his heirs were to remain successors to the crown of France, to the prejudice of the branches of the whole royal line of France. All this was granted by king Charles ; but, to say the truth, he had not for some time past been in his right senses, and was governed by those about his person as they pleased, and consented to what they advised, whether to his prejudice or not.

When the treaty had been signed, the ambassadors returned with a copy thereof to the king of England, avoiding all the ambuscades of the Dauphinois as well as they could. King Henry was well pleased with their success, as he foresaw he should now gain the greater part of his objects. He arranged his affairs in Normandy speedily, and caused preparations to be made for marching to Troyes, to complete the articles of the treaty. Sir Louis de Robesart had remained, by king Henry's orders, at Troyes, to attend on the lady Catherine of France, who was shortly to become queen of England.



FORCE TOWARD ALIBAUDIERES, AND THE EVENT THEREOF. About ten days before Easter, sir John de Luxembourg was sent, with five hundred combatants, to attack a fortress called Alibaudieres, adjoining the Vermandois, six leagues from Troyes, in which was a garrison of the Dauphinois that much harassed Champagne. When sir John was arrived near to the place, he left the greater part of his men in ambuscade, and advanced with the rest to skirmish at the barriers. The garrison gallantly sallied out on foot to meet him, and a sharp skirmish began, during which sir John fell from his horse by reason of the girth breaking, but was soon raised up again by his men, and instantly most courageously, and in a violent passion, attacked the Dauphinois lance in hand ; they were fewer in number than the assailants, and therefore retreated in disorder, and closed their bulwark. Sir John, on this, sent for the remainder of his force, whom he had placed in ambush, and they made so grand an attack on the bulwark that it was taken by storm and set on fire,—but in this action many were killed and wounded. Sir John then returned with his men to duke Philip of Burgundy, in Troyes, at which place great preparations were making for the reception of king Henry of England, who was shortly expected there to confirm the articles of the peace, and solemnise his marriage with the lady Catherine of France.

While these things were passing, the dauphin and his council were at Bourges, in Berry. He was exceedingly uneasy when he heard of the alliance that had been concluded with England, and anxious to form plans of resistance against the king of England and the duke of Burgundy, knowing that, unless he could effectually oppose them, he was in great peril of losing the kingdom and his expectations of succeeding to the crown of France. He was not, therefore, negligent to provide against the danger, and established garrisons in all the principal places on the frontiers toward his adversaries, and appointed to the command of them the most loyal of his party. He placed as governor at Melun the lord de Barbasan, with a large force; at Montereau, the lord de Guitry ; sir Robert de Loire at Montargis; the bastard de Vaurus, and Pierron de Lupel, at Meaux, in Brie ; the lord de Gamaches at Compiegne, and so on at other towns and forts. He assembled a large body of men-atarms to be alway near his person, and ready for any event that might happen to him.



[A. D. 1420.] Ar the beginning of this year the duke of Burgundy ordered Pierre de Luxembourg count de Conversan and de Brienne, sir John de Luxembourg his brother, and several of his captains, such as the marshal de l'Isle-Adam, the vidame of Amiens, Anthony lord of Croy, Hector de Saveuses, sir Mauroy de St. Leger, the bastard de Thian, and a number of others, to lay siege to the castle of Alibaudieres, mentioned in the preceding chapter. The garrison of this castle had repaired the bulwark which sir John de Luxembourg had destroyed, so that it was in a better state of defence than before. The Burgundian leaders, on their arrival, ordered their men before they encamped to arm themselves and prepare ladders, thinking to win the bulwark as easily as formerly ; but the attack and defence were for a long time sharply continued, and with great courage. Some of the ladders were placed against it, and on them Hector de Saveuses, Henry de Chauffour, and others expert in arms, combated a considerable time ; but Henry de Chauffour, much renowned in war, while on one of these ladders, and armed in plate armour, was pierced by a lance through the hollow of the armour under the ham of the leg and died of the wound a few days afterward.

