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guilty, he might be punished without mercy,—otherwise that he might instantly have his liberty, and go to Bavaria, never more to return to France. The others also, with the ladies and damsels, were forced to surrender themselves, but it was not without great lamentations and effusion of tears. They were directly put two and two on horseback, each borse escorted by four men-at-arms, and carried, some prisoners to the Louvre, and others to the Palace, followed by a large body of the Parisians under arms. When this was done, the king went to his dinner, and the queen with her son retired in great grief to their apartments.
Within a short time, the courier was set at liberty, and so was the lord d'Ollehaing, who was reinstated in the office of chancellor of Aquitaine, from which he had been dismissed. The duke of Burgundy had under his guard his cousin-german the duke of Bar, sir Peter and sir Anthony des Essars, with other prisoners confined in the Louvre, whom he caused to be attended by his servants, and for whose security he had pledged himself. But he acted quite contrary, and returned them to the Parisians, who imprisoned them closely, and caused twelve knights to be nominated by the king as commissaries, and six examiners, to inquire into their offences, and to condemn and punish them according to the heinousness of their crimes and the exigence of the case. In consequence of this, a statement was drawn up by directions of the duke of Berry, uncle to the duke of Bar, the countess de St. Pol, and others his friends, and given to the Parisians, who sent it to the university of Paris for their advice and approbation of what they had done. The university replied, that they would no way intermeddle nor advise in the business ; and they moreover declared, in full council before the king, that so far from having advised the arrest of the duke of Bar and the other prisoners, they were much displeased that it had taken place.
The Parisians, therefore, seeing that the university was disunited from them, and fearing that their conduct would, in after-times, be examined into, obtained from the king and his council a royal edict, as an indemnity and excuse for their actions, the tenor of which was as follows.
“ Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting, on the part of our dear and well-beloved the provost, sheriffs, citizens, and inhabitants of this good town of Paris.
“We make known, that for our urgent profit and welfare, also for that of our very dear son the duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Viennois, and for the public welfare, for the security of our good town of Paris, and to obviate inconveniences that might have arisen from the malversation of some of our ministers, as well those of justice as others, and in order to prevent such malversations from increasing, certain arrests have lately taken place on divers men and women, as well of our blood and household as of those of our very well beloved consort the queen, of our son, and our very dear daughter the duchess of Aquitaine, and countess of Charolois, for the effecting of which arrests a large assemblage of men-at-arms was thought expedient, considering the rank and power of those to be arrested, who are now confined in our prisons of the Louvre, of our Palace, and in different prisons in our good town of Paris. The crimes alleged against them are for treasonable practices committed against us, our said son, the welfare of the kingdom and that of our good city of Paris, and also concerning the government of our person, of our son, and of the police of our said town and kingdom, for all of which sufficient judges have been appointed, who will examine into their various delinquencies, and punish in such wise as the public good may require, so that our good city of Paris, which is the head of our realm, may not again suffer any alarms through their fault, or that of their accomplices, who, fearing the consequences, have escaped out of the city.
“For these causes, and from the great love and loyalty they bear to us, who are their sovereign and natural lord, as well as to our said eldest son, the aforesaid provost, sheriffs, and citizens of Paris, have requested these presents in order that good government may be restored, the security and welfare of our person and state be provided for, and that such arrests and imprisonments may be considered as solely done out of the purity of their loyal intentions towards us, our family, and the public good of the realm. We will, therefore, that such arrests and imprisonments be so considered, and that they be regarded as done for the true honour and profit of us and of our crown; and that all who have been abettors or aiding in the above arrests and imprisonments, noble or not noble, shall be deemed praiseworthy; and by the advice of some of our kindred, as well as by that of our great council, we do approve of and avow such acts.
"By the tenor of these presents we acknowledge and hold them for agreeable, and forbid that for these causes, or for any others that may be connected with them, those who have thus acted be any way harassed or molested in body or estate, or any suit be preferred against them in our courts of justice, by any means or pretext whatever, but that they shall be held acquitted in perpetuity. We give this, therefore, in command to all our beloved and faithful counsellors, who now hold or shall hereafter hold our courts of parliament at Paris, all masters of requests in our household, and those holding similar situations in our royal palace, all officers in our exchequer, and all commissaries named to inspect our finances and domain, as well as those lately appointed to examine into the charges brought against the prisoners in our castle of the Louvre, and elsewhere in our prisons in Paris, to the provost of Paris, to all our seneschals, bailiffs, provosts, judges and other officers of justice at present and in times to come, and to each as in duty bound, that they do proclaim these presents in the accustomed public places, and that they do see that the commands herein contained be not infringed or disobeyed, so that the engagements we have entered into with the parties demanding these presents may be punctually observed.
