“ of chusing a patron.” The dedication he afterwards suppressed.

“ Busiris" was followed in the year 1721 by “ The Revenge." He dedicated this famous tra, gedy to the Duke of Wharton. “Your Grace," says the dedication, “has been pleased to make your“self accessary to the following scenes, not only by “ suggesting the most beautiful incident in them, “ but by making all possible provision for the suc“ cess of the whole.”

That his Grace should have suggested the incident to which he alludes, whatever that incident might have been, is not unlikely. The last mental exertion of the superannuted young man, in his quarters at Lerida, in Spain, was some scenes of a tragedy on the story of Mary Queen of Scots.

Dryden dedicated “Marriage à la Mode" to Wharton's infamous relation Rochester, whom he acknowledges not only as the defender of his poetry, but as the promoter of his fortune. Young concludes his address to Wharton thus.“ My present « fortune is his bounty, and my future his care; “ which I will venture to say will be always re“ membered to his honour, since he, I know, inten“ded his generosity as an encouragement to merit, “ though through his very pardonable partiality to “ one who bears him so sincere a duty and respect, “I happen to receive the benefit of it." That he ever had such a patron as Wharton, Young took all the pains in his power to conceal from the world, by excluding this dedication from his works. He should have remembered that he at the same time

concealed his obligation to Wharton for the most beautiful incident in what is surely not his least beautiful composition. The passage just quoted is, in a poem afterwards addressed to Walpole, literally copied :

Be this thy partial smile from censure free!
'Twas meant for merit, though it fell on me.

While Young, who, in his “Love of Fame,” complains grievously how often “ dedications wash “ an Æthiop white,” was painting an amiable Duke of Wharton in perishable prose, Pope was, perhaps, beginning to describe the “scorn and wonder of “ his days” in lasting verse.

To the patronage of such a character, Irad Young studied men as much as Pope, he would have known how little to have trusted. Young, however, was certainly indebted to it for something material ; and the Duke's regard for Young, added to his “ Lust' “ of praise," procured to All Souls College a dona tion, which was not forgotten by the poet when he dedicated “The Revenge."

It will surprise you to see me cite second Atkins, Case 136, Stiles versus the Attorney General, March 14, 1740, as authority for the life of the poet. But biographers do not always find such certain guides as the oaths of the persons whom they record. Chancellor Hardwicke was to determine whether two annuities, granted by the Duke of Wharton to Young, were for legal considerations. One was dated the 24th of March, 1719, and accounted for his Grace's bounty in a style princely and commendable, if not legal considering that the public good is ad“vanced by the encouragement of learning and the “polite arts, and being pleased therein with the at“tempts of Dr. Young, in consideration thereof, " and of the love I bear him, &c.” The other was dated the 10th of July, 1722.

. · Young, on his examination, swore that he quitted the Exeter family, and refused an annuity of 1001. which had been offered him for life if he would continue tutor to Lord Burleigh, upon the pressing solicitations of the Duke of Wharton, and his Grace's assurances of providing for him in a much more ample manner. It also appeared that the Duke had given him a bond for 6001. dated the 15th of March, 1721, in consideration of his taking several journeys, and being at great expenses, in order to be chosen member of the House of Commons, at the Duke's desire, and in consideration of his not taking two livings of 2001. and 4001. in the gift of All Souls College, on his Grace's promises of serving and advancing him in the world.

Of his adventures in the Exeter family I am unable to give any account. The attempt to get into Parliament was at Cirencester, where Young stood a contested election. His Grace discovered in him talents for oratory as well as for poetry. Nor was this judgment wrong. Young, after he took orders, became a very popular preacher, and was much followed for the grace and animation of his delivery, By his oratorical talents he was once in his life, according to the Biographia, deserted. As he was preaching in his turn at St. James's, he plainly perceived it was out of his power to command the at

tention of his audience. This so affected the feels ings of the preacher, that he sat back in the pulpit, and burst into tears. But we must pursue his poetical life. .' 1: In 1719 he lamented the death of Addison, in a Letter addressed to their common friend Tickell. For the secret history of the following lines, if they contain any, it is now vain to seek :

In joy once join'd, in sorrow, now, for years
Partner in grief, and brother of my tears,
Tickell, accept this verse, thy mournful due.

From your account of Tickell it appears that he and Young used to “communicate to each other “ whatever verses they wrote, even to the least “ things.”

In 1719 appeared a “ Paraphrase on Part of the “ Book of Job.” Parker, to whom it is dedicated, had not long by means of the seals, been qualified for a patron. Of this work the author's opinion may be known from his Letter to Curll: “ You “seem, in the Collection you propose, to have “ omitted what I think may claim the first place “ in it; I mean “a Translation from Part of Job,' “ printed by Mr. Tonson.” The Dedication, which was only suffered to appear in Mr. Tonson's edition, while it speaks with satisfaction of his present retirement, seems to make an unusual struggle to escape from retirement. But every one who sings in the dark does not sing from joy. It is addressed, in no common strain of flattery, to a chancellor, of whom he clearly appears to have had no kind of knowledge.

· Of his Satires it would not have been possible to fix the dates without the assistance of first editions, which, as you had occasion to observe in your account of Dryden, are with difficulty found. We must then have referred to the poems, to discover when they were written. For these internal notes of time we should not have referred in vain. The first Satire laments, that “Guilt's chief foe in Ad“ dison is fled.” The second, addressing himself,


Is thy ambition sweating for a rhyme,
Thou unambitious fool, at this late time?
A fool at forty is a fool indeed.

The Satires were originally published separately in folio, under the title of “ The Universal Passion.” These passages fix the appearance of the first to about 1725, the time at which it came out. As Young seldom suffered his pen to dry, after he had once dipped it in poetry, we may conclude that he began his Satires soon after he had written the “ Paraphrase on Job.” The last Satire was certainly finished in the beginning of the year 1726. In December 1725, the King, in his passage from Helvoetsluys, escaped with great difficulty from a storm by landing at Rye; and the conclusion of the Satine turns the escape into a miracle, in such an encomiastic strain of compliment, as Poetry. too often seeks to pay to Royalty.

From the sixth of these poems we learn,
Midst empire's charms, how Carolina's heart,
Glow'd with the love of virtue and of art :

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