bombards were pointed against the tower of St. Cloud, which greatly damaged it in many places; but it was not taken, for continual reinforcements came from Paris to defend it.

When the duke of Burgundy had remained for eight days on Mont-Rouge, he decamped with his army, and advanced a league nearer to Paris, to a hill whereon was a withered tree, on which he fixed his standard, and thence was this encampment called “The camp of the withered tree.” He remained here also for eight days; and as many of his men were quartered in the villages close to Paris, several skirmishes took place between them and the Parisians, although no great losses ensued on either side. The foragers from the duke's army scoured the country for eight leagues round, and brought to the camp great booties of horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs, to the ruin of the poor peasantry.



MATTERS. During the time when the duke of Burgundy was encamped at the withered tree on Mont-Chastillon, before Paris, he sent one of his heralds called Palis, who was afterwards Flanders king at arms, with letters to the king and the dauphin of France. On his arrival at the gates of Paris, he was led to the count d'Armagnac and the king's ministers, who bade him address the dauphin, and give to him his letters, for that he could not be admitted to the presence of the king,—which he did, shortly detailing the object of his mission from the duke of Burgundy. The dauphin, who had been well instructed what answer he was to make, replied in a great rage, “Herald, contrary to the will of my lord the king and of us, thy lord of Burgundy has already destroyed several parts of the kingdom, and, by his persevering in his conduct, he plainly shows that he is not our well-wisher ,as he signs himself. If he be anxious that my lord and ourself should consider him as our relative, loyal vassal and subject, let him march to combat and conquer the king of England, the ancient enemy of this realm, and then return to the king, when he shall be well received. Let him no longer say that my lord the king and ourself are kept in servitude at Paris, for we both of us enjoy our full liberty and authority ; and do thou be careful that thou repeat what we have just said, aloud to the duke of Burgundy, and in the presence of his army.” After this speech, the herald returned to bis lord, and repeated to him what the dauphin bad said, which made no great impression on the duke, for he considered it as the speech of those who governed the king.

When the duke perceived that he could not gain admittance to Paris, and that his partisans in that city wcre unable to perform what they had promised him, he decamped from MontChastillon, with his whole army, to lay siege to Montlehery. The inhabitants, knowing the power of the duke, and thinking they should not be supported, entered into a treaty to surrender the castle, if within eight days they were not succoured by the king or the constable. They sent information of this treaty to the constable, but it was of no avail, for no succours were sent,—and they delivered up the castle conformably to their agreement. In like manner were reduced to the obedience of the duke of Burgundy, the castles of Marcoussy, Dourdan, Palaiseau, and some other forts in the neighbourhood. During the siege of Montlehery, the duke detached a part of his army to the castle of Doursay, who lodged themselves in the town, in front of the castle, and there pointed some cannons to batter the walls and conquer it; but a large body of the constable's men attacked their quarters at break of day, and slew the greater part of them. Those who escaped fled to the quarters of the duke of Burgundy, crying, “To arms!” for that the enemy were marching in great force against them. The duke instantly drew up his army in battle-array on the plain, as if the enemy had been in sight. The leaders of the detachment sent to Doursay, were the lord de Salines, the lord de Toulongeon, and some other captains from Burgundy ; and at this surprise were made prisoners, sir Geoffroy de Villers, a knight from the Rethelois, with fifty other gentlemen.

While this was going forward, the duke despatched sir Elyon de Jacqueville, John de

Guigny, John du Clau, and other captains, with sixteen hundred combatants to Chartres, which place, with Estampes, Gallardon, and other towns and forts, surrendered to the duke of Burgundy. Jacqueville remained governor of Chartres. In like manner, sir Philip de Fosseux and Robert le Roux were sent to the lady de la Riviere at Auniau, who promised that she would not admit any garrisons into her forts of Auniau and Rochefort, that would carry on war against the duke of Burgundy or his wellwishers.

At this time, numbers of towns, castles, and noblemen joined the duke, in the expectation that he would succeed in his enterprise and obtain the government of the kingdom. In the towns which submitted to his obedience, he would not allow any taxes to be raised excepting that on salt, which gained him great popularity among the inhabitants and peasantry of the countries round. He also sent letters to many of the principal towns in France, of the following tenour.

