great council of the king. All Christendom was now divided in religious opinions, as to the head of the church, by the contentions of the two rival popes, who could not be brought to agree on the means to put an end to this disgraceful schism. *

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About this time, John duke of Burgundy was busily employed in collecting a body of

men-at-arms to aid his brother-in-law, the bishop of Liege, whom, as has been said, the Liegeois had driven out of their country, and besieged in the town of Maestricht.

John “the INtarpid,” Duke of Bungundy.—From a picture in the Chartreuse at Dijon,
engraved in Vol. III. of Histoire Générale et Particulière de Bourgogne.

He sent for succour among his friends and allies, namely, to Burgundy, Flanders, Artois, and the borders of Picardy, whence came very many, and several from Savoy. The earl of Mar", also, a Scotchman, then at Bruges, with about fourscore combatants, ready to embark for Scotland, advanced into the Tournesis, whither the duke came, and had a conference with their principal captains in the town of Tournay. On the eleventh day of September, he marched thence with a numerous body of men-at-arms, and a great train of artillery and baggage-waggons, to Enghien, where he was gladly received by the lord of the place. On the morrow, he advanced to Nivelle in Brabant, within a league of Salmes. He marched next to Flourines, where he met sir Richardt Daulphin, sir William de Tignonville, lately provost of Paris, and master William Bouratier, one of the king's secretaries, ambassadors to him from the king of France. Having obtained an audience, they said they had been sent to him from the king and the great council on two objects; first, to know whether the Liegeois and their bishop were willing to submit their differences to the king and the great council; secondly, to inform him of the suit urged against him by the duchess-dowager of Orleans and her children, for the death of the late duke of Orleans, his brother, of the replies they had made to the charges he had brought against the late duke, and that they demanded instant justice on him the duke of Burgundy, and that neither law nor reason ought to prevent sentence being passed by the king according to the conclusions that had been drawn up against him. The duke of Burgundy shortly answered, that in regard to the first point, he was willing, as was right for him to do, to obey the king's orders, but that his brother-in-law, John of Bavaria, who had married his sister, had most earnestly solicited his assistance against the commonalty and his subjects at Liege, who had rebelled, and even held him besieged. Similar requests had been made to duke William, count of Hainault, his brother-in-law, and also brother-in-law to John of Bavaria: wherefore the armaments could not now be broken up, since, during the time the ambassadors would be negotiating between the two parties, John of Bavaria, their bishop and lord, might be in great danger from his rebellious subjects, and their success might serve for an example and inducement for other subjects to resist their lords, and give rise to a universal rebellion. He added, that the king and his council might, without any prejudice to themselves, have refrained from so readily listening to such requests, as none of the aforesaid parties were subjects to the kingdom of France. In regard to the second point, he, John duke of Burgundy, made answer, that instantly on his return from this expedition he would wait on the king of France, and act towards him, and all others, in a manner becoming a good subject, and the near relationship in which he stood to the king.

• This schism commenced in 1378, and was not put an end to till 1409, see chap. 53, infra. It took its rise from the unwillingness with which the people of Rome beheld Avignon converted into the seat of the papal power, and their city deserted,—a course which had been pursued by all the popes since Clement W. first took up his residence there in 1309. Gregory XI. had, at the earnest solicitations of the inhabitants, visited Rome in 1377, hoping by his presence to compose the disorders which distracted all Italy; but finding all his efforts vain, he was preparing to return to Avignon, when death overtook him in March, 1378. The conclave which assembled consisted of only twenty cardinals, of whom sixteen were ultramontane, and only four Italians, and consequently they were but ill disposed to comply with the wishes of the Romans, who demanded an Italian pope. They were, however, overawed, and Bartolomeo Prignani, archbishop of Bari, then sixty years of age, a man of considerable learning, and, as it was supposed, of singular modesty and

