Orleans, Alençon and Bourbon, the counts d’Eu, de Vendôme, grand-master of the household, the lord de Prayaux, * the chancellor of France, the archbishops of Sens, Bourges, Rouen, the bishops of Laon, Lisieux, Paris, Chartres, the chancellor of Aquitaine, the count de Tancarville and others, took the same oath in the presence of the king and the grand council.

Commissioners were then sent by the king from Paris, namely, the master of the crossbows of France, the lord de Rambures, and master Jean de Vailly, first president of the parliament, to Tournay, where they arrived in the month of March. The duke of Brabant, the countess of Hainault, Philip of Burgundy count of Charolois, the nobles and prelates of Ghent, and other great towns in Flanders, there met them. When the king's letter had been read, the count de Charolois, and all present, took the oath required, in the hands of the said commissioners, and in the presence of the duke of Brabant and the countess of Ilainault, promising on their own behalf, to keep the said peace, and to pay attention to the contents of the king's letter. In like manner did the prelates, nobility, and others of the town of Tournay and the adjacent countries, make oath, delivering their certificates signed and sealed by them, as the count de Charolois and the Flemings had done to the commissioners, to be carried to Estienne Mauregard, the master of the rolls, at Paris. The count de Charolois, after the holy week, convoked, at Arras, all the nobility, clergy, and inhabitants of the country of Artois and its dependencies, who all swore, and delivered in certificates, as those of Tournay had done. Commissioners were afterward sent into Burgundy, to receive the oaths of the duke and of the estates of the duchy and its dependencies. These commissioners were the lord de Tynouvillet and master Symon de Vanterre, president of the parliament, who received the oaths and certificates, and sent them to the master of the rolls at Paris; but the duke himself refused to swear, and said he must speak to the king and the duke of Aquitaine before he made oath to keep the peace, on certain causes that affected him.



[A. D. 1415.] At the beginning of this year, those of Amiens wrote such letters as follow.

“ The mayor, sheriffs, and commonalty of Amiens make known, that on the 18th day of the month of April, in the year 1415, by orders from master John de Vailly, president of the parliament, and commissioner in these parts in the name of the king, the inhabitants of this town were collected in the market-place, by sound of bell, from house to house, when we being present, with the principal inhabitants, this said president caused to be read to us letters from the king of the following purport : Charles, by the grace of God king of France,' &c., (and similar to what I have before detailed,)—which being ended, we, and all the people assembled, made oath, and faithfully promised on the cross and holy evangelists of God, and we now by these presents do swear and promise punctually to observe and keep all the articles of the peace lately ratified, as far as it shall concern us, and conformably to the will and pleasure of the king our lord, as contained in these his said letters. In testimony whereof, we have to these presents affixed the common seal of the town of Amiens. Given on the day and year before-mentioned.”

The substance of the above was copied by two apostolical notaries, who certified that the aforesaid ordinance had been published, and the colleges assembled in the chapter-house of the cathedral of Notre Dame of Amiens, who had sworn to the same. These were sealed with the seal of the bishop of Amiens, of the chapter, and of the other chapters and colleges, and given to the bailiff of Amiens to carry to master Estienne Mauregard, master of the rolls in Paris. The bailiff caused the king's proclamation to be published everywhere

Préaux. James de Bourbon, third son of James, Azincourt, Peter, lord of Préaux in 1417, and James, lord first count of la Marche, lord of Préaux by marriage, and of Thury. The two latter married two daughters of the grand-butler of France. His sons were, Louis, killed at grand-master Montagu.

+ Q. Tignonville.

within his jurisdiction, except within the lands of the duke of Burgundy: he received the oaths of all ranks of persons to the due observance of the same, and the proper certificates from each prelate, noble, and others resident within his bailiwick. Thus were these ordinances respecting the peace proclaimed throughout all the bailiwicks and seneschalships in the realm, at the usual places; and then oaths and certificates were demanded by the commissioners from the clergy, nobles, and chief towns, and delivered at Paris in the same manner as the others bad been.



