« 前へ次へ »
29th July 1760.
Capture of Glatz (26th July 1760). ‘Loudon is a swift man, when he can get bridle; but the curb-hand of Daun is often heavy on him. Loudon has had Glatz blockaded since June 7th ; since June 23d, he has had 'Fouquet rooted away, and the ground clear for a Siege of Glatz. * But had to abstain altogether, in the mean time; to take camp • at Landshut, to march and manœuvre about, in support of
Daun, and that heavy-footed gallop of Daun's which then fol• lowed : on the whole, it was not till Friedrich went for Dresden that the Siege-Artillery, from Olmütz, could be ordered for( ward upon Glatz; not for a fortnight more that the Artillery could come; and, in spite of Loudon's utmost despatch, not till 'break of day, July 26th, that the batteries could open. After
which, such was Loudon's speed and fortune,—and so diligent had the Jesuits been in those seven weeks,—the “Siege,” as they call it, was over in less than seven hours.
• One Colonel D'O' (Piedmontese by nation, an incompetent person, known to loud Trenck during his detention here) was • Commandant of Glatz, and had the principal Fortress,—for there
are two, one on each side the Neisse River ;-his Second was a • Colonel Quadt, by birth Prussian, seemingly not very competent he either, who had command of the Old Fortress, round which lies the Town of Glatz: a little Town, abounding in * Jesuits ;-to whose Virgin, if readers remember, Friedrich once
gave a new gown ; with small effect on her, as would appear. • The Quadt-D'O garrison was 2,400,-and, if tales are true, it had been well bejesuited during those seven weeks. At four in the morning, July 26th, the battering began on Quadt ; Quadt, 'I will believe, responding what he could,--especially from a certain Arrowhead Redoubt (or Flèche) he has, which ought to have been important to him. After four or five hours of this, “there was mutual pause,—as if both parties had decided upon breakfast before going farther.
Quadt's Fortress is very strong, imostly hewn in the rock; 6 and he has that important outwork of a Flèche ; which is excellent for enfilading, as it extends well beyond the glacis; and,
@uvres de Frédéric, v. 55.
29th July 1760. being of rock like the rest, is also abundantly defensible. Lou• don's people, looking over into this Flèche, find it negligently 'guarded ; Quadt at breakfast, as would seem :—and directly 6 send for Harsch, Captain of the Siege, and even for Loudon, the General-in-Chief. Negligently guarded, sure enough ; nothing in the Flèche but a few sentries, and these in the hori"zontal position, taking their unlawful rest there, after such a morning's work. “Seize me that,” eagerly orders Loudon ; “ hold that with firm grip!” Which is done; only to step in 'softly, two battalions of you, and lay hard hold. Incompetent
Quadt, figure in what a flurry, rushing out to recapture his · Flèche,-explodes instead into mere anarchy, whole Companies of him flinging down their arms at their Officers' feet, and the ' like. So that Quadt is totally driven in again, Austrians along
with him; and is obliged to beat chamade ;-D'O following “the example, about an hour after, without even a capitulation.
Was there ever seen such a defence! Major Unruh, one of a 'small minority, was Prussian, and stanch: here is Unruh's
personal experience,—testimony on D'O's Trial, I suppose,—and now pretty much the one thing worth reading on this subject.
Major Unruh testifies : “ At four in the morning, 26th July “ 1760, the Enemy began to cannonade the Old Fortress” (that of Quadt); " and about nine, I was ordered with 150 men to “ clear the Envelope from Austrians. Just when I had got to " the Damm-Gate, halt was called. I asked the Commandant, “ who was behind me, which way I should march; to the Crown“ work or to the Envelope ? Being answered, To the Envelope, “ I found on coming out at the Field-Gate nothing but an Austrian Lieutenant-Colonel and some men.
He called to me, * There had been chamade beaten, and I was not to run into
destruction (mich unglücklich machen)! I offered him Quarter; " and took him in effect prisoner, with 20 of his best men; and
sent him to the Commandant, with request that he would keep my rear free, or send me reinforcement. I shot the Enemy a
great many people here; chased him from the Field-Gate, and “out of both the Envelope and the Redoubt called the Crane” (that is the Flèche itself, only that the Austrians are mostly not now there, but gone through into the interior there !)—
30th July 1760. “ Returning to the Field-Gate, I found that the Commandant “ had beaten chamade a second time; there were marching in, “ by this Field-Gate, two battalions of the Austrian Regiment “ Andlau; I had to yield myself prisoner, and was taken to “ General Loudon. He asked me, 'Don't you know the rules “ of war, then; that you fire after chamade is beaten ? I an“swered in my heat, 'I knew of no chamade; what poltroonery
or what treachery had been going on, I knew not ! Lou“ don answered, “You might deserve to have your head laid “ at your feet, Sir! Am I here to inquire which of you shows
bravery, which poltroonery ?'”10 A blazing Loudon, when the fire is up!
