and great plundur to the garrisons whence they had come. The Burgundians were not slow in making reprisals, and frequently invaded the county of Clermont and other parts. When by chance the two parties met, the one shouted “ Orleans !" and the other “ Burgundy!” and thus from this accursed war, carried on in different parts, the country suffered great tribulation. The duke of Burgundy, however, had the king on his side, and those also who governed him ; he resided in his hôtel of St. Pol in Paris, and the greater part of its inhabitants were likewise attached to the duke of Burgundy.

At that time, the governors of Paris were Waleran count de St. Pol and John of Luxembourg *, his nephew, who was very young, Enguerrand de Bournouville, and other captains. They frequently made sallies, well accompanied by men-at-arms, on the Armagnacs, who at times even advanced to the gates of Paris. They were particularly careful in guarding the person of the king, to prevent him from being seduced by the Orleans party, and carried out of the town.


THE COUNTRY OF BURGUNDY.— OTHER TRIBULATIONS ARE NOTICED. Sir Clugnet de Brabant, who always styled himself admiral of France, one day assembled two thousand combatants, or thereabout, whom he marched as speedily as he could from their different garrisons, to the country of the Rethelois, having with them scaling-ladders and other warlike machines. They arrived at the ditches of the town of Rethel about sun-rise, and instantly made a very sharp assault, thinking to surprise the garrison and plunder the town. The inhabitants, however, had received timely notice of their intentions, and had prepared themselves for resistance as speedily as they could.- Nevertheless, the assault lasted a considerable time with much vigour on both sides, insomuch that many were killed and wounded of each party. Among the latter was sir Clugnet de Brabant, who, judging from the defence which was made, that he could not gain the place, ordered the retreat to be sounded; and his men marched into the plain, carrying with them the dead and wounded. He then divided them into two companies; the one of which marched through the country of the Laonnois to Coucy and Chauni, plundering what they could lay hands on, and making all prisoners whom they met on their retreat. The other company marched through part of the empire by the county of Guise, passing through the Cambresis, and driving before them, like the others, all they could find, especially great numbers of cattle, and thus returned to the town of Hamsur-Somme and to their different garrisons.

When they had reposed themselves for eight days, they again took the field with six thousand combatants, and marched for the county of Artois. They came before the town of Bapaume, belonging to the duke of Burgundy, and, on their arrival, won the barriers, and advanced to the gates, where there was a severe skirmish. But the lord de Heilly, sir Hugh de Busse, the lord d'Ancuelles and other valiant men-at-arms, who had been stationed there by the duke of Burgundy, made a sally, and drove them beyond the barriers, –when many gallant deeds were done, and several killed and wounded on both sides; but the Burgundians were forced to retire within the town, for their enemies were too numerous for them to attempt any effectual resistance. The Orleans party now retreated, and collected much plunder in the adjacent country, which they carried with them to their town of Ham.

During this time, sir James de Chastillont, and the other ambassadors from the king of France, negotiated a truce at Leulinghem, in the Boulonois, with the English ambassadors, to last for one year on sea and land. While these things were passing, the duke of Berry came with the queen of France from Melun to Corbeil, and thence sent Louis of Bavaria to the duke of Aquitaine in Paris, and to those who governed the king, and also to the butchers, to request that they would be pleased to allow him to attend the queen to Paris, and to reside in his hôtel of Nesle, near to the king his nephew, since he was determined no way to interfere in the war between the dukes of Orleans and Burgundy. But his request was

* Jolth, called count de Ligny, third son of John count in the room of Clugnet de Breban. He was lord of of Brienne, brother to the count de St. Pol.

Dampierre, and son of Hugh de Châtillon, formerly master t James de Châtillon was appointed adıniral in 1408, of the cross-bows.

refused, chiefly owing to the butchers of Paris, and others of the commonalty, who had great weight; and that he might give over all thoughts of coming, they broke every door and window of his hôtel de Nesle, and committed other great damages. They sent back the queen's brother with a message to her, to come and reside with her lord at Paris, without delay, but not to bring the duke of Berry with her.

