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Mr. Chesterton's What's Wrong with the World?; Little, Brown, and Company, for one of Emily Dickinson's letters; Longmans, Green and Company, for quotations from William James' Memories and Studies and from Mr. Woodrow Wilson's Division and Reunion; Thomas Y. Crowell and Company, for a quotation from Miss Katharine Lee Bates' From Gretna Green to Land's End. The publishers of The Nation, The University Magazine, The National Geographic Magazine, The Literary Digest, and The Atlantic Monthly have also given permission to reprint several extracts.

Deep gratitude is felt by both authors to Professor Laura J. Wylie and Professor Gertrude Buck, of the English Department of Vassar College, for their finely vigorous and stimulating direction of the work in their department. To Professor Margaret Sherwood, of the Department of English Literature of Wellesley College, we are indebted for generous help in the reading of proof, for advice on many troublesome points, and for inspiration which can have no adequate acknowledgment. To many critics we owe gratitude for suggestions that have proved helpful in the revision of this book, especially, for generous interest and comment, to Miss Emily Z. Craig, of Oakland, California. Mr. Charles G. Mason of Peoria, Illinois, and Professor Guido H. Stempel of Indiana University have kindly given criticism. The senior author would like to add appreciation of advice given by the late Reverend Edward Judson.

MARTHA HALE SHACKFORD

MARGARET JUDSON JUNE, 1917.

ILLUSTRATIONS

I. Waiting, REPRODUCED BY PERMISSION OF Our Dumb

Animals . . . . . . . . . 109
II. The Deserted Inn, PAINTED BY WORDSWORTH THOMP-
SON . . . . .

. . . . 137
III. Ploughing, A SCENE ON THE ROMAN CAMPAGNA .204
IV. Victory! The Prize Crew Taking Possession, PAINTED

BY W. H. OVEREND . . . . . 380
V. In the Reign of Terror, PAINTED BY JESSIE Mac-

GREGOR . . . . . . . . . 424
VI. Charles VI and Odette, PAINTED BY ALBRECHT DE

VRIENDT . . . . . . . . . 470
VII. The Stafford Children Dancing, PAINTED BY GEORGE

ROMNEY . . . . . . . 508
SUGGESTIONS TO YOUNGER TEACHERS

BELOW are some suggestions about possible ways in which a teacher may present the subject of English to pupils : —

I. Apportionment of Time.

First Year: four recitations a week devoted to Rhetoric and Composition; one recitation to Literature.

Second Year: three recitations a week devoted to Rhetoric and Composition; two recitations to Literature.

Third Year: two recitations a week devoted to Rhetoric and Composition; three recitations to Literature.

Fourth Year: one recitation a week devoted to Rhetoric and Composition; four recitations to Literature.

II. Selection of Masterpieces for the Study of College English. — The following is a course of study which might be arranged, throwing the emphasis in the earlier years upon narration and, in the later, upon the closer study of form and style in more reflective pieces of literature.

First Year: The Odyssey; Life of Goldsmith.

Second Year : A Midsummer Night's Dream; Selections from the Old Testament; Ivanhoe.

Third Year; Julius Caesar; Vanity Fair; Essays of Elia; Coleridge's The Ancient Mariner; Christabel and Kubla Khan; Carlyle's Essay on Burns.

Fourth Year: Macbeth; L'Allegro, Il Penseroso, Lycidas; Burke; Selections from Wordsworth, Keats, and Shelley.

III. Written Composition. — It is expected that every student will write a theme every two weeks during his first two years, and one theme every week during his last two years in the secondary school. Certain suggestions in regard to the conduct of this written work may be offered :

1. Students should write upon subjects with which they are familiar, subjects drawn from their own personal experience and observation. Themes based upon abstract topics or exclusively upon books should be discouraged.

2. All students in a class should frequently be made to write upon the same subject. This is wearisome to the corrector of themes, but exceedingly valuable for students, who may be allowed in class to discuss four or five of these themes. Informal discussion of the various methods and of their success always proves helpful to boys and girls who have been trying the same subject. To know how a classmate has overcome difficulties, to understand how he has arrived at success, is stimulating to a pupil. Such an exercise may be held every month.

3. The irksome task of rewriting themes should be insisted upon. Many teachers feel that students lose interest in their work if they are forced to undergo the discipline of reconstructing an unsatisfactory theme, but the most successful teachers and writers insist that it is only by revision, by painstaking, careful rewriting that a student can ever gain the mastery of his tools. It is dull work for both teacher and pupil, but therein lies the secret of excellence. The experience won in this polishing and repolishing is one of the best in life. The tendency of

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