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the bastille of St. Antoine and to the castle of the Louvre. They also seized the arms of the burghers and inhabitants, and carried them to the said fortresses, riding daily through the streets attended by a strong force, and followed by cars and carts, which conveyed the arms and chains to the places appointed for receiving them. There was not, at that period, any burgher who dared even to carry a quarter-staff. The same men-at-arms kept a very strict watch day and night at the gates and on the walls, at the expense of the inhabitants, without attention being paid to their complaints, or placing the smallest confidence in them. They were consequently very much discontented, and sore at heart, when they saw how they were treated ; and many now repented that they had put themselves under the government of the enemies of the duke of Burgundy, but dared not show it openly.
In regard to the duke, various edicts were issued against him, charging him with attempting to seduce the king's subjects from their obedience. One, addressed to the bailiff of Amiens, was as follows:
“Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, health and greeting. Whereas it has come to our knowledge, that John, our cousin of Burgundy, our rebellious and disobedient enemy, has written, and sent at different times, sealed letters, as well to our good town of Paris as to many others within our realm, with the intent to seduce and deceive our subjects, and enable him to accomplish the damnable enterprise which he lately formed of marching a large army into Paris. We have, by our letters, expressly commanded, that no one, whatever may be his rank, should receive any of these letters from the duke of Burgundy; and should any have been received, that no answer whatever should be made to them, but that they should be sent to us, or to our chancellor, to do by them as we shall think expedient.
“This said duke of Burgundy, continuing his damnable projects, has lately sent certain letters-patent, sealed with his privy scal, to our town of Paris, which he has caused to be fixed secretly in the night-time to the gates of several churches, and in other public places of the said town, as well as to several others within our realm, as we have heard, by which he declares that he had marched to Paris solely with the intention of delivering us and our very dear and well-beloved son, the duke of Aquitaine, from the bondage in which he said we were held. The said duke further declared, that he would never abandon his attempt until he should liave restored us and our dear son to the full enjoyment of our free-will and government. These assertions, and others made by the said duke of Burgundy, are, thanks to God! groundless and notoriously false ; for neither ourself nor our dear son have been or are under any subjection whatever ; nor are our honour, our justice, or the state of our government, any way wounded or diminished, -but ever since the departure of the duke of Burgundy from Paris, we have governed peaceably, freely, without any hindrance or contradiction. This, however, we were but little able to do, after the horrible murder committed by this said duke on the person of our well-beloved brother Louis, duke of Orleans, whose sins may God pardon! We do now govern, and have governed, our kingdom, since the departure of the aforesaid duke, according to our pleasure and the right that belongs to us, and have been constantly obeyed in all things, humbly and diligently, by all those of our blood and lineage, like as good relations, vassals and loyal subjects should do to their king and sovereign lord, excepting always the duke of Burgundy, who, contrary to our orders and positive commands, has assembled great numbers of men-at-arms and archers, and like an enemy, has marched them to the walls of Paris, having in his company many traitors and murderers, and other criminals against our royal majesty. With such persons, and others who have been banished our realm for similar crimes, the said duke, persevering in his wickedness, attempted to enter Paris, to seize on and usurp (all that he has written to the contrary in his letters notwithstanding) the government of us, of our eldest son, and of the whole kingdom, and to appropriate to himself the finances, as he long did to our very great displeasure, and to the loss of the kingdom, after the said murder by him committed ; for the said Burgundian and his adherents are known to have had and received sixty hundred thousand francs and upwards, for which, and various other causes, more fully explained in our ordinances, we have declared him a rebel, a violator of the peace, and, consequently, an enemy to us and to our whole kingdom.
“Whereas several of our subjects and vassals may perchance be ignorant of these said things, and therefore not believe them; and because the said Burgundian, by his written letters, may publish false and wicked lies as may deceive our said vassals, and prove of the utmost detriment to us, our kingdom, and to our faithful and loyal subjects: we being therefore desirous that every person may be fully ascertained of the truth, and in order to counteract such false and damnable lies, do thus publicly signify and make known, that the matters which the said Burgundian has written and published, either by himself or his adherents, are detestable lies, spread abroad to seduce and deceive our people, and to enable him to succeed in his damnable design. It is therefore our determination, with the aid of God, to oppose this duke by every means in our power, and to reduce him, his abettors, accomplices and adherents, under such subjection as befits vassals who are disobedient to their lord and sovereign. Such is our will, and we shall never depart from it. We therefore command and strictly enjoin, under pain of our displeasure, that you instantly do proclaim, in the most public manner, these presents in every place within your bailiwick where such proclamations are usually made, so that no one may plead ignorance thereof. You will likewise forbid, in our name, all our vassals within your jurisdiction, on the faith, loyalty and obedience they owe us, and under pain of being reputed rebels, and suffering the punishments due to such, henceforward to receive any letters from the said duke of Burgundy, his adherents or allies. Should any letters be sent them, we order that they do not open them, nor make any communications thereof,—but that they do bring them sealed up to our trusty and well-beloved chancellor, for him to do therewith as he may judge proper. And we, by these presents, do absolutely forbid them, under pain of the aforesaid penalties, in any way to advise, comfort or support, or show favour to the said duke of Burgundy, his partisans or allies, that they may prove themselves faithful and obedient subjects to us, as they are so bounden ; otherwise, they shall be punished like rebels, to serve for examples to all others.