The Parisians, fearful that the king and the duke of Aquitaine might be carried off from the hôtel of St. Pol, made them reside at the Louvre, where they kept constant guard day and night, to prevent any attempts of the Orleans party to carry them away. The queen, on receiving the message by her brother from the Parisians, and suspecting the consequences of their commotions, set out from Corbeil, and returned to Melun with him and the duke of Berry. A few days after, the Parisians took up arms, marched in a large body to Corbeil, took the town, and placed a garrison therein. They then broke down all the bridges over the Seine, between Charenton and Melun, that the Armagnacs might not pass the river and enter the island of France.

While the queen and the duke of Berry were at Melun, with the count Waleran de St. Pol, whom the marshal Boucicaut had sent thither, the master of the cross-bows and the grand-master of the household came to them with few attendants. The duke of Bourbon and the count d'Alençon, on their road from the Vermandois and Beauvoisis, to join the duke of Orleans, who was assembling his troops in the Gâtinois, called on the queen and the duke of Berry, to require their aid and support against the duke of Burgundy, which was not granted, because the king in full council, presided by the duke of Aquitaine, had just published an edict in very strong terms, and had caused it to be sent to all the bailiwicks and seneschalships of the kingdom, ordering all nobles, and others that were accustomed to bear arms, to make themselves ready to serve the king, in company with John duke of Burgundy, and to aid him in driving out of his realm all traitorous and disobedient subjects, commanding them to obey the duke of Burgundy the same as himself, and ordering all towns and passes to be opened to him, and to supply him with every necessary provision and store, the same as if he were there in person. On this proclamation being issued, very many made preparations to serve under the duke of Burgundy with all diligence. In addition, the duke of Aquitaine wrote the duke letters in his own hand, by which he ordered all the men-at-arms dependent on the crown to serve personally against his cousin-german, the duke of Orleans, and his allies, who, as he said, were wasting the kingdom in many different parts, desiring him to advance as speedily as he could toward Senlis and the island of France.


TO THE TOWN OF HAM, AND LEADS THITHER HIS FLEMINGS. The duke of Burguudy, being now assured that the duke of Orleans and his allies were raising a large force to invade his countries, and that they had already placed garrisons in towns and fortresses belonging to him or his allies, whence they had made frequent inroads to the despoiling of his country, was highly discontented. To oppose them, he had sent his summons to all his territories in Burgundy, Artois and Flanders, and elsewhere, for all nobles, and others accustomed to bear arms in his behalf, to prepare themselves to join him with all speed, well accoutred and armed, in obedience to the king's commands, and to oppose his and the king's enemies. He also solicited the assistance of his good towns in Flanders, and requested that they would powerfully exert themselves in his favour, to which they readily and liberally assented. They raised a body of forty or fifty thousand combatants; well armed and provided with staves according to the custom of the country. They had twelve thousand carriages, as well carts as cars, to convey their armour, baggage, and artillery, and a number of very large cross-bows, called ribaudequins, placed on two wheels, each having a horse to draw it. They had also machines for the attack of towns, behind which were long iron spits, to be used toward the close of a battle,—and on each of them was mounted one or two pieces of artillery. The duke of Burgundy had also summoned to his assistance the duke of Brabant, his brother, who attended him with a handsome company; as did likewise a valiant English knight, named sir William Baldock, lieutenant of Calais, with about three hundred English combatants.

Their places of rendezvous were at the towns of Douay and Arras, and the adjacent country. The duke of Burgundy, on quitting Douay with his brother of Brabant, and great multitudes of men of rank, advanced to Sluys, belonging to the count de la Marche, where he lodged. On the morrow, the first day of September, he marched away early, and fixed his quarters on the plain near to Marcouin, where he had his tents and pavilions pitched, and waited there two days for the arrival of his whole army, and particularly for his Flemings, who came in grand parade, and drew up to their quarters in handsome array.--So numerous were their tents that their encampments looked like large towns; and in truth, when all were assembled, they amounted to sixty thousand fighting men, without including the varlets, and such like, who were numberless, -and the whole country resounded with the noises they made. With regard to the Flemings, they thought that no towns or fortresses could withstand them ; and the duke of Burgundy was obliged, on their setting off, to abandon to them whatever they might conquer ; and when they went from one quarter to another, they were commonly all fully armed, and in companies, according to the different towns and the custom of Flanders,—and even when they marched on foot, the greater part wore leg. armour.