humility, was somewhat tumultuously elected. As soon as the ultra-montane cardinals found themselves freed from their fears of the violence of the Roman populace, they denounced the election of the archbishop of Bari, who had taken the name of Urban WI., and demanded his resignation, which he peremptorily refused. Upon this they pronounced a sentence of nullity against Urban's election, and excommunication of his person; and assembling at Fondi, prevailed upon the Italian cardinals to join them in the election of a new pope, when their choice fell upon cardinal Robert, brother of the count of Geneva, and allied to most of the royal houses of Europe. He was a man of learning, talent, and courage, and being still in the prime of life, (he was only thirty-six when he was elected, on the 27th August, 1378,) he was regarded as the fittest opponent to Urban. He took up his residence at Avignon, where he continued to reside till his death, which took place on the 16th Sept., 1394. Peter of Luna, a man of a noble Arragonese family, possessed of high talents, but of a rest


less and ambitious spirit, who had alternately applied him-
self to the law, to arms, to divinity, and to diplomacy,
having acted as ambassador in Spain from Clement, was
chosen to succeed him. He assumed the name of Benedict
XIII. Meantime a succession of popes had occupied the
Roman chair. Urban WI., after a violent and turbulent
reign, died in October, 1389, and was sueceeded by Boni-
face IX, who was followed successively by Innocent VI.,
elected in 1404, and Gregory XII., raised to the papal
chair in 1406. Repeated attempts had been made to heal
the breach in the church, without any effect, and at length
the council of Pisa, in 1409, (see chap. 53,) proceeded to
depose both Benedict and Gregory, and Peter of Candia
was elected as the only true pope, under the name of
Alexander W. His history is extraordinary. Abandoned
by his parents in his childhood, he was found begging from
door to door, by an Italian monk, who, struck by the boy's
intelligence, befriended him. After studying at Oxford
and Paris, he attracted the notice of John Galeas Visconti,
duke of Milan, by whom he was confidentially employed,
and who procured for him considerable church preferment;
he was made a cardinal by Innocent VII., and at length,
at the age of seventy years, attained the highest dignity
then existing in Christendom. He, however, enjoyed his
new honours but ten months, when, on his death, he was
succeeded by a man whose history is yet more extraordi-
nary. Balthazar Cozza, a scion of a noble but decayed
Neapolitan family, passed the earlier days of his life as a
rover on the high seas. In fact, his occupation was little,
if at all, to be distinguished from piracy. He was on sca

what the free companions were on shore. His vessels being
employed to convey Louis of Anjou to Naples, his ambition
was aroused by the splendour he beheld at the court of
Avignon, which he visited in the execution of his mission.
He at once abandoned his old pursuits, and, at the age of
twenty-five, devoting himself to the study of divinity, his
talents and application were so great as to enable him to
proceed doctor at the earliest regular period. Platina
relates of him, that on leaving Bologna, where he had pur-
sued his studies, being questioned whither he was going, his
reply was, “To the popcdom.” Attaching himself to
Boniface IX., who was his countryman, he quickly gained
his confidence, and was by him promoted to the purple in
1402, and at length attained the object of his ambition in
1410. His subsequent history, and that of the final set-
tlement of the church, will be found in the ensuing pages.
* Qy. Dunbar, earl of March, who, about this time,
had retired from Scotland in consequence of the affront
put upon him by the king, Robert III., or rather the duke
of Albany, who broke the match between Rothsay, the
king's heir, and Dunbar's daughter, and forced the prince
to marry a daughter of Douglas. Dunbar was well received
and pensioned by Henry, and undertook to raise a body of
troops for his service. Although we do not find any men-
tion of his visiting Flanders, yet it is far more probable
that he is the person alluded to than Archibald Stewart,
Robert's nephew, then earl of Mar.—Ed.
f Probably a mistake for Guichard.

The ambassadors, finding they could not obtain more satisfactory answers to the points on which they were sent, were obliged to be contented. They resolved, however, to wait the event of this expedition against the Liegeois; and during that time there came to the duke of Burgundy, from the country of Hainault, his brother-in-law duke William, accompanied.