“Given at Paris, the 17th day of February, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d.” Thus signed by the king, on the report of his grand council, and countersigned “ E. MAUREGARD.”
Shortly after, another edict was issued against the duke of Burgundy, and proclaimed throughout the kingdom at the usual places, the tenor of which was as follows:
“ Charles, by the grace of God king of France, to the bailiff of Amiens, or to his lieutenant, greeting. Whereas it is so notorious to all our subjects, that none can pretend ignorance thereof, that John, our cousin of Burgundy, has lately advanced to the walls of our good town of Paris, with a large body of men-at-arms and archers, contrary to our positive orders, and in defiance of our will and pleasure, solemnly made known to him, as well by ambassadors as by sealed letters from us : that he captured the town of St. Denis, and made of it a bulwark against our city of Paris, marching thence to the walls of our said city with displayed banners, and sending his scouts to the gates thereof : that he has seized and retains the possession of many of our towns by occupying them with a force of men-atarms, more particularly Compiegne and Soissons : that he has now under his orders a very numerous army within our kingdom, to our great prejudice and to the oppression of the realm: that he has published certain declarations, as a colour for this disobedient and rebellious conduct, which are all of them perfectly false and malicious, his intention being to attempt gaining admittance, by fair or foul means, into our good city of Paris, to do his pleasure on us, our very dear companion the queen, our well-beloved son the duke of Aquitaine, and on others of our blood and lineage within the said city, and consequently to regain the whole government of the kingdom, in like manner as it is notorious he did formerly usurp it, and by his tyrannical domination caused irreparable injuries to those connected with us by blood, the inhabitants of the town of Paris, and in general to the whole kingdom. For these causes, we have branded him, all his adherents, partisans and allies, as rebels to us and enemies to our kingdom. He is now departed from our town of St. Denis, and we know not what road he has taken ; but we have sent you letters to enjoin you to proclaim throughout your bailiwick, that none be so daring, under pain of corporal punishment and confiscation of effects, as to serve or join him in the army which he has raised; and should there be any within your jurisdiction who, in defiance of these our orders, shall have joined the said duke, we order you to seize their persons, and confiscate their estates which lie within your bailiwick, for our use.
“Notwithstanding these explicit orders, you have been, as we have heard, very dilatory and negligent in obeying them, and have paid but little attention thereto: should this have been the case, we are, and not without reason, much displeased. We therefore again command, and most strictly enjoin, on penalty of dismission from your office, that on the receipt of these presents, you do proclaim them, or cause them to be proclaimed, in all the accustomed places within your bailiwick, so that no one, whatever be his rank, may think of joining or serving the duke of Burgundy, in the army which he has assembled ; and that all who may have joined him may instantly return to their homes, under pain of suffering corporal punishment and confiscation of effects. And whereas it is notorious, that many persons within your jurisdiction have joined the duke of Burgundy, and that others are his supporters and abettors, who, contrary to our pleasure, have murmured and continue discontented, attempting also to deceive and seduce our people from their allegiance, and endeavouring, as we have heard, by every possible means, to advise and comfort the said duke of Burgundy: we therefore enjoin you, under the penalties aforesaid, to take instant possession of all their effects, moveable and immoveable, within your district, and wherever they may be, for us and in our name. You will act in like manner to all whom you may know to be favourable to the said duke of Burgundy, and partisans in his abominable and traitorous designs. Nevertheless, if you can lay hands on any of their persons, you will instantly arrest them wherever they may be, except in sanctuaries, and immediately inflict such corporal punishment on them as they may have deserved. Should you not be able to do this, summon them to appear, under penalty of banishment and confiscation of effects. You will also command, by proclamation, all who are bound to serve us, to hasten to join us withi as numerous a body of men-at-arms as possible, that we may effectually oppose the duke of Burgundy and his accomplices, reduce them to the obedience they owe us, and punish them according to their misdeeds, and the tenor of those letters which we have before addressed to you. Do you be careful to execute punctually and diligently these our orders, that we may not proceed against you for disobedience.