As to their mode of marching through a country, whatever they could lav hands on was seized, and, if portable, thrown into their carts; and they were so proud, on account of their great numbers, that they paid not any attention to noble men, however high their rank; and when the army was to be quartered, or when they were on a foraging party, they rudely drove away other men-at-arms, especially if they were not their countrymen, taking from them whatever provision they might have collected, or anything else that pleased them. This conduct created great disturbances and quarrels, more especially among the Picards, who would not patiently endure their rudeness, insomuch that the duke of Burgundy and his captains had great difficulty in keeping any kind of peace between them. The duke, after waiting some days for the whole of his army, saw it arrive ; and then he marched off triumphantly, and in handsome array, and fixed his quarters on the river Scheldt, near to the town of Marcouin.

On the morrow, he advanced to Mouchi-la-Garhe, between Peronne and Ham, and halted there. At this place, a Fleming was hanged for stealing a chalice and other valuables from a church. He thence marched toward the town of Ham-sur-Somme, where his enemies were. On his approach to the town of Athies, belonging to the count de Dammartin, one of his adversaries, the inhabitants were so terrified that they came out in a body to present him with the keys of the gates, on the condition of being secured from pillage. The duke liberally granted their request, seeing they had thus humbled themselves before him of their own free will, and gave them a sufficient force to guard their town from being any way molested. The duke then advanced with his army near to Ham, but sent forward some of his best light troops to observe the countenance of the enemy. The Orleans party sallied out against them, and a sharp skirmish took place ; but they were compelled, by the superior number of the Burgundians, to retire within the town. The next day he marched his whole army before the place in battle-array, and had his tents pitched on an eminence in front of one of the gates, and about the distance of a cannon-shot. The Flemings were likewise encamped according to the orders of their marshals and leaders, during which the garrison made some sallies, but were repulsed, in spite of their valour, by superior numbers, and many were killed and wounded on each side. When the duke had surrounded this town on one side only, he ordered battering machines to be placed against the gate and wall, to demolish them ; and the Flemings pointed their ribaudequins, and shot from them so continually, day and night, that the enemy were greatly annoyed. Breaches were made in the wall and gate within a few days; but though the garrison was much harassed, they repaired both in the best manner they could, with wood and dung.

At length, the besiegers fixed on a day for a general attack on the gate, intending to force an entry : the engagement continued very sharp for three hours, but the garrison defended themselves so valiantly, wounding and slaying so many of the assailants, that they were


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forced to retreat. This happened on a Thursday; and on the Friday, the duke of Burgundy, I know not for what reason, had it proclaimed that no one should, on any account, make an assault on the town, but that all should labour in forming bridges over the Somme, that a


Ham, as it appeared in 1742.- From an original drawing in the King's Library. passage might be obtained for the army, and that the place might be besieged on all sides, —but events turned out very far from his expectations. On the Friday morning, the besieged were expecting that the attack would be renewed ; but hearing of the duke's intentions to cross the river with his army and surround the town, they packed up all their valuables and fled, leaving within the walls only poor people and peasants, who had retired thither for safety. Those persons not having ability or inclination to defend themselves, the duke's army, headed by the Picards, entered the place without any danger. The Flemings, observing this, rushed so impetuously to gain admittance that many were squeezed to death. When they had entered, they instantly began to plunder all they could lay hands on, according to the liberty which their lord the duke had granted them ; for, as I have said, he had been necessitated so to do before they would march from home. Part placed themselves on one side of the street, leading to the gate which they had entered, and part on the other ; and when the Picards, or others not of their country, were returning, they stopped and robbed them of all they had : they spared no man, noble or otherwise ; and in this riot several were killed and wounded.

They entered a monastery of the town, and took away all they could find, and carried to their tents many of both sexes, and children ; and, on the morrow, having seized all they had, they set fire to several parts of the town,—and, to conclude all, the churches and houses, with many of the inhabitants, were burnt, as well as a great quantity of cattle that had been driven thither as to a place of security. Notwithstanding this cruel conduct of the Flemings, six or seven of the monks escaped from the monastery, by the assistance of some noblemen, particularly the prior, who most reverently held in his hands a cross, and were conducted to the tents of the duke of Burgundy, where they were in safety.

