it, that the books of the New Testament were forged; for the Jews not apostles, yet were the contemporaries and companions of apostles, and were the most violent enemies of Christianity; they put its founder to death ; in habits of society and friendship with those who had been present at the and both Jews and Gentiles persecuted his disciples with implacable hatred. transactions they record; as St. Luke expressly affirms in the beginning of Hence, if the New Testament had been forged, the Jews would certainly his Gospel : Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a have detected the imposture ; and the inhabitants of Palestine would not declaration of these things which are most surely believed amongst us ; even have received the Gospels, nor the churches of Rome and Corinth acknow as they delivered them unto us, which, from the beginning, were eye-wiiresses ledred the epistles addressed to them, if they had not had sufficient evidence and ministers of the word, it seemed good to me, also, having had perfect unof their genuineness. In fact, these arguments are so strong, that if we deny derstanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee, in order, most like genuineness of the Sacred Writings, we may, with a thousand times excellent Theophilus, that thou mightest know the certainty of those things more propriety, reject all the other writings in the world as spurious.

wherein thou hast been instructed.'

2. As the sacred writers could not be deceived themselves, so they neither UNCORRUPTED PRESERVATION.

could nor would deceive others. They were so many in number, and lived

at such a distance of time and place from each other, that it was utterly im. That the Sacred Writings are not only genuine, but have been transmitted possible for them to carry on any forgery or frand without being detected; to w care and sacorrupted, and that they are, in all essential points, the and the writers of the New Testament, in particular, were plain, honest, ce as they came originally from the hands of their authors, we have the artless, unlearned men, in very humble occupations of life, and utterly inca. most satisfactory evidence that can be required. That, in the various tranpable of carrying on such a refined and complicated system of fraud, as the scripts of these writings, us in all other ancient books, a few letters, syllables, Christian religion must have been, if it was not true. The principal facts

eren words, may have been changed, we do not pretend to deny ; but that and events themselves are of such a nature as totally precludes the possithere has been any designed or fraudulent corruption of any considerable bility of imposition ; facts which appeal to the very senses of the men to part, especially of any doctrine, or important part of history or prophecy, no whom the histories were first addressed. Thus Moses could not have perone has ever attempted to prove.

suaded a body of six hundred thousand men (to whom he appeals for the 1. With regard to the Old Testament, the original manuscripts were long truth and reality of those facts, De. xi. 2.) that they had seen rivers turned preserved among the Jews, who were always remarkable for being most into blood,-frogs filling the houses of the Egyptians,—their fields destroyed faithful guardians of their sacred books, which they transcribed repeatedly, by hail and locusts,--their land covered with palpable darkness,- their firstand compared most carefully with the originals, of which they even num. born slain in one night,-the Red Sea forming a wall on the right hand and bered the words and letters. That the Jews have neither mutilated nor cor left for the passage of the Israelites, but overwhelming their enemies,-a rupied there writings, is fully proved by the silence of the prophets, as well pillar of cloud and fire conducting them.-manna falling down from heaven as of Christ and his apostles, who, though they bring many heavy charges for their food, -water gushing out of the rock to quench their thirst,-and emainst them, never once accuse them of corrupting one of their sacred wri- the earth opening and destroying his opponents,-if all these things had lings; and also by the agreement, in every essential point, of all the versions been false. Nor could the Evangelical historians have succeeded in per. and manuscripts (amounting to nearly 1150) which are now extant, and suading their countrymen and contemporaries, that a man, whose death was which furnishes a clear proof of their uncorrupted preservation. In fact, public and notorious, was risen again from the dead, -that narkness had the constant reading of their sacred books, (which were at once the rule of covered the land at the time of his execution, and that there had been an their faith, and of their political constitution,) in public and private ; the earthquake at the moment of his decease, if all these events fød not taken funerous copies of the original, as well as of the Septuagint version, which place. And, as it is thus evident, that the sacred writers cou not possibly was widely spread over the world; the various sects and parties into which I impose upon others; so it is equally certain thal they woma In make the INTRODUCTION. accompl

