10th-25th Sept. 1761. Schotten, and English generally, Pembroke's Horse, Cavendish's Brigade, --we have mentioned their behaviour; and how Maxwell's Brigade took one whole regiment prisoners, in that final charge on Broglio. “What a glorious set of fellows !” said the English people over their beer, at home. Beer let us fancy it; at the Sign of The Marquis of Granby, which is now everywhere prevalent and splendent;—the beer, we will hope, good. And as this is a thing still said, both over beer and higher liquors, and perhaps is liable to be too much insisted on, I will give, from a candid Bystander, who knows the matter well, what probably is a more solid and circumstantially correct opinion. Speaking of Ferdinand's skill of management, and of how very composite a kind his Army was, Major Mauvillon has these words:

• The first in rank,' of Ferdinand's Force,' were the English; about a fourth part of the whole Army. Braver troops, when on the field of battle and under arms against the enemy, you will nowhere find in the world : that is a truth ;—and with that the sum of their military merits ends. In the first place, their ' Infantry consists of such an unselected hand-over-head miscel' lany of people, that it is highly difficult to preserve among them

even a shadow of good discipline,'—of Mannszucht, in regard to plunder, drinking and the like; does not mean Kriegszucht, or drill. “Their Cavalry indeed is not so constituted; but a foolish love for their horses makes them astonishingly plunderous of forage ; and thus they exhaust a district far faster in that respect than do the Germans.

Officers' Commissions among them are all had by purchase : (from which it follows that their Officers do not trouble their "heads about the service; and understand of it, very very few

excepted, absolutely nothing whatever' (what a charming set of “ Officers”!)—and this goes from the Ensign up to the General. • Their home-customs incline them to the indulgences of life; and,

nearly without exception, they all expect to have ample and com'fortable means of sleep.' (Hear, hear!) “This leads them often

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10th-25th Sept. 1761. ' into military negligences, which would sound incredible, were they

narrated to a soldier. To all this is added a quiet natural arrogance (Uebermuth),—very quiet, mostly unconscious, and as if inborn and coming by discernment of mere facts, which tempts them to despise the enemy as well as the danger; and as they 'very seldom think of making any surprisal themselves, they generally take it for granted that the enemy will as little.

* This arrogance, however, had furthermore a very bad consequence for their relation to the rest of the Army. It is well • known how much these people despise all Foreigners. This of itself renders their coöperating with Troops of other Nations very difficult. But in this case there was the circumstance that, as the Army was in English pay, they felt a strong tendency to regard their fellow-soldiers and copartners as a sort of subor

dinate war-valets, who must be ready to put up with anything: • —which was far indeed from being the opinion of the others concerned! The others had not the smallest notion of consenting to any kind of inferior treatment or consideration in ' respect of them. To the Hanoverians especially, from known political feelings, they were at heart, for most part, specially

indisposed; and this mode of thinking was capable of leading ' to very dangerous outbreaks. The Hanoverians, a dull steady 'people, brave as need be, but too slow for anything but foot • service, considered silently this War to be their War, and that • all the rest, English as well, were here on their' (and Britannic Majesty's) account.

• Think what difficulties Ferdinand's were, and what his merit • in quietly subduing them; while to the cursory observer they 'were invisible, and nobody noticed them but himself ! 18

Yes, doubtless. He needed to know his kinds of men; to regard intensely the chemic affinities and natural properties, to keep his phosphorescents, his nitres and charcoals well apart; to get out of these English what they were capable of giving him, namely, heavy strokes, -and never ask them for what they had not : them or the others; but treat each according to his kind. Just, candid, consummately polite; an excellent manager of men, as well as of war-movements, though Voltaire

18 Mauvillon, ii. 270-272.


10th-25th Sept. 1761. found him shockingly defective in esprit. The English, I think, he generally quartered by themselves ; employed them oftenest under the Hereditary Prince,-a man of swift execution and prone to strokes like themselves. Oftenest under the Erb'prinz,' says Mauvillon : “till, after the Fight of Kloster Kampen, it began to be noticed that there was a change in that

respect; and the messrooms whispered, “ By accident or not ?' -- which shall remain mysterious to me. In Battle after Battle he got the most unexceptionable sabering and charging from Lord Granby and the difficult English element; and never was the least discord heard in his Camp;—nor could even Sackville at Minden tempt him into a loud word.