During the attack, sir John de Luxembourg, who was very near the bulwark and posted between two oaks, had raised the vizor of his helmet to observe the countenance of the enemy, but he was perceived from the walls and struck near the eye with a lance, (whether pointed or not with iron I am ignorant,) and so severely wounded that in the end he lost his eye, and was led by his people to repose himself in his tent. Shortly after his banner was taken, and cut off close to the end of the lance to which it was fastened, which still more enraged sir John de Luxembourg. These events and the obstinate resistance of the besieged put an end to the attack, but not before great numbers of the assailants had been killed and wounded. The count de Conversan and the other captains encamped round the castle had ordered several large bombards to be pointed against the gates and walls to destroy them; but sir John de Luxembourg, in consequence of his severe wound, was carried back to Troyes, where he was attended by the most able doctors. His brother, the count de Conversan, now remained commander in chief of the siege, and by his engines so greatly damaged the castle that some of the towers and gates were half battered down. This alarmed the besieged, and they demanded a parley with the count, which was consented to; but they could not at the first conference agree on terms, so that when the deputies had re-entered the castle, the besiegers armed themselves, and made so vigorous an attack on it that sixty men-at-arms gained possession of two of its towers, but in truth they could not proceed further by reason of the new fortifications that had been erected during the siege. This action was very severe indeed, and lasted nearly five hours, during which numbers of each side were killed and wounded, but in the end those who had gained the two towers were driven by the besieged from them ; they even made prisoner and dragged into the castle a trumpeter, who had armed himself like a man-at-arms.

On the morrow the besieged, fearing the attack would be renewed, demanded another parley, when it was agreed that they should depart with their lives only, and on foot, with the exception of a few who were to be allowed small horses, and in this state they were to go to Moynes. The castle was totally destroyed and burnt, and the effects within were all plundered by those men-at-arms who could first force an entrance, contrary to the positive orders of their captains, who soon after led their men back to Troyes and to the adjacent villages.



LEAD AN EXPEDITION TOWARD THE AUXERROIS. WHEN the Picards and the other men-at-arms were returned to Troyes from the siege of Alibaudieres, they demanded permission of the duke of Burgundy to return to their homes, which was granted. About three thousand horse departed, and the principal gentlemen were, the vidame of Amiens, the borgne de Fosseux knight, Hector de Saveuses, the lord de Stenhuse high bailiff of Flanders, the lord de Comines, and several other captains, as well from Picardy as Flanders, who all rode together from Troyes toward Rethel ; and although the Dauphinois were in great numbers on the watch to attack and plunder them, by activity and diligence they escaped all their ambushes, and arrived safely in their own countries.

After their departure the duke of Burgundy ordered some of the other captains who had remained with himn, such as the marshal de l'Isle-Adam, Anthony lord of Croy, the lord de Longueval, sir Mauroy de St. Leger, Baudo de Noyelle, Robert de Saveuses, Robert de Brimeu, the bastard de Thian, with about sixteen hundred combatants, to march to the Auxerrois and subdue that country, with some of its castles that held out for the party of the dauphin, to the king's obedience.

They proceeded from Troyes by short days' marches to Toussy, a small town attached to the dauphin, and whither the lord de la Trimouille often resorted. They had carried with them scaling ladders and other implements of war, and came before the town just between daybreak and sunrise in the hopes of taking it by surprise and plundering it. On their arrival they drew up in battle-array, and Anthony lord of Croy, his bastard brother Butor, Baudo de Noyelle, Lyonnet de Bournouville, and some others, were created knights by the hand of the lord de l'Isle-Adam, marshal of France. Shortly after this ceremony they made a joint attack on several parts of the place at once, and fixed their scaling ladders to the walls without meeting with any opposition. However, notwithstanding that the inhabitants were at first greatly alarmed, they recovered courage, and defended themselves so vigorously that the assailants were repulsed, driven from the ditches, and forced to encamp round the town. They then employed themselves for two days in making new ladders and iron crooks to renew the attack. On the third, having completed their warlike implements, they assaulted the place more fiercely than before, and again fixed their ladders, but the besieged made a gallant defence and killed and wounded several at the onset ; among the first were a gentleman of arms named Ogier de St. Vandrille and Tabary the captain of robbers, who has been before spoken of, and some others. In the end the assailants were again repulsed and driven in confusion to their quarters. The dead were carried in their armour from the ditches into the town, and when stripped were put into coffins and buried in a church.