Duke of Burgundy ARM; d. AND bearing the car at Ducal Sword.—From an original picture engraved in Vol. I. of Sanderus Flandria Illustrata.

by the counts de Conversan, de Namur, and de Salines, in Ardennes, with many notable lords, as well knights as esquires, from Hainault, Holland, Zealand, Ostrevant, and other places, to the number of twelve hundred helmets", or thereabout, and two thousand infantry well equipped, with from five to six hundred carriages laden with provision and military stores. Many councils were held at Flourines, and in that neighbourhood, as to their future conduct, and whither they might march their army with the greatest probability of success. It was determined that duke William should command the van, and, as he advanced, destroy the whole country with fire and sword; that the duke of Burgundy, with the earl of Mar and the main body, should direct their march along the causeway of Branchaut, which leads straight to Tongres and Maestricht. In the last place, the lord de Pier-vvest and the Liegeois had, as has been before said, besieged their bishop and lord, John of Bavaria. In consequence of this resolution, the two dukes began their march by different roads, and destroyed all the country on the Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, and met on the Saturday evening, about vespers, in the town of Montenach, situated on the above causeway. In this place and neighbourhood was the whole army lodged, forming but one body; and two marshals were appointed to command and find quarters for it;-on the part of the duke of Burgundy, the lord de Vergy t-and on that of duke William, the lord de Jeumont. They had under their immediate orders five hundred helmets, seven hundred cross-bows, and fifteen hundred archers, all men of tried courage, with sixteen hundred carriages, as well carts as waggons, laden with arms, ammunition, and provision, and all other necessaries for such an expedition. On this Saturday, the lord de Pier-vves, and his son the newly-elected bishop of Liege, as they were besieging Maestricht, learnt from their spies, that the two before-mentioned dukes were rapidly advancing against them, and burning the country on their line of march. They instantly raised the siege, and retreated to the city of Liege with full forty thousand combatants, where they fixed their quarters, Liege being only five leagues distant from Maestricht. The commanders there held a council, with such of the inhabitants as had not been at the siege ; and at its close it was proclaimed through different parts of the town, by orders of the governor and his son, the bishop, that every man capable of bearing arms should, on the morrow morning, at the sound of a bell, be ready equipped to follow their commanders out of the town whithersoever they might lead them. In consequence of this order, on the morrow, the 22d day of September, 1408, there issued out of Liege, according to computation, about fifty thousand armed men. In this number were from five to six hundred well armed, in the French manner, on horseback, and from one hundred to six score English archers, in their pay. They were followed by infinite numbers of carts and other carriages, and a mob of people dressed in various manners, according to their own fancies. The bell tolled at break of day, and they then sallied forth in good array, following their governor and bishop, very eager to offer combat to the enemy. Their governor had frequently warned them of the dangers that might ensue from a battle, as their enemies were, for the greater part, nobles or gentlemen accustomed to war and obedience to their commanders, which was not the case with them ; and that it would be more to their advantage to remain within well-inclosed towns and castles, harassing the enemy by various means, and so tiring him out that he should be forced to quit their country. This advice, however, was not agreeable to the Liegeois; for it seemed to them that their numbers were so great that the enemy could not resist them; and they were not well pleased with what their governor had told them. The governor, perceiving the Liegeois determined on battle, led them into the plain, and drew them up in handsome array. He frequently exhorted them to behave themselves valiantly, and with one accord, this day against the enemy, who was marching to attack them, and to defend with courage their lives and liberties. They marched near to Tongres, which is five leagues distant from Liege, whither the two dukes had advanced on the Saturday; for they had already heard the siege of Maestricht was broken up, and that the men of Liege were intending to offer them battle. After some councils had been holden with the captains and the most experienced in their army, they sent off, very early on the Sunday morning, two hundred light troops, under the command of Robert le Roux and some other noblemen of the country, to inquire into the truth of what they had heard, and to see what the enemy was about. They shortly returned, and told the dukes that the intelligence they had received was true; for that they had seen the Liegeois in great numbers marching in battle-array. The dukes, on hearing this, commanded their men to arm, and to draw up in order of battle. When this was done, they marched to meet the Liegeois; and scarcely had they advanced half a league, when they appeared in sight. The Liegeois also saw them, for they were near to Tongres. Both armies advancing, the dukes then posted themselves and all their infantry on a very advantageous spot; and thinking the enemy would attempt to dislodge them, they formed their army into one battalion, the better to support the attack, and placed their baggage in their rear. They posted the greater part of their archers