. The whole tenor of their lives demonstrated, as even their bitterest | of the magistrate, and the subtleties of the philosopher, over the prejudices enemies have confessed, that they were mon of piety and integrity; and they of the Gentiles, and the bigotry of the Jews, and extended its conquests over could have no possible motive to induce them to propagate a deliberate the whole Roman empire, which then comprised nearly the whole known falsehood. They sought neither riches nor glory; and their writings bear world. Nothing, indeed, but the plainest matter of fact could induce so the most unequivocal marks of veracity, candour, and impartiality. They many thousands of prejudiced and persecuted Jews, to embrace the hunilia use no panegyric or flattery; they offer no palliation for their own frailties ting and self-denying doctrines of the Gospel which they had held in such and follies; they conceal nothing: they alter nothing, however disgraceful detestation and abhorrence ; nor could any thing but the clearest evidence, to their heroes and sovereigns, to their own nation, or to themselves. How arising from undoubted truth, make multitudes of lawless and luxurious then can they be supposed capable of so gross an imposition as that of as- heathens receive, follow, and transmit to posterity, the doctrines and wri. serting and propagating the most impudent fictions? The writers of the tings of the apostles ; especially at a time when the vanity of their preten. New Testament especially could gain by it neither pleasure, profit, nor sions to miracles, and to the gift of tongues, could have been easily detected, power. On the contrary, it brought upon them the most dreadful evils, and had they been impostors; and at a time when the profession of Christianity even death itself. If, therefore, they were cheats, they were cheats without exposed persons of all ranks and ages to the greatest contempt, and to the any motive, and without any advantage ; nay, contrary to every motive and most imminent danger. every advantage that usually influence the actions of men. They preached 6. In addition to the above evidence of the authenticity of the Sacred a religion which forbids falsehood under pain of eternal punishment and Scriptures, it is to be observed, that many of the facts and circumstances re. misery; and yet, on this supposition, they supported that religion by false. corded in them are confirmed by the accounts of ancient heathen autborg hood; and, whilst guilty of the basest and most useless knavery themselves, which demonstrates their perfect agreement with the most authentic records they were taking intinite pains, and enduring the greatest labour and suffer. extant. Thus, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament, the first origin and ing, in order to teach mankind honesty. This is a mode of acting so con- creation of the world out of chaos ; the completion of this great work in trary to all experience, to all the principles of human nature, and to all the six days; the fortation of man in the image of God, and his existence in a motives of human conduct, as to exceed the bounds of belief, and to compel state of innocence; his fall, and the introduction of sin into the world; the every reasonable being at onco to reject such a supposition as absurd and longevity of the antediluvians; the destruction of the world by a deluge ; monstrous. Hence the facts related in the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, the circumstance of the ark and the dove ; the building of the tower of especially, even those evidently miraculous, must be true ; for the testimony Babel ; the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah ; many particulars relating of those who die for what they assert, and of which they are competent to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and Moses ; the departure of the Israelites judges, is sufficient evidence to support any miracle whatever.

from Egypt, and their miraculous passage of the Red Sea; the giving of the 3. Such a multitude of minutely particular circumstances of time, place, law, and Jewish ritual ; the fertility of Palestine; the destruction of the person, &c., is mentioned in the books of the Old and New Testaments, as Canaanites by Joshua and the Israelites ; Jephthah's devoting his daughter ; affords a clear and unquestionable proof both of their genuineness and au. the history of Samson ; the history of Samuel and Saul; the slayiog of Gothenticity. No forged or false accounts of things thus superabound with liah by David ; many remarkable circumstances respecting David and Soloparticularities, and no forger, or relater of falsehoods, would mention so

mon; the invasion of Israel by Shalmaneser, and deportation of the twelve great a number of particulars, since this would put into his reader's hands so tribes; the destruction of Sennacherib's army; the defeat of Josiah by many criteria by which to detect him; nor, in fact, could he produce such a Pharaoh-necho; the reduction of Jerusalem, and captivity of Jehoahaz; minute detail of circumstances. It is easy to conceive how faithful records, these facts, and others of the same kind, are confirmed by the testimony of kept from time to time by persons concerned in the transactions, should profane authors, and even some of them by traditions, which still exisl contain such a minute account of things; but it would be a work of the

among heathen nations, and others by coins, medals, and other monuments. highest invention, and greatest stretch of genius, to raise from nothing such

Not less striking and decisive is the testimony of both Roman historians and numberless particulars as are almost every where to be met with in the Old Jewish writers to the truth of the principal facts detailed in the New Testaund New Testaments,--particulars, the falsehood of which would most as

ment; such as Herod's murder of the infants, under two years old, at Belbsuredly have been detected by the persons most interested in detecting them, lohem ; many particulars respecting John the Baptist and Herod; the life if they had been forged or false. These accounts were published among the and character of our Lord; his crucifixion under Pontius Pilate ; and the people who witnessed the events related by the historians, and who could, earthquake and miraculous darkness that attended it; the miserable death with the greatest ease, have exposed any fraud or falsehood, if there had of Herod Agrippa ; and many other matters of minor importance related in been any, in the details of such transactions : but they did not attempt to these writings. Nay, even many of the miracles which Jesus himself question either the reality of the facus, or the fidelity of the narrators; and wrought, particularly in curing the blind and lame, and casting out devils, their acquiescence with them, as well as their obedience to the injunctions are, as to matter of fact, expressly owned and admitted by Jewish writers; contained in these books, are conclusive evidence in favour both of their and by several of the earliest and most implacable enemies of Christianity; genuineness and authenticity, abundantly sufficient to convince every candid for, though they ascribed these miracles to magic, or the assistance of evil inquirer.