Intelligence was brought this same night to the marshal de l'Isle-Adam and to the other captains, that the enemy was marching in force to offer them combat, upon which they hastily mounted their horses and set forward, and rode all the night to meet them. On the morrow they learnt news of their enemies, that they were quartered in a strong monastery called Estampes St. Germain, within two leagues of Auxerre. They then pushed forward to besiege them within this monastery, and sent to Auxerre for provision, assistance, and warlike engines, all of which were granted. After the two parties bad skirmished for the space of eighteen days, the Dauphinois surrendered, on condition that their lives should be spared, and that they should remain prisoners until they should ransom themselves each according to his rank in life. When this treaty had been concluded the fortifications of the monastery were destroyed, and the Burgundians returned to the duke their lord in Troyes.



Ar this period Henry king of England, accompanied by his two brothers the dukes of Clarence and of Gloucester, the earls of Huntingdon, Warwick, and Kyme, and many of the great lords of England, with about sixteen hundred combatants, the greater part of whom were archers, set out from Rouen and came to Pontoise, and thence to St. Denis. He crossed the bridge at Charenton and left part of his army to guard it, and thence advanced by Provins to Troyes in Champagne. The duke of Burgundy and several of the nobility, to show him honour and respect, came out to meet him, and conducted him to the hotel where he was lodged with his princes, and his army was quartered in the adjacent villages. Shortly after his arrival, he waited on the king and queen of France and the lady Catherine their daughter, when great honours and attentions were by them mutually paid to each other. Councils were then holden for the ratification of the peace, and whatever articles had been disagreeable to the king of England in the treaty were then corrected according to his pleasure. When all relating to the peace had been concluded, king Henry, according to the custom of France, affianced the lady Catherine.

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On the morrow of Trinity-day, the king of England espoused her in the parish church near to which he was lodged ; great pomp and magnificence were displayed by him and his princes, as if he were at that moment king of all the world. On the part of the king of France was present at this ceremony Philip duke of Burgundy, by whose means this treaty and alliance had been brought about. He was attended by Pierre de Luxembourg count de Conversan, sir John de Luxembourg his brother, the prince of Orange, the lord de Joinville, the lord de Chastellus, the lord de Chateau Vilain, the lord de Montagu, sir Regnier Pot, le veau de Bar bailiff of Auxois, sir James de Courtejambe, sir John de Coquebrune marshal of Burgundy and of Picardy, the lord de Croy, the lord de Longueval, sir Actis de Brimeu, sir David his brother, the lords de Roubaix, de Humbercourt bailiff of Amiens, sir Hugh de Launois, sir Gilbert his brother, with numbers of other notable knights, and some prelates and churchmen from the states of the duke. The principal of these last were, master John de Torsay bishop of Tournay and chancellor of Burgundy, master Eustace de Lactre, master John de Mailly ; all, or at least the greater part, joined with the duke in promising for ever to preserve inviolate the peace, the terms of which were as follow :