“ And as the parties may wish hereafter to renew the publicity of these presents, we will that there be exact copies made of them under the seal of the Châtelet, or other royal seals, to make them as authentic as the original, and that they may be of equal efficacy. Given at Paris the 21th day of May, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d."
It was thus signed by the king in council ; at which were present the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, the constable of France, the archbishop of Bourges, the bishop of Evreux, the bishop of Tournay, the grand-master of the household, the lord de la Tremouille governor to the dauphin, sir Anthony de Craon, sir Philip de Poitiers, the chancellor of Burgundy, the abbot of St. Jean, master Eustace de la Chere, the lords de Viefville, de Mont-Beron *, and de la Rochefoucault t, the provost of Paris, sir Charles de Savoisy, the hermit de Faye, Jean de Courcelles, the lord d’Allegrez †, master Mille d'Orgemont, Raoul le Saige, Mille d’Angeul, Jean de Longneux, and many others.--"P. Naucron.”
CHAPTER CIV.—THE COUNT DE VERTUS AND SEVERAL OF THE NOBILITY LEAVE PARIS. —
OTHER REGULATIONS AND EDICTS OBTAINED FROM THE KING BY THE PARISIANS. During these melancholy times, the count de Vertus, indignant at the arrest of the duke of Bar and other nobles, secretly left Paris, attended by two persons only, without the knowledge of the king or the duke of Burgundy, and hastened to his brother the duke of Orleans, at Blois, to whom he related all the extraordinary events that had passed in Paris, as well in the hotel of the king as in that of the dauphin, and elsewhere, to the great displeasure of the duke of Orleans. The duke of Burgundy was much vexed at the departure of the count de Vertus, for he had hopes to accomplish the marriage that had been for some time agreed on between him and his daughter. Many other noblemen quitted Paris from fear of the changes that were taking place, namely, sir James de Chastillon, eldest son to the lord de Dampierre, the lords de Croy and de Roubaix, Coppin de la Viefville, master Raoul, head provost of St. Donas at Bruges, Pierre Genstiere, who had lately been provost of merchants, and many more. Several were particularly remanded by the duke of Burgundy, who returned in great alarm, and not without cause; for of those who had been imprisoned, many were
* Called before " Mouberon;" but Montberon is right. William lord of Montferrand, at which he was attended by James, son of Imbert, lord of Montberon, in Angoumois, two hundred gentlemen of his own family. He married was made mareschal of France in 1422, in the place of Margaret de Craon, lady of Marsillac and Montbazon, by John de Villiers de l'Isle-Adam.
whom he had two sons, Foucault, third lord of la Roche+ Guy, eighth lord of la Rochefoucault, was one of the foucault, mentioned hereafter, and Aymar, lord of Montfirst lords of Guienne, who did homage to the crown of bazon and Saint Maure. France after the peace of Bretigny. Froissart mentions & I Called “ Allaigre" in the original. Alegre is the duel which took place, in 1380, between this nobleman and name of a noble and ancient family of Auvergne.
daily, without regard to sex, drowned in the Seine, or miserably put to death, without any form of law or justice.
On the 26th day of May, the king went to the parliament, and, at the instance of the duke of Burgundy and the Parisians, held a royal sitting, and caused several edicts to be published respecting the reformation of abuses. These, and other regulations for the government of the kingdom, were sent to the different bailiwicks, and other usual places, for proclamation. One of them was directed against sir Clugnet de Brabant, who in company with other captains had assembled in great force on the river Loire, to be ready to march to Paris,the tenor of which was as follows.
“ Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting.– Whereas it has come to our knowledge, that notwithstanding the very great oppressions which our subjects have suffered in various parts of our realm from the assembling of large bodies of men-at-arms, which the princes of our blood, and other barons, have thought proper, at different periods, to raise on their own authority,– there are still several who now continue such practices, to the great grievance of our faithful subjects. We have caused to be published and proclaimed throughout our realm, as well by messages as by sealed letters, our strict prohibition of such acts, under very heavy penalties; and we have ordered, that none, of whatever rank he may be, subject or foreigner, shall have the boldness to raise any men in future on their own sole authority, whether by way of companies or otherwise, without our special orders, or in obedience to our summons to come to serve us.
“ Several of our kindred, however, contrary to these our orders, and in opposition to the treaty of peace lately concluded at Auxerre by us, to put an end to dissentions which had arisen in our family, and which they solemnly swore to observe, are now preparing to assemble large bodies of men-at-arms without any authority or licence from us, and to unite them with a numerous army of English and foreigners, to carry into effect their damnable purposes, which they have plotted against us and our government, according to the information we have received.
