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3d-7th Sept. 1770. (Incident, about the King's high opinion of the Kaiser's drillsergeantry in this day's maneuvres, and how I was the happy cause of the Kaiser's hearing it himself : Incident omissible; as the whole Sequel is, except a sentence or two).--

‘On this Neustadt occasion, the King was sometimes too ceremonious; which annoyed the Kaiser. For instance,"I know not whether meaning to show himself a disciplined · Elector of the Reich, but so it was,—whenever the Kaiser put his foot in stirrup, the King was sure to take his Majesty's

horse by the bridle, stand respectfully waiting the Kaiser's right 'foot, and fit it into its stirrup: and so with every thing else. "The Kaiser had the more sincere appearance, in testifying his great respect; like that of a young Prince to an aged King, and of a young Soldier to the greatest of Captains.”

“Sometimes there were appearances of cordiality between the two Sovereigns. One saw that Friedrich II. loved Joseph II., but that the preponderance of the Empire, and the contact of Bohemia and Silesia, a good deal barred the sentiments of King and Kaiser. You remember, Sire' (Ex-Sire of Poland), “their Letters' (readers shall see them, in 1778,-or rather refuse to see them !) “on the subject of Bavaria ; their

compliments, the explanations they had with regard to their 'intentions; all carried on with such politeness; and that from politeness to politeness, the King ended by invading Bohemia.'

Well, here is legible record, with something really of portraiture in it, valuable so far as it goes; record unique on this subject;—and substantially true, though inexact enough in details. Thus, even in regard to that of Anhalt's head, which is so impossible in this First Dialogue, Friedrich did most probably say something of the kind, in a Second which there is, of date 1780; of which latter De Ligne is here giving account as well, —though we have to postpone it till its time come.

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At this Neustadt Interview there did something of Political occur; and readers ought to be shown exactly what. Kaunitz had come with the Kaiser; and this something was intended as the real business among the gaieties and galas at Neustadt. Poland, or its Farce3d-7th Sept. 1770. Tragedy now playing, was not once mentioned that I hear of; though perhaps, as a flebile ludibrium, it might turn

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for moments in dinner-conversation or the like: but the astonishing Russian-Turk War, which has sprung out of Poland, and has already filled Stamboul and its Divans and Muftis with mere horror and amazement; and, in fact, has brought the Grand Turk to the giddy rim of the Abyss ; nothing but ruin and destruction visible to him: this, beyond all other things whatever, is occupying these high heads at present;—and indeed the two latest bits of Russian-Turk news have been of such a blazing character as to occupy all the world more or less. Readers, some glances into the Turk War, I grieve to say, are become inevitable to us!

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Russian-Turk War, First Two Campaigns. October 6th, 1768, Turks declare War; Russian Ambassador thrown into the Seven Towers as a preliminary, where he sat till Peace came to be needed. March 23d, 1769, Display their · Banner of Mahomet, all in paroxysm of Fanaticism risen to the burning-point: “Under pain of death, No Giaour of you appear on the streets, nor even look out of window, this day!"Austrian Ambassador's Wife, a beautiful gossamer creature, venturing to transgress on that point, was torn from her carriage by the Populace, and with difficulty saved from destruc

tion : Brother of the Son and Moon, apologising afterwards • down to the very shoe-tie, is forgiven.

First Campaign ; 1769. 'April 26th-30th, Galitzin versus Choczim ; can't, having no provender or powder. Falls back

over Dniester again,-overhears that extraordinary Dream, as above recited, betokening great rumour in Russian Society

against such Purblind Commanders-in-Chief. Purblind versus · Blind is fine play, nevertheless; wait, only wait:

July 2d, Galitzin slowly gets on the advance again: 150,000 Turks, still slower, are at last across the Donau (sharp enough • French Officers among them, agents of Choiseul ; but a mass

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3d-7th Sept. 1770. incurably chaotic) ;-furiously intending towards Poland and extermination of the Giaour. Do not reach Dniester River till 'September, and look across on Poland,--for the first time, and

also for the last, in this War. September 17th: Weather has 'been rainy; Dniester, were Galitzin nothing, is very difficult for 'Turks; who try in two places, but cannot.25 In a third place

(name not given, perhaps has no name), about 12,000 of them ' are across; when Dniester, raging into flood, carries away their

one Bridge, and leaves the 12,000 isolated there. Purblind 'Galitzin, on express order, does attack these 12,000 (night of · September 17th-18th) “Hurrah” of the devouring Russians about midnight, hoarse shriek of the doomed 12,000, wail of

their brethren on the southern shore, who cannot help :-night • of horrors “from midnight till 2 A.M.;" and the 12,000 mas' sacred or captive, every man of them; Russian loss 600 killed

and wounded. Whereupon the Turk Army bursts into unani'mous insanity; and flows home in deliquium of ruin. Choczim ' is got on the terms already mentioned (15 sick men and women lying in it, and 184 bronze cannon, when we boat across); Turk Army can by no effort be brought to halt anywhere ; flows across the Donau, disappears into Chaos :--and the whole of • Moldavia is conquered in this cheap manner. What perhaps ' is still better, Galitzin (28th September) is thrown out; Romanzow, hitherto Commander of a second smaller Army, kind of covering wing to Galitzin, is Chief for Second Campaign.