After the Peace, D'O had Court-martial, which sentenced him to death, Friedrich making it perpetual imprisonment: “Perhaps not a traitor, only a blockhead!” thought Friedrich. He had been recommended to his post by Fouquet. What Trenck writes of him is, otherwise, mostly lies.
Thus is the southern Key of Silesia (one of the two southern Keys, Neisse being the other) lost to Friedrich, for the first time; and Loudon is like to drive a trade there. “Will absolutely nothing prosper with us, then?” Nothing, seemingly, your Majesty! Heavier news Friedrich scarcely ever had. But there is no help. This too he has to carry with him as he can into the Meissen Country. Unsuccessful altogether; beaten on every hand. Human talent, diligence, endeavour, is it but as lightning smiting the Serbonian Bog? Smite to the last, your Majesty, at any rate; let that be certain. As it is, and has been. That is always something, that is always a great thing.
Friedrich intends no pause in those Meissen Countries. July 30th, on his march northward, he detaches Hülsen with the old 10,000 to take Camp at Schlettau 31st July 1760. as before, and do his best for defence of Saxony against the Reichfolks, numerous, but incompetent; he himself, next day, passes on, leaving Meissen a little on his right, to Schieritz, some miles farther down,-intending there to cross Elbe, and make for Silesia without loss of an hour. Need enough of speed thither; more need than even Friedrich supposes! Yesterday, July 30th, Loudon's Vanguard came blockading Breslau, and this day Loudon himself;—though Friedrich heard nothing, anticipated nothing, of that dangerous fact, for a week hence or more.
10 Seyfarth, ii. 652.
Soltikof's and Loudon's united intentions on Silesia he has well known this long while; and has been perpetually dunning Prince Henri on the subject, to no purpose, only hoping always there would probably be no great rapidity on the part of these discordant Allies. Friedrich's feelings, now that the contrary is visible, and indeed all through the Summer in regard to the Soltikof-Loudon Business, and the Fouquet-Henri method of dealing with it, have been painful enough, and are growing ever more so. Cautious Henri never would make the smallest attack on Soltikof, but merely keep observing him ;—the end of which, what can the end of it be? urges Friedrich always: “Condense yourselves; go in upon the Russians, while they are in separate corps;"—and is very ill-satisfied with the languor of procedures there. As is the Prince with such reproaches, or implied reproaches, on said languor. Nor is his humour cheered, when the King's bad predictions prove true. What has it come to? These Letters of King and Prince are worth reading,-if indeed you can, in the confusion of Schöning (a somewhat exuberant man, loud rather than luminous);—so curious is the Private Dialogue going on there at all times, in the background of the 31st July 1760. stage, between the Brothers. One short specimen, extending through the June and July just over; specimen distilled faithfully out of that huge jumbling sea of Schöning, and rendered legible, the reader will consent to.
Dialogue of Friedrich and IIenri (from their Private
Correspondence: June 7th-July 29th, 1760).
Friedrich (June 7th; before his first crossing Elbe: Henri at Sagan ; he at Schlettau, scanning the waste of fatal possibilities). *
* “Embarrassing? Not a doubt of that! “I own, “ the circumstances both of us are in are like to turn my head, “ three or four times a-day.” “Loudon aiming for Neisse, don't you think? Fouquet all in the wrong.”—“One has nothing “for it but to watch where the likelihood of the biggest misfortune is, and to run thither with one's whole strength.”
Henri. “I confess I am in great apprehension for “ Colberg :- shall one make thither, think you? Russians, 68,000 as the first instalment of them, have arrived; got to • Posen under Fermor, June 1st :-so the Commandant of Glogau writes me (see enclosed).'
Friedrich (June 9th). “Commandant of Glogau writes impossibilities: Russians are not on march yet, nor will be for above a week.'
“I cross Elbe, the 15th. I am compelled to undertake some“ thing of decisive nature, and leave the rest to chance. For
desperate disorders desperate remedies. My bed is not one of “roses. Heaven aid us: for human prudence finds itself fall “ short in situations so cruel and desperate as ours.
5."11 Henri. “Hm, hm, ha' (Nothing but carefully-collected rumours, and wire-drawn auguries from them, on the part of Henri; very intense inspection of the chicken-bowels,—hardly ever without a shake of the head). Friedrich (June 26th; has heard of the Fouquet disaster).
“Yesterday my heart was torn to pieces” (news of Lands11 Schöning, ii. 313 ('Meissen Camp, 7th June 1760'); ibid. ii. 317 (9th June').