“Given at Paris the 20th day of February, in the year of Grace 1413, and of our reign the 33d.” Thus signed by the king, on the report of the grand council held by the queen and the duke of Aquitaine. Countersigned, “ J. DU CHATEL.” It was proclaimed in Amiens and its bailiwick by orders of the bailiff and his deputies on the last day of February and the following days.
Letters-patent were also sent to the nobles of Artois from the king, and to those who had attended the duke of Burgundy in his march to Paris from the bailiwicks of Amiens, Tournay, and the Vermandois; and to those who had remained at home were sent letters sealed with the small round seal. The first letters, in the king's name, forbade these nobles, under pain of the before-mentioned penalties, to accompany, or to give counsel or aid, to the said duke of Burgundy, and commanded them to prepare themselves and their horses to serve the king against this Burgundian and his abettors. By the second, they were ordered to collect as large a force as they could, and advance to Paris and join the king there, or wherever else he might be, that he might be enabled to impugn and humble the duke of Burgundy, his partisans and advisers. These letters were forwarded to the bailiff of Amiens by the chancellor, who sent them, according to orders, to the provostships and bailiwicks, for the guards in each to deliver them to those within their districts to whom they were addressed. These guards were to receive hostages, if possible, and send them to Paris, and they were to write word what other securities they had obtained. Should they not receive any, nor letters of acknowledgment, they were also to write this, that it might be known who had and who had not received these letters from the king.
About this time, the bishop of Paris, at the request of the university, sent to the duke of Burgundy, to know whether he would avow those arguments which master John Petit had advanced by his desire against the late duke of Orleans. The duke, in reply, told the messengers, that he would neither avow nor support the said master John, saving his just rights. On this answer being carried to Paris, it was ordered by the bishop and the inquisitor of the faith, that the aforesaid arguments should be condemned, and publicly burnt in the presence of the clergy, and of whoever else might choose to witness it. When this was done, it was proposed that the bones of the said master John Petit should be sought for in the town of Hêdin, where he had died, for it was intended to burn them in the same place where his arguments had been burnt, but in the end nothing more was done.
CHAPTER CXVII.-THE DUKE OF BURGUNDY HOLDS A GRAND CONFERENCE WITH HIS
NOBLES IN ARRAS, WHO PROMISE TO SERVE HIM AGAINST ALL HIS ENEMIES. The duke of Burgundy daily received intelligence that the king and the duke of Aquitaine were completely turned against him, through the means of those who then governed. In consequence, he assembled all his nobles of Artois and Picardy at Arras. On his appearing among them, he first apologised for having made them wait, saying that he had been at Paris in obedience to the commands of the duke of Aquitaine, and again caused to be read the letters which he had received from him. He added, that he had left large bodies of his men-at-arms in the towns of Compiegne and Soissons, at the request of the inhabitants; for they had learnt that the king, by the advice of his present ministers, was raising a large forcc to reconquer these towns. He then asked the nobles, whether he might depend on their support. They replied, that they would cheerfully serve him against all his enemies, saving the king of France and his children. This they all promised excepting the lord de Ront, who declared that he would serve him even against the king of France.
At this period, there raged an epidemical disorder throughout France and other countries; it affected the head, and very many died of it, both old and young. It was called the coqueluche *.
CHAPTER CXVIII.-A GRAND COUNCIL HELD, IN THE KING'S NAME, AT PARIS. On the 20 day of March, in this year, was held a grand council, at the hotel of St. Pol, in the presence of the queen and the duke of Aquitaine, (because the king was not then in perfect health,) of many princes and prelates beside the ordinary members of the council. The chancellor of France harangued for a considerable time on the behaviour of the duke of Burgundy, and how he had conducted himself toward the king and the princes of the blood at many and divers times, since the death of Louis duke of Orleans : that lately, in defiance of the commands of the king and the duke of Aquitaine, he had marched a powerful force of men-at-arms and archers, with displayed banners, to the very walls of Paris, committing at the same time irreparable damages to the kingdom: he had likewise placed garrisons in the towns of Compiegne and Soissons, who daily made open war on the subjects of the king, in like manner as our ancient enemies of England would have done : that since he bad thus notoriously broken the peace that had been agreed to at Auxerre, and confirmed at Pontoise, the chancellor earnestly demanded those present, on their allegiance, to declare what measures the king and the duke of Aquitaine should pursue against the duke of Burgundy.