and cross-bows on their right and left as wings. The lord de Miraumont this day commanded the archers, by orders of the duke of Burgundy, and with great credit to himself. The duke of Burgundy was on the right, and duke William on the left of the army, each attended by his own people. After the proper orders had been given, and every arrangement made according to the advice of the most experienced officers, very many new knights were created. The men of Liege, swelled with pride, and arrogantly considering the army of their opponents as infinitely inferior to them, marched on the right for an eminence called the heights of Hasbane, where they halted in handsome array. They had with them the standard of St. Lambert, and those of their different guilds; and the reason why they had halted on this spot was, that some of their old men had told them that it was there their ancestors had gained a victory, and they flattered themselves with similar success. They then formed their army in handsome order, and played off many cannons against their enemies, which annoyed them very much. It should be known, that between the two armies was a narrow valley, at the bottom of which was a ditch to carry off the water in times of rain. The two dukes having with their army remained stationary, observing that the Liegeois did not seem inclined to quit their position, and begin the battle, held a short council with their ablest officers; and thinking success was more likely to follow the most courageous, determined to advance slowly toward them in battle-array, on account of the weight of their arms, and attack them where they were, before they could fortify themselves, or increase their numbers by reinforcements. In consequence, five hundred men-at-arms, on horseback, were ordered to attack the army of Liege on its rear, and about a thousand infantry, under the command of the lords de Croy, de Helly, de Neufville, and de Raise, knights, with Enguerrand de Bournouville, esquire, on the part of the duke of Burgundy; and by the lords de Hamette and de Ligne, knights, with Robert le Roux, esquire, who instantly advanced into the plain according to their orders. The Liegeois, observing so large a detachment quit the duke's army, and march away, as it were, thought they were running off from fear of their great numbers, and began shouting, in their language, “Fuyo, fuyo!” and repeating this word many times. The lord de Pier-vves, the governor, like an able man, well versed in war, frequently, but gently, checked them for making this noise, saying, “My very dear friends, that troop on horseback which you see, are not running away, as you suppose; but when that other body of infantry, much greater, as you may observe, shall be advanced near enough to begin the attack, those on horseback will instantly wheel about, like skilful soldiers, and charge your rear, with a design to divide your army, while the others shall attack you in front. Notwithstanding we have every appearance of a successful issue to our battle, I have always advised you to the contrary; and though your hearts are set upon it, as if already sure of victory, I remain still in the same opinion,--because you are not so well used to warfare, nor armed like to your adversaries, who have learnt all military exercises from their childhood. This was the reason why I proposed avoiding a battle; for it would have been more to your advantage to have defended your towns and fortresses, and whenever a favourable opportunity offered, to have fallen on your enemies, so that they would have been forced to have quitted your country. However, the day you have so ardently wished for is now come; and I beg of you to put your hopes in God, and boldly and steadily exert yourselves in the defence of your country against the enemy now marching to attack you.” Having finished this speech, he wanted to mount some of his most determined men on horseback to oppose the detachment then on the plain; but in truth the commonalty would not suffer it to be done, and uttered against him many reproaches, calling him a traitor. He patiently suffered their rude ignorance, and hastily commanded the army to be formed into a square, in the front of which was a body drawn up in the form of a triangle, and the carts and baggage were towards the rear, on the right and left of his army, handsomely arranged : their horses were in the rear, on one of the wings, intermixed with their archers and cross-bows, but they were of little value, except the English archers, who were better disposed of in other places. The lord de Pier-vves, accompanied by his son the bishop and some of his best companions in arms, like a good commander, posted himself at the head of his army, fronting the enemy. During this time, the two dukes began their march, gaily exhorting their men to behave themselves gallantly against the enemy, a rude and ignorant people, who had rebelled against their lord, and who confidently trusted in their superior numbers for success, telling their men, that if they acted as they expected they would, victory would infallibly be theirs, and they would gain everlasting honour. When the dukes had made such like speeches, they retired to their posts, and under their banners, and advanced slowly toward the enemy, who kept up a heavy fire against them with their cannons. The banner-bearer of the duke of Burgundy was a very valiant knight, called sir James de Courtjambe, who, accidentally falling on his knees as he marched, alarmed many, who

* “Bachines." Q. Is not this rather lances 2 the more : John III. de Wergy, lord of Champlite, seneschal, usual term. - mareschal, and governor, of Burgundy. t Before called Pieruels: rightly Parwis.

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