FROM THE QUEEN AND THE DUKE OF AQUITAINE. On the 9th day of April, in this same year 1415, Waleran count de St. Pol and de Ligny, calling himself constable of France, fell ill in the castle of Yvoix, in the county of Chiny. His disorder, as it was reported, was occasioned by his physician having administered to him too strong a clyster; and about twelve days after, he departed this life, and was buried in front of the great altar in the principal church in Yvoix, amidst the tears and lamentations of his attendants,--although he had ordered, by a will made in his lifetime, that his body should be carried to the abbey of Cercamp, of which his ancestors the counts de St. Pol had been the founders. In the course of his illness he had sent for his countess, the sister to the duke of Bar*, having an earnest desire to converse with her before his last hour; but, notwithstanding the diligence she made to comply with his request, she did not arrive, accompanied by a niece of the count's, sister to sir John Luxembourg, until about two hours after his decease, although they had rode a-straddle, on hard-trotting horses, to make the more speed. They were much shocked on hearing of his death. When the countess had remained at Yvoix about eight hours, and disbanded the men-at-arms of her late lord, she returned to Ligny-en-Barrois, where she had the obsequies of the count celebrated in the cathedral church. She publicly renounced, by her attorney, all the debts and estates of her late lord, excepting her dower, by placing on his tomb his belt and purse, of which act she demanded from the public notaries present to have certificates drawn up. The count's heirs were the two sons of the duke of Brabant by the daughter of his first wifet.

In this same month, the princes of the blood then at Paris went to Melun, by command of the queen and the duke of Aquitaine, who were there resident. While they were occupied on business with the queen, the duke of Aquitaine set off for Paris with few attendants; and thence he sent the princes word that they were not to return to Paris until ordered by the king or himself, and commanded them to retire to their estates, and to attend to their own affairs. After this, the duke, knowing that the queen his mother had deposited large sums in the hands of three persons in Paris, who were her confidants, namely, Michault de l'Allier, Guillaume Sanguin, and Picquit de la Haye, suddenly entered their houses with his people, and seized all the money found therein, and carried it to his hotel. He then summoned the provosts of Paris, the university, and the principal inhabitants to come to him at the Louvre, where he caused to be laid before them, by the bishop of Chartres, his chancellor, article by article, the whole history of the government of the kingdom, from the coronation of the king his father until that moment, showing how the duke of Anjou had seized the treasures of king Charles his grandfather, and wasted them in Italy, as well as the portions of the dukes of Berry and Burgundy, last deceased; then mentioning the death of the late duke of Orleans, and his government, and concluding with the administration of the present duke of Burgundy, who had consumed the whole of the finances, and despoiled the kingdom. He then declared, that as duke of Aquitaine, dauphin of Vienne, and

* Bona de Bar, second wife of count Waleran, by sively possessed the duchy of Brabant as heirs to their whom he left no issue.

father, and the counties of St. Pol and Ligny in right of + Waleran, count of St. Pol, married for his first wife their mother. Guy, count of Ligny, father of Waleran, Matilda de Roeux, by whom he had one daughter, Jane, was also father to John, count of Brienne, whoso son married to Anthony, duke of Brabant. She died before Peter succeeded to the county of St. Pol on the death of her father, leaving two sons, John and Philip, who succes- Philip, duke of Brabant, in 1430, without issue.

presumptive heir to the crown, he would no longer suffer such waste to be committed on the public revenues, or on his father's demesnes. To this end, therefore, and for the security and welfare of the king and realm, he had thus assembled them, to make known to them, and all the world, his resolution of taking on himself the government of the kingdom, with a firm determination to provide a remedy against such abuses in future. When the above had been eloquently and elaborately explained to the assembly, it broke up, and every one returned to his home.

The princes of the blood, on receiving the orders from the duke of Aquitaine, took their leave of the queen, and separated from each other. The duke of Berry went to Dourdan *, in his county of Estampes, the duke of Orleans to Orleans, and the duke of Bourbon to his duchy of Bourbon. The duke of Burgundy was before, as has been mentioned, in his duchy of Burgundy. The king was very ill at his hotel of St. Pol at Paris. The next step of the duke of Aquitaine was to take away his duchess from the company of the queen, which he did in person, accompanied by the count de Richemont, and had her placed at St. Germain-en-Laye.