“ John duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders and Artois, palatine of Burgundy, lord of Salines and Mechlin. Very dear and good friends, you have known, from melancholy experience, the miserable system of government which is adopted in this kingdom, as well with regard to the king as the country, by those who have seized the management of our lord the king, without respect or care for his royal majesty ; but, forgetful of every thing, they have impoverished his estate, and his own personal wealth, which formerly acquired for him great renown among Christian princes. His government was, anciently, celebrated for the equity of the courts of justice, which was administered indiscriminately to the poor as well as to the rich ; but the present ministers have so greatly neglected it that it has fallen off, and is now directed according to their pleasure, while all parts of his majesty's dominions are in a state of anarchy, and a prey to the bitter enemies of the kingdom, by the destruction of the nobles and other supporters of the dignity of the crown. Heavy taxes, under various pretences, have been and are raised, to the great vexation and ruin of the nobility, clergy, citizens and commonalty, who groan under them.

To obviate and reform these and similar abuses, we have taken up arms, as it is well known to you ; for we have frequently and publicly summoned these ministers to desist from such practices, declaring that otherwise we should ourselves provide a remedy, for the benefit of our said lord the king, so that an adequate provision might be made for his establishment, his kingdom be better governed, and the lost territories recovered. And again, while we were lately before Paris, we sent our herald to our said lord the king, with sealed letters, in which we repeated the grounds of our conduct, supplicating him that we might be permitted to approach his sacred person, and make offer of our personal services to him as to our sovereign lord: but the present ministry would not allow these letters to be given to our said lord, and sent them back to us. They forbade our herald to return again, and continue their usual mode of government to the destruction of the realm and of all his majesty's loyal subjects, because they know that we are averse to their measures, which are daily becoming from bad to worse. It is this which engages us to persevere in our resistance, whatever may be the consequences thereof, that they may no longer continue their wicked practices, and that commerce may have free course, and the kingdom may be governed according to justice, Such is our firm intention that we may loyally acquit ourselves; for it has been pronounced by the holy court of Rome, that it behoves us to attend to the government of the kingdom, considering the unfortunate state of the king and the youth of the dauphin, rather than the count d'Armagnac, or those who style themselves council to the king. In confirmation of this, we have annexed to these presents the decree that was pronounced by the holy college in the presence of a very learned doctor, our ambassador to the court of Rome..

“We therefore summon you in the name of our said lord, and earnestly request you on our part, that you take the above subjects into your serious consideration, and form such conclusions as may be honourable to our aforesaid lord, and to the preservation of his lineage and dominions; and that all his subjects may enjoy peace and justice, and that these our intentions may be adopted by you, is the earnest object of our wishes. We request, that on the 20th day of October next ensuing, you would depute to us not less than two well instructed persons, at whatever place we may be, with whom we may advise, with sufficient powers to form any treaties in your names, and in those of the prelates, chapters, and all dependencies on your jurisdiction.

“ Be careful that herein you fail not, from the love you bear our aforesaid lord, ourselves, and his realm. Should you desire anything from us, you have but to mention it, and we will do it to the utmost of our power. Written at Montlehery, the 8th day of October.”

Underneath is a copy of the schedule from the college of cardinals, annexed to the duke of Burgundy's mandatory letter.

“ I, Lievin Nevelin, doctor en decret, ambassador from the sacred college of cardinals, to the most mighty and puissant prince my lord the duke of Burgundy, have presented to him, on the part of the sacred college, letters sealed with three seals, namely, that of the dean of the cardinal-bishops, of the dean of the cardinal-priests, and of the dean of the cardinaldeacons, which are my credential letters, and which I have explained to my lord the duke, by offering to him, from the sacred college, the words of the holy prophet David, ‘Domine, refugium factus es nobis ; that is to say, “Lord, in times of trouble we seek refuge in thee.' In continuing my discourse from the above text, and for many reasons comparing the sacred college to king David, I have laid before my said lord of Burgundy the state of the holy council of Constance, and the labours of the cardinals to restore union to the church. I afterwards explained to him, that all Christendom was now united, except as it were a single grain in a bushel of wheat, namely, the dominions of the count d'Armagnac, who still obey Pietro della Luna, and whose adherents have been declared schismatics and guilty of heresy. I then explained, that I was sent by the sacred college as ambassador to him, not simply as duke of Burgundy, but as the representative of the crown of France, and to whom the government of that country legally belonged, to make to him certain requests and propositions from the sacred college ; and I mentioned the reasons why I was deputed to him, and not to the king, to my lord the dauphin, the count d'Arinagnac, or to the king's ministers. These reasons were, as the sacred college bade me inform him, because my lord the king was overwhelmed with a sore disorder, because my lord the dauphin was too young in years, and because the count d’Armagnac had relapsed into sclism, and some of the king's ininisters, adherents to the count, were suspected of being schismatics also.