This council consisted of the king of Sicily, the dukes of Berry, Orleans, Bourbon and Bar, the counts d'Alençon, de Vertust, de Richemont, d'Eu, de Dampmartin, d'Armagnac, de Vendôme, de Marle and de Touraine; the lord d'Albreth, constable of France, the archbishop of Sens, and many other prelates, with a considerable number of notable barons, knights and esquires of the royal council. When they had for some time deliberated on the chancellor's demand, they replied, by the mouth of the archbishop of Sens, that the king might legally and honourably wage war on the duke of Burgundy, considering the manner in which he had conducted and continued to conduct himself with regard to him. It was then resolved, that the king should raise a large army, and march in person against the duke and his adherents, to subjugate them, and reduce their country to obedience. The queen, the duke of Aquitaine, all the princes, and the whole council, then engaged, and solemnly swore, on their faith and loyalty, that they would never pay attention to any letters or embassy from the said duke, until he and his allies should be destroyed, or at least humbled and reduced to obedience.
* The coqueluche was a contagious disorder, much King John gave it to John Galeas, duke of Milan, as the dreaded in the fifteenth century. Its usual symptoms dowry of his daughter Isabel, wife to that duke. It were a violent defluxion on the chest, accompanied with descended to Valentina, his daughter, and came with her severe pains in the head.—Dict. de Trevour.
into the house of Orleans : afterwards, by the family † Brother to the duke of Orleans.- Vertus, from partition made in 1445, it passed to Margaret of Orleans, which he took his title, was originally a fief of Champagne, wife to Richard count of Estampes, and was given to a and fell with that palatinate to the crown of France. bastard branch of the house of Bretagne.
When the council broke up, clerks were employed to write letters, which were despatched to divers countries, and throughout France ; and the king at this time raised a larger army than he had done during his whole reign,-insomuch, that in a very short time, by the activity of the said princes, and by the king's summons, a very great multitude of men-at-arm were collected round Paris, and in the parts adjacent in the Isle of France. Some of the captains were despatched with a large body of men toward the town of Compiegne, which, as I have before said, was garrisoned by the duke of Burgundy, namely, the lord Charles d'Albreth, .constable of France, sir Hector, bastard of Bourbon, Remonnet de la Guerre, the lord de Gaucourt* and several others, -who, on their forming the siege, had many and severe skirmishes with those of the town, as they made frequent sallies night and day, and at the beginning did them much damage. They were, however, often driven back by the besiegers into the town, which was under the government of sir Hugh de Launay, the lord de Saint Legier, and his son, the lord Mauroy, Hector Philippe, le bon de Saveuses t, the lord de Sorres, knights, Louvelet de Malinghen, and many other notable men-at-arms, by orders of the duke of Burgundy. These captains, to prevent the besiegers from quartering themselves at their ease, were diligent in harassing them, and burnt all the suburbs, with many handsome buildings, as well houses as churches. The besiegers, on their side, were not idle: they threw two bridges over the river Oise, to succour each other should there be occasion, and pointed against the walls and gates two large engines, which annoyed them much.
The king of France on the Saturday in the holy week, the third of April, marched out of Paris in a triumphant manner, and with great state, to the town of Senlis to wait for his army. He there celebrated the feast of the Resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. The king and the duke of Aquitaine wore, on this expedition, the badge and arms of the count d'Armagnac, laying aside that noble and gallant banner which he and his royal predecessors had hitherto borne, for the plain white cross. Many of the great barons, knights, and other loyal servants of the king and the duke, were much displeased at this, saying, that it was not becoming the excellence of his royal majesty to bear the arms of so poor a lord as the count d’Armagnac, particularly as it was for his own personal quarrel, and within his own realm. This banner, which was now the cause of such rejoicing, had been given to an ancestor of the said count, by the decision of a pope, to be borne for ever by him, and his heirs and successors, as a penalty for certain crimes committed by his predecessors against the church.
CHAPTER CXIX.—THE DUKE OF AQUITAINE LEAVES PARIS, AND JOINS THE KING OF
FRANCE AT SENLIS.—HE MARCHES THENCE TO LAY SIEGE TO THE TOWN OF COM-
[A. D. 1414.) At the beginning of this year, namely, on Easter-Monday, the duke of Aquitaine set out from Paris with a noble company, and went to Senlis, to join the king his father. The king then departed from Senlis, attended by many princes and prelates, and a grand assemblage of chivalry, to fix his quarters at Verberie 1. The queen and the duchess of Aquitaine, who
* John, lord of Gaucourt, died in 1393, leaving Raoul who became grand-master of France, and is much distinV. lord of Gaucourt. Eustace, lord of Veri, great-falconer guished hereafter. of France, and John, lord of Maisons-sur-Seine. Raoul t Savense, an ancient house in Picardy. V. was chamberlain to the king, and bailiff of Ronen : he Verberie, –a town in Picardy, on the Oise, three was killed in the year 1417, and left a son, Raoul Vi., leagues from Senlis, four from Compiegne.