HENRY V. OF ENGLAND, WITH MILITARY ATTENDANTS, UNDER THEIR APPROPRIATE BANNERS. The figure of the King, from an illumination of the period; the Attendants, from tombs of the heroes of Azincourt;

and the Banners from examples engraved in Sir N. H. Nicholas's History of the Battle of Azincourt.

WHEN the English ambassadors were returned to England, and had reported to the king their ill success, the king, princes, and country were much displeased thereat. After many councils had been holden, it was at length resolved, that the king should raise the greatest

* Dourdan,-a town in Beauce, on the river Orge, four leagues from Estampes.

possible force to invade France, and so sorely despoil that kingdom that the present king and his successors should be driven from it.

To provide a sufficient fleet for the transport of his army, he sent commissioners* into Holland and Zealand, who, on proper security for good payment, made contracts for the number of vessels that would be wanted. The king of England had prepared all manner of stores and provisions necessary for war; and in regard to the payment of the forces, adequate sums were raised : indeed, there remained an overplus of five hundred thousand nobles, in money or plate. It was determined, that the king himself, attended by the princes and the whole army, should embark to invade France as early as possible. Intelligence of this was speedily carried to France. The duke of Aquitaine, who now governed the realm in behalf and in the name of the king his father, in consequence, held many councils, and remanded to Paris the duke of Berry and some other lords, with whom he had several consultations to know how he should act on this occasion, for the king was then confined by his disorder. It was determined, that men-at-arms and archers should be assembled in various parts of France ready to march against the English the moment it should be known they were landed; that garrisons should be placed in every town and castle on the coast ; and that as large sums of money as possible should be raised with all speed.

It was likewise resolved to send a solemn embassy to the king of England, to make him other offers, in answer to the demands of his last ambassadors. Those appointed for this business were the count de Vendôme, master William Bouratier, archbishop of Bourges, * master Peter Fennel, bishop of Lisieux, the lords of Ivry and Bracquemont, master Gautier Col, secretary to the king, master John Andrieu, and some oth rs of the great council. + Taking advantage of the existing truce, they set out from Paris, and travelling through Amiens, Montreuil, and Boulogne, to Calais, they there crossed the sea to Dover. They were in all three hundred and fifty horsemen, and continued their journey from Dover to Canterbury, where they were met by the king's harbingers, who conducted them through Rochester to London, and thence to Winchester, where the king was. The archbishop of Bourges explained to the king, in the hall of the bishop of Winchester, and in the presence of the dukes of Clarence, Bedford, and Gloucester, brothers to the king, and of the lords of the council, clergy, chivalry, and populace, the object of his embassy. The archbishop spoke first in Latin, and then in the Walloon language, so eloquently and wisely, that both the English and French who heard him were greatly surprised. At the conclusion of his harangue he made offers to the king of a great extent of country in France, with a large sum of ready money on his marriage with the princess Catherine, but on condition that he would disband the army he had collected at Southampton, and at the adjacent sea-ports, to invade France; and that by these means an eternal peace would be established between the two kingdoms. The assembly broke up when the archbishop had ended his speech ; and the French ambassadors were kindly entertained at dinner by the king, who then appointed a day for them to receive his answer to their propositions, by the mouth of the archbishop of Canterbury.

