necessaries of life. And furthermore, what we were not prepared for, ‘No police in the Towns: to habits of equity and order had succeeded a vile greed of gain and an anarchic disorder.

The Colleges of Justice and of Finance had, by these frequent invasions of so many enemies, been reduced to inaction: no Judge, in many places not even a Taxgatherer: “the silence of the Laws had produced in the people a taste for license; 'boundless appetite for gain was their main rule of action: the (noble, the merchant, the farmer, the labourer, raising emu

lously each the price of his commodity, seemed to endeavour only for their mutual ruin. Such, when the War ended, was 'the fatal spectacle over these Provinces, which had once been so flourishing: however pathetic the description may be, it will never approach the touching and sorrowful impression which “the sight of it produced.

Friedrich found that it would never do to trust to the mere aid of Time in such circumstances: at the end of the ThirtyYears War, “Time” had, owing to absolute want of money, been the one recipe of the Great Elector in a similar case; and Time was then found to mean about a hundred Years." Friedrich found that he must at once step in with active remedies, and on all hands to make the impossible possible. Luckily he had in readiness, as usual, the funds for an Eighth Campaign, had such been needed. Out of these moneys he proceeded to rebuild the Towns and Villages ; 'from the CornStores (granaries d'abondance, Government establishments gathered from plentiful harvests against scarce, according to old rule) were taken the supplies for food of the people and sowing of the ground: the horses intended for the artillery, baggage and commissariat, 60,000 horses we have heard, 'were distributed among those who had none, to be employed

in the tillage of the land. Silesia was discharged from all taxes (for six months; Pommern and the Neumark for two years. A sum of about Three Million sterling (in thalers 20,389,000) was given for relief of the Provinces, and as acquittance of the 'impositions the Enemy had wrung from them.

"Great as was this expense, it was necessary and indispensable. • The condition of these Provinces after the Peace of Hubertsburg recalled what we know of them when the Peace of Münster 1763-1766. closed the famous Thirty-Years War. On that occasion the State failed of help from want of means; which put it out of the Great Elector's power to assist his people: and what hap‘pened? That a whole century elapsed before his Successors could restore the Towns and Champaigns to what they were.

This impressive example was admonitory to the King: that to repair the Public Calamities, assistance must be prompt and effective. Repeated gifts (largesses) restored courage to the 6 poor Husbandmen, who began to despair of their lot; by the helps given, hope in all classes sprang up anew : encouragement of labour produced activity ; love of Country rose again with

fresh life: in a word' (within the second year in a markedly hopeful manner, and within seven years altogether), the fields 'were cultivated again, manufacturers had resumed their work; and the Police, once more in vigour, corrected by degrees the vices that had taken root during the time of anarchy.”'

To Friedrich's difficulties, which were not inconsiderable, mark only this last additament: “During this War, the elder of the Councillors, and all the Ministers

of the Grand Directorium' (centre of Prussian Administration), ‘had successively died: and in such time of trouble it had been impossible to replace them. The

embarrassment was, To find persons capable of filling these different employments’ (some would have very soon done it, your Majesty; but their haste would not have tended to speed !)— We searched the Provinces (on fouilla, sifted), where good heads were found as ' rare as in the Capital: at length five Chief Ministers

were pitched upon,'—who prove to be tolerable, and even good. Three of them were, the Vons Blumenthal, Massow, Hagen, unknown to readers here: fourth and fifth were, the Von Wedell as War Minister, once Dictator at Züllichau; and a Von der Horst, who had what we might partially call the Home Department, and who may by accident once or so be nameable again.

Euvres de Frédéric, vi. 74, 75.


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Nor was War all, says the King: “accidental Fires ' in different places,' while we struggled to repair the ravagings of War, 'were of unexampled frequency, and • did immense farther damage. From 1765 to 1769, 'here is the list of places burnt: In East Preussen, the City of Königsberg twice over; in Silesia, the Towns

of Freystadt, Ober-Glogau’ (do readers recollect Manteuffel of Foot and "Wir wollen ihm was!), ‘Parchwitz, • Naumburg-on-Queiss, and Goldberg ; in the Mark,

Nauen; in the Neumark, Calies and a part of Lansberg; in Pommern, Belgard and Tempelburg. These

accidents required incessantly new expenditures to repair them.'