“We have been repeatedly assured that they are favoured and supported by many in an underhand manner; and to force others to join them, they harass and despoil all who have served us, more especially those who assisted us in our late expedition to Bourges, when we considered them as enemies of the state, and marched thither with the intent of correcting them sufficiently for their outrageous conduct. They at this moment, as we have had sufficient information, commit every sort of violence, by killing our subjects, violating damsels, setting fire to houses and villages, and despoiling churches, and many other atrocious crimes, such as the bitterest enemies of the country would commit, and which are such bad examples that they must not longer be suffered.
“In consequence, therefore, of the lamentations and heavy complaints that have been made to us, we are resolved to remedy these grievances, which are so highly displeasing to us, in the most effectual manner: we therefore most expressly enjoin and command you, by these presents, that you instantly make public proclamation, by sound of trumpet, of this our prohibition, for any knight, esquire, or others accustomed to bear arms, of whatever rank they may be,-and we order them, on pain of our severest anger, and on the loyalty they owe us, not to arm themselves, nor to join any bodies that may have assembled in arms within our kingdom without our special authority, nor to obey the summons of any one related to our person or not, on any occasion whatever, unless they be particularly ordered by us to join them for the good of our service.
“All whom you shall hear of having such intentions, you will command, in our name, to desist, and peaceably to return to their dwellings, or whither else they may please, without doing any harm to our subjects. Should they refuse to obey your orders, and persist in their wicked intentions, you will instantly take possession, in our name, of all their castles, dwellings, and possessions, causing an exact inventory to be made out, of the real and annual value, which you will place in the hands of safe persons to administer such estates, to render us an exact account of their amount, and to relinquish them whenever we may see good. You will also proceed against them as rebels; for we abandon them to you to imprison and punish according as you shall judge expedient. You will likewise, should they have quitted
their dwellings, pursue them by every means in your power, shutting them out from all towns, and depriving them of provisions, and harassing them in every way deserving of their disobedience, and to serve as an example to others.
“ It is not, however, our intention that such of the princes of our blood as are now near our person, and in our service, should be prevented from ordering their vassals to come to them, or from employing them for our welfare, as they shall specify in their summons; but they must not, on their march, live on the country, or despoil the inhabitants. Should any of them do the contrary, we command you to proceed against them as against the aforesaid ; and you will inflict on them such punishments as their demerits require, without paying regard to any letters of protection they may show to you.
“ To enable you to execute these our orders, we give you full authority to call upon and assemble all our vassals and subjects to your aid, and as many as you shall think necessary for the occasion, and to lead them to any parts of your bailiwick where you shall hear of any robberies or other rebellious acts being done. And we strictly enjoin, by these presents, all our vassals and subjects, on the faith and loyalty they owe us, and under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of goods, to obey your orders, and to assist you heartily to accomplish the above commands. That no one may pretend ignorance of them, you will canse these presents to be proclaimed in all the different parts of your bailiwick, or wherever else you shall judge proper. We also command all our officers of justice, and others having authority under us, and we entreat all our friends and well wishers, to aid and support you on this service, and diligently to keep up a good understanding with you thereon, and to show you every favour, even allowing their dwellings to be turned into prisons, should the exigency of any case require it,-for we delegate to you full and complete authority, notwithstanding any opposition or appeal made to the contrary. Given at Paris the 6th day of June, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d.”
Then signed by the king, on the report of his council,—at which were present my lords of Berry, Burgundy, the constable, the chancellor of Burgundy, Charles de Savoisy, Anthony de Craon, the lords de Viefville, de Montberon, Cambrilach, d’Allegrez, and many others. -“P. NAUCRON.”
This edict was sent to the different bailiwicks and seneschalships in the kingdom of France, and proclaimed in the usual places.
CHAPTER CV.-KING LADISLAUS OF NAPLES ENTERS ROME WITH A POWERFUL ARMY
THE DEATH OF SIR JAMES DE LA RIVIERE.—THE DISMISSION OF THE CHANCELLOR,
AND OTHER MATTERS. This year, Ladislaus king of Naples and Sicily, at the instigation of some false and disloyal traitors, marched a very large army to Rome, which he entered without resistance, and began to pillage the whole of it,--at the same time making prisoners the most powerful and rich citizens, who were forced to ransom themselves by paying heavy sums of money. Pope John and his cardinals witnessing these transactions, took flight in the utmost fear, and escaped from castle to castle, until they at length reached Bologna, where the pope fixed his court. The greater part of their estates were despoiled by this army of Ladislaus, who for a long time reigned in Rome; and when, in consequence of certain accommodations he departed, he carried away many precious jewels from the churches and palaces.