In the course of the archbishop's speech, in which he replied, article by article, to what the archbishop of Bourges had offered, he added to some, and passed over others of them, so that he was sharply interrupted by the archbishop of Bourges, who exclaimed, “I did not say so, but such were my words." The conclusion, however, was, that unless the king of France would give, as a marriage-portion with his daughter, the duchies of Aquitaine, of Normandy, of Anjou, of Tours, the counties of Ponthieu, Mans, and Poitou, and every other part that had formerly belonged to the English monarchs, the king would not desist from his intended invasion of France, but would despoil the whole of that kingdom, which had been unjustly detained from him,—and that he should depend on his sword for the accomplishment of the above, and for depriving king Charles of his crown. The king avowed what the archbishop had said, and added, that thus, with God's aid, he would act, and promised it on the word of a king. The archbishop of Bourges then, according to the custom in France, demanded permission to speak, and said, “O king ! how canst thou, consistently with honour and justice, thus wish to dethrone, and iniquitously destroy the most Christian king of the French, our very dear and most redoubted lord, the noblest and most excellent of all the kings in Christendom. O king! with all due reverence and respect, dost thou think that he has offered by me such extent of territory, and so large a sum of money with his daughter in marriage, through any fear of thee, thy subjects or allies? By no means; but, moved by pity and his love of peace, he has made these offers to avoid the shedding of innocent blood, and that Christian people may not be overwhelmed in the miseries of war; for whenever thou shalt make thy promised attempt, he will call upon God, the blessed Virgin, and on all the saints, making his appeal to them for the justice of his cause, -and with their aid, and the support of his loyal subjects and faithful allies, thou wilt be driven out of his dominions, or thou wilt be made prisoner, or thou wilt there suffer death by orders of that just king whose ambassadors we are. We have now only to entreat of thee, that thou wouldst have us safely conducted out of thy realm ; and that thou wouldst write to our said king, under thy hand and seal, the answer which thou hast had given to us."

* The commissioners were Richard Clitherow and ambassadors are detailed at length, with the handsome Symon Flecte, esquires.- Fædera.

proposals on the part of France, in answer to such exorI would refer the reader to this excellent work for the bitant and unjust pretensions.. whole detail of the negotiations with France respecting + “A stoute and prowde bishopp," says Grafton, the marriage of Catherine. The demands of the English p. 447. .

I See the Federa.

The king kindly granted their requests;* and the ambassadors, having received handsome presents, returned by way of Dover to Calais, and thence to Paris. They reported to the duke of Aquitaine, in the presence of the members of the grand council, many knights and other persons, the ill success of their embassy. At the same time, the duke of Aquitaine and the council received letters from the king of England, dated from Winchester, containing his final answer to the proposals that bad been made him.


AQUITAINE.—THE ANSWER THEY RECEIVE.—HE TAKES THE OATH. The duke of Burgundy, tormented by the clamours of those who had been banished from Paris and the kingdom of France, and whom, as I have noticed, he had taken under his protection, was very desirous of alleviating their distress, and for this purpose sent ambassadors to Paris to his son-in-law the duke of Aquitaine, and to the grand council of the king. These ambassadors were sir Regnier Pot and the lord d'Ancre, knights, the bishop of Tournay, and an advocate of Dijon. They were instructed to solicit the recal of those who had been banished the kingdom by royal authority, and that the five hundred who had been excepted by the articles of the peace should be fully pardoned, and that all which had passed should be forgotten. They were also to insist, that the duchess of Aquitaine, whom the duke had sent to reside at St. Germain-en-Laye, should inhabit the Louvre with him, and that he should put away a female friend who lived with him in place of his said wife. If these things were complied with, he promised to take the prescribed oath to preserve the peace,-otherwise not.

The duke of Aquitaine was so much angered, when he first heard these proposals, that the ambassadors did not experience a very agreeable reception. They waited, therefore, on him another day, in hope of receiving more favourable answers; but finding that they could no way succeed in what had been ordered by their lord the duke of Burgundy, they addressed the duke of Aquitaine as follows: "Most renowned prince, and very noble lord, with reverence be it known to you, that if you do not grant what our aforesaid lord requires of you, he will never swear to the observance of the late peace; and should the English invade France, neither he himself nor his vassals will bear arms in your service, or for the defence of the kingdom.” The duke, hearing this, was more exasperated than before ; but, dissembling

* « The king was nothing vexed nor unquieted with the sayeings and prowde bragges of the unnurtured archbishopp, but well remembering the sayeing of Salomon, &c. &c., coldely and soberly answered the bishop, saying

My lorde, I little esteem your French bragges,' &c." -Grafton.

It is very easy to bestow the terms of pride and insolence on whichever side of the question it is most convenient.

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