“ True it is, that the said count d’Armagnac has not been pronounced schismatic; but at the public sessions of the council, when Pietro della Luna was dethroned, and declared schismatic and heretic, he was personally accused by the king of the Romans, and the procurator-fiscal of the said council, and has since relapsed into schism, notwithstanding the frivolous excuses made in his behalf by master John Gerson.

“I made three requests to my said lord of Burgundy; the first was, that he would be pleased to have in his protection the sacred college, the pope, and the proceedings of the said general council, by guarding and maintaining them in their ancient rights, liberties, and privileges. Secondly, that should any one write, or cause to be written in time to come, any things against the said holy college or pope, he would not give faith to such writings. Thirdly, that my said lord would approve of whatever acts the said sacred college should issue, as well touching the election of the pope as the reformation of the holy church."-At the end of this schedule, the said Lieven had put his sign-manual.



FRANCE, WHO ACCOMPANIES IIIM ON HIS RETURN. When the duke of Burgundy had submitted to his obedience the castle of Montlehery, and re-furnished it with provision and stores, he marched his army to lay siege to Corbeil on the side toward Montlehery. He planted many cannons and other engines to batter it in vain; for the constable and the king's ministers had strongly garrisoned the place with menat-arms, who made a vigorous defence against the duke, and daily slew his men by their cannon and other shot. The garrison was continually supplied, as well by land as by water, with provision, ammunition, and all other necessary articles. In short, after the duke had remained about three weeks before Corbeil, seeing he was unable to conquer it, and that his army was much harassed by the continued rains, and by an epidemic disorder which

carried off many, he raised the siege, and departed from before Corbeil on the 28th day of October, taking the road to Chartres. The duke left behind, in his camp, many warlike engines, and great quantities of provisions which merchants had brought to his army: all of these things the besieged carried into their town, on the departure of the duke, and were highly rejoiced that their enemies had left them. During the siege of Corbeil, sir Mauroy de St. Legier was struck with a bolt from a cross-bow so severely on the leg that he was maimed, and limped all his life after.

The real cause of the duke of Burgundy's breaking up the siege of Corbeil so suddenly, was a private message which he received by a confidential servant from the queen of France, then resident at Tours in Touraine, to request he would come and release her from her state of confinement, as she thought herself in much danger. The duke, in consequence, had sent one of his secretaries, called John de Drosay, to make further inquiries, and to conclude a treaty with the queen. The queen promised to accompany the duke provided he would come to fetch her; and, for a confirmation thereof, she gave the secretary a golden signet to present to his lord. This signet was known by the duke, for he bad often seen it; and on his arrival at Chartres, on the eve of the feast of All-saints, attended by the greater part of his nobles, and those of the men-at-arms best mounted and equipped, he suddenly set off, taking the road through Bonneval and Vendôme to Tours. When he was within two leagues of that place, he sent forward the lords de Fosseux and du Vergy, with eight hundred combatants, who posted themselves in ambuscade half a league distant from Tours; at the same time despatching a trusty messenger to inform the queen of the duke's arrival.

On hearing this, she called to her master John Torel, master John Petit, and master Laurens du Puy, her principal wardens, and told them she wished to hear mass at a church without the town, called Marmoutier, and that they must prepare themselves to accompany her. They exhorted her to lay such thoughts aside, but in vain; for she shortly after issued out of Tours, and carried them with her to the aforesaid church. The lords in ambuscade almost instantly advanced in front of the church, and sent Hector de Saveuses forward to the queen with about sixty combatants. Her warders approached her as she was hearing mass, and said, “ Lady, here is a large company of Burgundians or English ;” but she, like one unsuspicious of what was intended, ordered them to keep near her. Hector de Saveuses then entered the church, and saluted her in the name of his lord the duke of Burgundy. She, in reply, asked where he was ; when he said that he would instantly be with her. After these words, she commanded Hector to lay hands on masters John Torel, Petit, and Laurens du Puy : the last she hated much, for he addressed her very rudely, without raising his hand to his hood, and never bowing to her; beside, she could not any way act without the consent of Laurens du Puy. Finding he could not escape being arrested if he remained, he flew out of the church, and entered a small boat by the back-yard to cross the river Loire, but in such haste that he fell into the water, and was drowned : the others were taken prisoners.