Sir James de la Riviere, brother to the count de Dampmartin, was taken prisoner with the duke of Bar, in the hotel of the duke of Aquitaine, and carried to the palace-prison, where it was reported, that from indignation at this treatment, he had struck himself so roughly with a pewter-pot on the head as to beat his brains out. His body was thence carried in a cart to the market-place of Paris, and beheaded. But the truth was otherwise; for sir Elion de Jacqueville, knight to the duke of Burgundy, visiting him in prison, high words passed between them, and he called him a false traitor. Sir James replied, that he lied, for that he was none such,—when Jacqueville, enraged, struck him so severe a blow on the head with a light battle-axe which he had in his hand, that he killed him. He then spread abroad this rumour of his having put an end to his life himself by means of a pewter pot, which was propagated by others through the town, and believed by very many.
Shortly after this event, Mesnil Berry, carver to the duke of Aquitaine, and a native of Normandy, was led to the market-place, and there beheaded. His head and that of sir James de la Riviere were affixed to two lances, and their bodies hung by the shoulders on the gibbet of Montfaucon. On the Thursday in Whitsun-week, Thomelin de Brie, who had been page to the king, was, with two others, taken from the prison of the Châtelet to the market-place, and beheaded : their heads were fixed on three spears, and their bodies hung at Montfaucon by the shoulders. These executions took place at the request of the Parisians. And because sir Reginald * de Corbie, a native of Beauvais, though an old and discreet man, was not agreeable to them, he was dismissed from his office of Chancellor of France, and sir Eustache de Lactret, at the solicitation of the duke of Burgundy, appointed to succeed him.
On Tuesday, the 20th of June, Philip count de Nevers espoused, at the castle of Beaumont, the sister of the count d'Eu, in the presence of the duchess of Bourbon, her mother, and the damsel of Dreux, who had been principally instrumental in forming this marriage.
After the festivities of the wedding, the new-married couple were conducted by the duchess of Bourbon and the damsel of Dreux to Maizieres, on the Meuse, wlich belonged to the count de Nevers. The count d’Eu, who had been of the party, soon after returned to his country, where he collected a large body of men-at-arms, to the amount of two thousand combatants, under the pretext of making war on the lord de Croy, in revenge for an attack made upon him some time since, as has been mentioned, by his eldest son sir John de Croy ; but it was not so, for he marched his army across the Seine, at Pont-de-l'Arche, and thence Verneuil in Perche, where were assembled king Louis of Sicily, the dukes of Orleans, Brittany, and Bourbon, the counts de Vertus and d'Alençon, with many other great barons, lords, and knights, not only on account of the imprisonment of the dukes of Bar and Bavaria, or of the other prisoners, but for the deliverance of the duke of Aquitaine, who had informed them by letters, which had been confirmed by the count de Vertus, that he himself, the king, and the queen, were kept as prisoners under the control of the Parisians, and that they were not allowed any liberty, which was highly displeasing to them, and disgraceful to royalty. This had caused so large an assembly of these great lords, who, after mature consideration, wrote letters to the king, to his great council, and to the Parisians, desiring them to allow the duke of Aquitaine to go whithersoever he pleased, and to set at liberty the dukes of Bar and of Bavaria, and all other prisoners. Should they refuse to comply, they declared war against the town of Paris, which they would destroy to the utmost of their power, and all within it, except the king and such of his royal blood as may have therein remained. With regard to those that had been murdered, they said nothing of them ; for as they were dead, they could not have them back. These letters were laid before the king in council, where it was determined to send ambassadors to these lords to negotiate a peace, who were kindly received by them.
On Saturday, the first day of July, after his trial had been concluded, sir Peter des Essars, lately provost of Paris, and son to the late Philippe des Essars, a citizen of that town, was beheaded in the market-place, his head fixed on the market-house, and his body hung at Montfaucon in the usual manner. His brother, sir Anthony, was in great danger of being also executed; but through the activity of some friends, a delay of his trial was procured, and he afterwards obtained his full liberty.
In these days, as the king was in good health, he went to the cathedral of Paris to say his prayers and hear mass. When it was over, he visited the holy relics : he departed and returned to his hotel, accompanied by the duke of Burgundy and the constable of France, and followed by crowds of people who had assembled to see him. On the morrow, the 6th of July, it was ordered in the king's council, presided by the duke of Aquitaine, that John de Moreul, knight to the duke of Burgundy, should be the bearer of letters and royal summons to the two bailiwicks of Amiens and of Vermandois, and to all the provostships within
* Called “ Ernault” a little after, which agrees with de Corbie in 1413, and is succeeded by Eustache de Moreri's Arnold.-See ante, p. 218, note.
Laitre in 1418. t In Moreri's list, Henry de Marle succeeds Arnauld