But enough of English soldiering, and battling with the French. For about two months prior to this of Vellinghausen, and for more than two months after, there is going on, by special Envoys between Pitt and Choiseul, a lively Peace-Negotiation, which is of more concernment to us than any Battle. Congress at Augsburg” split upon formalities, preliminaries, and never even tried to meet: but France and England are actually busy. Each Country has sent its Envoy: the Sieur de Bussy, a tricky gentleman, known here of old, is Choiseul's, whom Pitt is on his guard against ; Mr. Hans Stanley,' a lively, clear-sighted person, of whom I could never hear elsewhere, is Pitt's at Paris: and it is in that City, between Choiseul and Stanley, with Pitt warily and loftily presiding in the distance, that the main stress of the Negotiation lies. Pitt is lofty, haughty, but very fine and noble; no King or Kaiser could be more. Sincere, severe, though most soft-shining; high, earnest, steady, like the stars. Artful Choiseul, again, flashes out in a cheerily exuberant way; and Stanley's Despatches about Choiseul (* ce fou plein d'esprit,' as Friedrich once christens him), - about Choiseul and the France then round him, and the effects of Vellinghausen

10th-25th Sept. 1761. in society, and the like, --are the liveliest reading one almost anywhere meets with in that kind.19 Choiseul frankly admits that he has come to the worse: ready for concessions, but the question is, What? Canada is gone, for instance; of Canada


will allow us nothing: but our poor Fisher-people, toiling in the Newfoundland waters, cannot they have a rock to dry their fish on; “ Isle of Miquelon, or the like?”

or the like?” “Not the breadth of a blanket,”—that is Pitt's private expression, I believe; and for certain, that, in polite official language, is his inexorable determination. “You shall go

home out of those Countries, Messieurs; America is to be English or Yankee, not Frangcee: that has turned out to be the Decree of Heaven; and we will stand by that.”

So that Choiseul soon satisfies himself it will be a hard bargain, this with Pitt; and turns the more assiduously to the Majesty of Spain (Baby Carlos, our old friend, who has sore grudges of his own against the English, standing grievance of Campeachy Logwood, of bitter Naples reminiscences, and enough else), ---turns to Baby Carlos, time after time, with his pathetic See, your Most Catholic Majesty!" And by rapid degrees induces Most Catholic Majesty to go wholly into the adventure with Most Christian Ditto;—and to say, at length, or to let Choiseul say for him, by way of cautious first-step (15th July, a date worth remembering, if the reader please): “Might not Most Catholic Majesty be allowed perhaps to mediate a little in this Business ?" “ Most Catholic Majesty!" answers Pitt, with a flash as if from the empyrean:

Who sent for Most Catholic 19 In Thackeray, i. 505-579, and especially ii. 520-626, is the Stanleyand-Pitt Correspondence : Stanley went, '230 May;' returned (got his passports for returning), September 20th.'

10th-25th Sept. 1761. Majesty ?”—and the matter catches fire, totally explodes, and Spain too declares War; in what way is generally known.

Details are not permitted us. The Catastrophe we shall give afterwards, and can here say only: First, That old Earl Marischal, Friedrich’s Spanish Envoy, is a good deal in England, coming and going, at this time,-on that interesting business of the Kintore Inheritance, doubtless,—and has been beautifully treated. Been pardoned, disattainted, permitted to inherit,—by the King on the instant, by the Parliament so soon as possible ;20and is of a naturally grateful turn. Secondly, That in the profoundest secrecy, penetrable only to eyes near at hand and that see in the dark, a celebrated Bourbon Family Compact was signed (August 15th, 1761, ten days before the Digging at Bunzelwitz began), of which the first news to the Olympian man (conveyed by Marischal, as is thought) was like-like news of dead Pythons pretending to revive upon him. And thirdly, That, postponing the Catastrophe, and recommending the above two dates, 15th July, 15th August, to careful readers, we must hasten to Colberg for the present.

Third Siege of Colberg.

Readers had, some while ago, a flying Note, which we promised to take up again; about Tottleben's procedures, and a Third Siege of Colberg coming. Siege, we have chanced to see, there accordingly is, and a Platen gone to help against it. Siege, after infinite delays


King's Patent is of 30th April 1760' (dated 29th May 1759), 'Act of Parliament to follow shortly ;'' August 16th, 1760, Act having passed, is Marischal's public Presentation to his Majesty' (late Majesty): Old Gazettes in Gentleman's Magazine (for 1760), xxx. 201, 392.

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