spirits, yet they allowed that the miracles themselves were actually wrought. 4. The authenticity of the Old and New Testaments is farther attested by And this testimony of our adversaries, to the miraculous parts of the sacred the principal facts contained in them, being confirmed by certain commemo history, is the strongest possible confirmation of the truth and authority of rative ordinances of great celebrity, which have existed among the Jews and the whole. Add to this, that in the sacred history, both of the Old and New Christians from the time the events took place, which they are intended to Testaments, there are continuni allusions and references to things, persons, commemorate, to the present day, wherever Jews or Christians are to be places, manners, customs, and opinions, which are perfectly conformable to found. Such, among the Jews, is circumcision, the seal of the covenant with the real state of things in the countries and ages to which they stand related, Abraham, their great progenitor ;--the passover, instituted to commemorate as represented in the most authentic records that remain ; while the rise and the protection of the Israelites, when all the first born of the Egyptians were fall of empires, the revolutions that have taken place in the world, and the destroyed, and their deliverance from bondage in Egypt, which was the im grand outlines of chronology, as mentioned or referred to in the Scriptures, mediate consequence ;-the feast of tabernacles, instituted to perpetuate the are coincident with those stated by the most ancient and creditable writers sojourning of the Israelites for forty years in the wilderness ;--the feast of extant. Pentecost, which was appointed fifty days after the passover, to commemorate Such are the principal evidences, both external and interval, direct and the delivery of the Law from Mount Sinai ;-and the feast of Purim, kept in collateral, of the authenticity and credibility of the Sacred Scriptures; and memory of the deliverance of the Jews from the wicked machinations of when the number, variety, and extraordinary nature of many of them are Haman. Now all these institutions, which have been held sacred among considered, it is impossible not to come to the conclusion, that the Sacred the Jews in all ages since their appointment, and are solemnly and sacredly Writings contain a true relation of matters of fact as they really happened. observed among them to this day, in whatever country they sojourn, bear the If such a combination of evidence is not sufficient to satisfy every secuirer most unequivocal testimony to the truth of the facts which they are designed into truth, it is utterly impossible that any event, which passed in former to commemorato, and which facts are inseparably interwoven with the his-times, and which we did not see with our own eyes, can ever be proved lu tory and laws, and even morality and prophecy, of the Old Testament. In have happened, by any degree of testimony whatever.* like manner, the principal facts of the Gospels are confirmed by certain in. stitutions which subsist to this day among Christians, and are the objects

INSPIRATION. of men's senses. Such is the initiatory rite of Baptism, which is performed in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, by which those sub- The Scriptures are not merely entitled to be received as perfectly authentic mitting to it renounce every other religious institution, and bind themselves and credible, but also as containing the revealed will of God, in other words, to the profession of the Gospel alone ;-the Lord's supper, kept in commemo- as divinely inspired writings. By inspiration is meant such a coinplete ang ratiou of the life, sufferings, death, resurrection, and the promise of the immediate communication, by the Holy Spirit, to the minds of the sacriu second coming of the Founder of their religion ;-and the observance of the writers, of those things which could not have been otherwise known; ang First day of the Week, in honour of Christ's resurrection from the dead. such an effectual superintendence and guidance, as to those particulars conNow, as these monuments perpetuate the memory, 80 they demonstrate the cerning which they might otherwise obtain information ; as was amply suftruth, of the facts contained in the Gospel history beyond ali reasonable ficient to enable them to communicate religious knowledge to others, withdoubt; because, unless the events, of which the Christian rites are com- out any error or mistake, which could in the least affect any of the doctunes memorations, had really taken place, it is impossible to conceive how these or precepts contained in their writings, or mislead any person, who consider rites could have come into general use. If Jesus Christ neither lived, nored them as a divine and infallible standard of truth and duty. Every sentaught, nor wrought miracles, nor died, nor rose again from the dend, it is tence, in this view, must be considered as 'the sure testimony of God,' in altogether incredible that so many men, in countries so widely distant, that sense in which it is proposed as truth. Facts occurred, and words should have conspired together to perpetuate such a series of falsehoods, by were spoken, as to the import of them, and the instructiou contained in commencing the observation of the institution of Baptism, the Lord's sup. them, evactly as they are here recorded; but the morality of words and acper, and the Lord's day: and it is equally incredible that, by continuing to tions, recorded merely as done and spoken, must be judged of by the docvbserve them, they should have imposed these falsehoods on posterity. trinal and preceptive parts of the same book. The sacred writers, indeed,

5. The wonderful establishment and propagation of Christianity is a most wrote in such language as their different talents, tempors, educations, habits, onvincing proof of the authenticity of the New Testament; and, conse. and associations suggested, or rendered natural to them ; but the Holy Spirit quently, of that of the Old Testament, with which it is intimately and in- so entirely superintended them, when writing, as to exclude every error, and separably connected. Before the second century was completed, the Chris. every unsuitable expression, and to guide them to all those which best tian doctrine,-unaided by any temporal power, protected by no authority, suited their several subjects: they are the voice, but the Divine Spirit is the assisted by no art, not recommended by the reputation of its author, not entorced by eloquence in its advocates, but by the force of truth alone.--had • For references to classical and other anthors as to the facts stated, see notes to the

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