“Charles, by the grace of God, king of France, to all our bailiffs, provosts, seneschals, and to all the principal of our officers of justice, or to their lieutenants, greeting. Be it known, that we have this day concluded a perpetual peace, in our town of Troyes, with our very dear and well-beloved son Henry king of England, heir and regent of France, in our name and in his own, in consequence of his marriage with our well-beloved daughter Catherine, and by other articles in the treaty concluded between us, for the welfare and good of our subjects, and for the security of the realm ; so that henceforward our subjects, and those of our said son, may traffic and have a mutual intercourse with each other, as well on this as on the other side of the sea. Item, it has been agreed that our said son king Henry, shall henceforth honour us as his father, and our consort the queen as his mother, but shall not by any means prevent us from the peaceable enjoyment of our crown during our life. Item, our said son king Henry, engages that he will not interfere with the rights and royalties of our crown so long as we may live, nor with the revenues, but that they may be applied as before to the support of our government and the charges of the state ; and that our consort the queen shall enjoy her state and dignity of queen, according to the custom of the realm, with the unmolested enjoyment of the revenues and domains attached to it. - Item, it is agreed that our said daughter Catherine shall have such dower paid her from the revenues of England as English queens have hitherto enjoyed, -namely, sixty thousand crowns, two of which are of the value of an English noble. * -Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry, shall, by every means in his power, without transgressing the laws he has sworn to maintain, and the customs of England, assure to our said daughter Catherine the punctual payment of the aforesaid dower of sixty thousand crowns from the moment of his decease.--Item, it is agreed, that should it happen that our 'said daughter survive our said son, king Henry, she shall receive, as her dower from the kingdom of France, the sum of forty thousand francs yearly; and this sum shall be settled on the lands and lordships which were formerly held in dower by our very dear and well beloved the lady Blanche, consort to king Philip of France, of happy memory, our very redoubted lord and great grandfather.

- Item, it is agreed that immediately on our decease, and from thenceforward, our crown and kingdom of France, with all its rights and appurtenances, shall devolve for ever to our said son king Henry, and to his heirs.

"Item, because we are for the greater part of our time personally prevented from attending to the affairs and government of our realm with the attention they deserve, the government of our kingdom shall in future be conducted by our said son king Henry, during our life, calling to his assistance and council such of our nobles as have remained obedient to us, and who have the welfare of the realm and the public good at heart, so that affairs may be conducted to the honour of God, of ourself and consort, and to the general welfare and security of the kingdom ; and that tranquillity may be restored to it, and justice and equity take place everywhere by the aid of the great lords, barons, and nobles of the realm.Item, our said son shall, to the utmost of his power, support the courts of parliament of France, in all parts that are subject to us, and their authority shall be upheld and maintained with rigour from this time forward. --Item, our said son shall exert himself to defend and maintain each of our nobility, cities, towns and municipalities in all their accustomed rights, franchises, and privileges, so that they be not individually nor collectively molested in them. -Item, our said son shall labour diligently, that justice be administered throughout the realm, according to the accustomed usages, without exception of any one, and will bodily defend and guard all our subjects from all violence and oppression whatever.

“ Item, it is agreed that our said son king Henry shall appoint to all vacant places, as well in the court of parliament as in the bailiwicks, seneschalships, provostships, and to all other offices within our realm, observing that he do nominate fit and proper persons for such offices, fully acquainted with the laws and customs of the country, so that tranquillity may be preserved, and the kingdom flourish.— Item, our said son will most diligently exert himself to reduce to our obedience all cities, towns, castles and forts, now in rebellion against us, and of the party commonly called Dauphinois or Armagnac.--Item, for the more secure observance of these articles, and the more effectually to enable our said son king Henry to carry them into execution, it is agreed that all the great lords, as well spiritual as temporal, -all the cities, towns, and municipalities within our realm, and under our obedience, shall each of them take the following oaths : They shall swear obedience and loyalty to our said son king Henry, in so much as we have invested him with the full power of governing our kingdom of France in conjunction with such counsel of able men as he may appoint. They will likewise swear to observe punctually whatever we, in conjunction with our consort tho

* The queen's dower was 40,000 crowns, which was confirmed in the first parliament of Henry VI., on petition from her.- Parl. Hist.

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