Such was the conduct of the Flemings at the commencement of this war. There were many towns beyond the Somme that belonged to the duke of Orleans and his allies, who, hearing of what had passed at Ham, were, as it may be readily believed, in the utmost fear and alarm, and there were few people desirous of waiting their coming, lest they should be besieged in some fortress, and suffer a similar fate,- for sir Clugnet de Brabant and sir

Manessier Guieret, as I have said, had already abandoned Ham, which was well supplied with stores and provision, and had retreated to Chauni and to Coucy.

The inhabitants of the town of Nesle, belonging to the count de Dammartin, seeing the smoke of Ham, were greatly perplexed, for their garrison had fled; but they, following the example of the town of Achies, waited on the duke of Burgundy, and, with many lamentations, presented him with the keys of their town, offering to submit themselves to his mercy. The duke received them into favour, in the name of the king and his own, on their swearing not to admit any garrison, and to be in future true and loyal subjects to the king, their sovereign lord. This oath they willingly took; and, having thanked the duke for his mercy, they returned to their town, and by his orders demolished some of their gates and many parts of their walls. They also made their magistrates and principal inhabitants swear to the observance of the treaty which they had made, and for this time they remained in peace. In like manner, those of the town of Roye, that were but lately become subjects to the king, sent deputies to the duke, at his camp before Ham, to say, that the Orleans party had treacherously entered their town, and had done them much mischief, but that they had departed on hearing of his march, and requesting he would not be displeased with them, as they were ready to receive him, and act according to his pleasure. The duke told them, he should be satisfied if they would promise, on their oaths, never to admit again within their walls any of his adversaries of the Orleans party. Having obtained this answer, they returned joyous to their town.

The duke now passed the Somme with his army at Ham, leaving that town completely ruined, and marched toward Chauni on the Oise, belonging to the duke of Orleans; but the garrison, hearing of it, quitted the place in haste. The townsmen, greatly alarmed, sent, without delay, to offer him their keys, and humbly supplicated his mercy, saying that their lord's men-at-arms had fled on hearing of his approach, from the fear they had of him. The duke received them kindly, and took their oaths, that they would henceforth loyally obey the king their sovereign lord, and himself, and would admit a garrison of his men to defend the town. After the conclusion of this treaty, the duke advanced to Roye, in the Vermandois, and was lodged in the town, having quartered his army in the country round it. He dispatched thence sir Peter des Essars, knight, and his confidential adviser, to the king of France, to his son-in-law the duke of Aquitaine, and to the citizens of Paris, to make them acquainted with the strength of his army, and with his successes. Sir Peter des Essars was honourably received by the duke of Aquitaine and the Parisians; and in compliment to the duke of Burgundy, he was reinstated in his office of provost, in the room of sir Brunelet de Sainct Cler, who, by the royal authority, was appointed bailiff of Senlis, on the dismission of sir Gastelius du Bost, who was suspected of being a favourer of the Orleans-party.

When sir Peter des Essars had finished the business he had been sent on to Paris, he set out for Rethel to announce to the count de Nevers, who had assembled a considerable force, the march of the duke, and to desire him to advance to the town of Mondidier, where he would have more certain intelligence of his brother. The count de Nevers, on hearing this, used all diligence to assemble his men, and set off to join the duke. During these transactions, the duke of Orleans, the count d’Armagnac, the constable of France, the master of the crossbows, with a large body of men-at-arms and others, came to the town of Melun, where the queen of France and the duke of Berry resided. Having held a conference with the queen and duke, they advanced to La Ferté on the Marne, which belonged to sir Robert de Bar*, in right of his wife the viscountess de Meaux. They crossed the Marne, and came to Arsy. en-Mussien, in the county of Valois, dependent on the duke of Orleans, where his brother, the count de Vertus, met him. The count was accompanied by a numerous body of combatants, among whom were the duke of Bourbon, John son to the duke of Bar, sir William de Coucy, Amé de Sallebruche, sir Hugh de Hufalize, with others from the Ardennes, Lorrain and Germany, who, in the whole, amounted to full six thousand knights and esquires, not including armed infantry and bowmen; and this party was henceforward popularly called Armagnacs, as I have before observed. Each bore on his armour badges similar to those which they had formerly worn when they lay before Paris. The duke of

• Nephew of duke Edward. See p. 174.

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