Friedrich was not the least of a Free Trader, except where it suited him: and his continual subventions and donations, guidances, encouragements, commandings and prohibitions, wise supervision and impulsion, —

—are a thing I should like to hear an intelligent Mirabeau (Junior or Senior) discourse upon, after he had well studied them! For example: 'On rendit les Prêtres utiles, The Priests, • Catholic Priests, were turned to use by obliging all 'the rich Abbeys to establish manufactures: here it

was weavers making damasks and table-cloths; there • oil-mills' (oil from linseed); 'or workers in copper, wire-drawers; as suited the localities and the natural products,—the flaxes and the metals, with water-power, markets, and so on. What a charming resuscitation of the rich Abbeys from their dormant condition!

I should like still better to explain how, in Lower Silesia, "we (on) managed to increase the number of · Husbandmen by 4,000 families. You will be surprised ' how it was possible to multiply to this extent the people ' living by Agriculture in a Country where already not a field was waste. The reason was this. Many Lords


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March 1765—June 1766. • of Land, to increase their Domain, had imperceptibly appropriated to themselves the holdings (terres) of their vassals. Had this abuse been suffered to go on, in time a great – But the commentary needed would be too lengthy; we will give only the result: “In the * long-run, every Village would have had its Lord, but there would have been no tax-paying Farmers left.' The Landlord, ruler of these Landless, might himself (as Majesty well knows) have been made to pay, had that been all; but it was not. * To possess something; that is what makes the citizen attached to his Country; those who have no property, and have nothing to lose, · what tie have they? A weak one, in comparison ! * All these things being represented to the Landlord

Class, their own advantage made them consent to re* place their Peasants on the old footing.' *

• To make head against so many extraordinary demands,' adds the King (looking over to a new Chapter, that of The Military, which Department, to his eyes, was not less shockingly dilapidated than the Civil, and equally or more needed instant repair), “new resources had to be devised. For, besides what was needed for reëstablishment of the Provinces, new Fortifications were necessary; and all our Cannon, évasés (worn too wide ' in the bore), needed to be refounded; which occasioned considerable new expense. This led us to improve* ment of the Excises, '—concerning which there will have to be a Section by itself.

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Of Friedrich's new Excise-System. In his late Inspection-Journey to Cleve country, D'Alembert, from Paris, by appointment waited for the March 1765—June 1766. King;10—picked up at Geldern (June 11th), as we saw above. D'Alembert got to Potsdam, June 22d; stayed till middle of August. He had met the King once before, in 1755; who found him “a bon garçon,” as we then saw. D'Alembert was always, since that time, an agreeable, estimable little man to Friedrich. Age now about forty-six; has lately refused the fine Russian post of · Tutor to the Czarowitsh' (Czarowitsh Paul, poor little Boy of eight or nine, whom we, or Herr Büsching for us, saw galloping about, not long since, “in his dressinggown,' under Panim's Tutorage); refuses now, in a delicate gradual manner, the fine Prussian post of Perpetual President, or Successor to Maupertuis;—definitely preferring his frugal pensions at Paris, and garret all his own there. Continues, especially after this twomonths visit of 1763, one of the King's chief correspondents for the next twenty years.l1 A man of much clear intellect; a thought shrieky in his ways sometimes; but always prudent, rational, polite, and loyally recognising Friedrich as a precious article in this world. Here is a word of D'Alembert's to Madame du Deffand, at Paris, some ten or twelve days after the Cleve meeting, and the third day after his arrival here:

* Potsdam, 25th June 1763. Madame,* into the praises of this Prince, King Friedrich, my now Host; ' in my mouth it might be suspicious : I will merely send you two • traits of him, which will indicate his way of thinking and feeling.

When I spoke to him’ (at Geldern, probably, on our first meeting) of the glory he had acquired, he answered, with the greatest

I will not go

10 In Euvres de Frédéric, xxiv. 377-380 (D'Alembert's fine bits of Letters in prospect of Potsdam, ‘Paris, 7th March-29th April 1763 ;' and two small Notes while there, 'Sans-Souci, 6th July—15th August 1763').

11 29th October 1783,' D'Alembert died :'born 16th November 1717 ;' -a Foundling, as is well known; “Mother a Sister of Cardinal Tencin's ; ' Father,' accidental, “an Officer in the Artillery.'

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