All this passed about nine o'clock in the morning : at eleven the duke of Burgundy waited on the queen, and paid her the respect that was her due, which she returned, and said, “ Most dear cousin, of all men in the kingdom I ought to love you the most, for having laid aside every other thing, and complying with my request to come hither and deliver me from prison, and which, my dear cousin, I shall never forget ; for I clearly see that you have always loved my lord, his family, his kingdom, and the public welfare.” They afterward dined together with much cheerfulness in the said church ; after which, the queen sent notice to the inhabitants of Tours that she and her cousin the duke of Burgundy would make a public entry into their town; but, by the advice of the governor, the inhabitants delayed a little in their answer: however, at last they complied with what had been demanded, when the governor retired into the castle, and the qneen and the duke, with their attendants and escort, made their entry. The duke was handsomely received and entertained in Tours; after which, the queen sent a passport and orders for the governor to come to her, whom she commanded to deliver up the castle, which he did, though much against his will. When the duke had tarried three days with the queen, he appointed Charles l'Abbé governor of the town and castle, with two hundred combatants for its defence. He took an oath carefully to guard and defend it in the name and on behalf of the duke of Burgundy; but this oath he was very unmindful of, for

in the following year he surrendered both town and castle to the dauphin, while he was continued governor, taking a similar oath.

The queen and the duke of Burgundy caused proclamation to be made through Tours, that no one was to pay any subsidies or taxes but that on salt. They then departed for Vendôme, where was issued a similar proclamation, and then continued their route through Bonneval to Chartres, where they arrived the 9th day of November. The queen was accompanied by four carriages, containing twenty women. She had only one knight with her, called sir Robert le Cyne, with whose prudence and discretion she was well pleased.



BETTER GOVERNMENT OF THE KINGDOM. On the queen's arrival at Chartres, it was resolved that she should write letters in her own name to all those towns that had submitted to the obedience of the duke of Burgundy. A copy of that addressed to the town of Amiens now follows. 166 Very dear and well-beloved, you know that by the intrigues and damnable avarice and ambition of some persons of low degree, who have seized the person and government of my lord and his kingdom, unnumbered mischiefs have arisen, as well by the molestation of those of his royal family as by the destruction and loss of many parts of his realm; more particularly in the duchies of Aquitaine and Normandy, where the utmost confusion reigns, without these the present ministers any way attempting to check or prevent it; but, on the contrary, they have conceived a mortal hatred against all that are gallant and loyal, by confiscating their fortunes, or putting them to death. They continue in their wickedness, though they know we are anxious to labour for the reparation of all these evils, and to procure peace to the realm ; for, through the grace of God, we are competent so to do, as queen and wife to our aforesaid lord, according to the terms that had been begun by our son and our cousin of Hainault, whose souls may God receive! But they, knowing our intentions, took care to keep us at a distance, that their iniquities might be hidden, and that they might keep possession of their places. By such means do they daily apply to their own profit the whole amount of the revenue, without any part being allotted for the use of my said lord, or for the security and welfare of his kingdom. They have, under false pretences and most disloyally, robbed my said lord, ourself, and our son the dauphin, so that we have not wherewithal to maintain our establishments, or to defray our expenses; insomuch that they have acquired so great power that all must obey their wills, and it is very probable that the government of my lord and his realm may fall into the hands of strangers, which God forbid !

“ When our very dear and well-beloved cousin, the duke of Burgundy, shall have put an end to such shameful abuses, he offers peace to all who may be inclined to accept of it, by his letters patent that have been published in various parts of the realm ; but those persons above mentioned having refused to accept his terms, our cousin has taken up arms, in company with a large number of knights and esquires, with the intent to drive the above traitors from the government of this kingdom. They, however, to resist the said duke, and prevent him from approaching the person of our said lord, have remanded to Paris all the men-at-arms from their different garrisons, thereby leaving the kingdom a prey to its ancient enemies the English. This conduct clearly shows their wicked intentions, but the greater part of the nobility, prelacy, and the chief towns, have united themselves to our said cousin, sensible of the loyalty of his conduct, for the good of our said lord and the welfare of his realm. All who are any way related to us by blood shonld be warmly attached to our said cousin, for it concerns them much ; and they should know, that quitting his siege of Corbeil, he came to set us at liberty, and deliver us from the hands of our late jailers.

“ We have accompanied our said cousin to the town of Chartres, as was reasonable, where we shall advise together on the most effectual means of regaining those parts of the kingdom that have been conquered, and for the preservation of the remainder, without any further dissembling, by the aid and support of all the vassals, friends, allies, and subjects of my VOL. I.


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