'In the Humber, this Winter, to the surprise of incredulous 'mankind, a Russian Fleet drops anchor for a few days: actual * Russian Fleet intending for the Greek waters, for Montenegro and intermediate errands, to conclude with “Liberation of 'Greece next Spring,”—so grandiose is this Czarina. 26

Second Campaign ; 1770. This is the flower of Anti-Turk Campaigns,—victorious, to a blazing pitch, both by land and sea. Romanzow, master of Moldavia, goes upon Wallachia, and “the new or rehabilitated Turk Army; and has an almost gratis bargain of both. Romanzow has some good Officers under ' him (“Brigadier Stöffeln,” much more “ General Tottleben," “ General Bauer," once Colonel Bauer of the Wesel Free

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25 Hermann, v. 611-613.

20 Ibid. v. 617.

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3d-7th Sept. 1770. Corps,-many of the Superior Officers seem to be German, others have Swedish or Danish names);-better Officers; and knows better how to use them than Galitzin did. August 1st, • Romanzow has a Battle, called of Kaghul, in Pruth Country. "That is his one “Battle” this Summer; and brings him Ismail, · Akkerman, all Wallachey, and no Turks left in those parts. But first let us attend to sea-matters, and the Liberation of Greece, which precede in time and importance.

6" Liberation of Greece :" an actual Fleet, steering from "Cronstadt to the Dardanelles to liberate Greece! The sound of it kindles all the warm heads in Europe; especially Voltaire's, which, though covered with the snow of age, is still warm internally on such points. As to liberating Greece, Vol"taire's hopes were utterly balked; but the Fleet from Cronstadt did amazing service otherwise in those waters. February 28th, 1770, first squadron of the Russian Fleet anchors at Passawa,—not far from Calamata, in the Gulf of Coron, on the • antique Peloponnesian coast; Sparta on your right hand, Arcadia 6 on your left, and so many excellent Ghosts (i pozuol fuxai) of * Heroes looking on :-Russian squadron has four big ships, three ' frigates, more soon to follow: on board there are arms and

munitions of war; but unhappily only 500 soldiers. Admiral“in-Chief (not yet come up) is Alexei Orlof, a brother of Lover

Gregory's, an extremely worthless seaman and man. Has under ' him “many Danes, a good few English too,”—especially Three English Officers, whom we shall hear of, when Alexei and they come up. Meanwhile, on the Peloponnesian coast are modern • Spartans, to the number of 15,000, all sitting ready, expect“ing the Russian advent: these rose duly; got Russian muskets,

cartridges, — only two Russian Officers :- and attacked the • Turks with considerable fury or voracity, but with no success of the least solidity. Were foiled here, driven out there; in fine, were utterly beaten, Russians and they: lost Tripolizza, by surprise; whereupon (April 19th) the Russians withdrew to their Fleet; and the Affair of Greece was at an end.27 It had • lasted (28th February—19th April) seven weeks and a day. · The Russians retired to their Fleet, with little loss; and rode

27 Hermann, v. 621.

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3d-7th Sept. 1770. “ at their ease again, in Navarino Bay. But the 15,000 modern

Spartans had nothing to retire to,—these had to retire into ex'tinction, expulsion, and the throat of Moslem vengeance, which ' was frightfully bloody and inexorable on them.

Greece having failed, the Russian Fleet, now in complete “tale, made for Turkey, for Constantinople itself. “Into the

very Dardanelles” they say they will go; an Englishman among them,—Captain Elphinstone, a dashing seaman, if perhaps rather - noisy, whom Rulhière is not blind to,-has been heard to declare,

at least in his cups: “Dardanelles impossible? Pshaw, I will • do it, as easily as drink this glass of wine !” Alexei Orlof is a Sham-Admiral; but under him are real Sea-Officers, one or two.

'In the Turkish Fleet, it seems, there is an Ex-Algerine, · Hassan-Bey, of some capacity in sea-matters; but he is not in

chief command, only in second; and can accomplish nothing. * The Turkish Fleet, numerous but rotten, retires daily,—through

the famed Cyclades, and Isles of Greece, Paros, Naxos, apoca• lyptic Patmos, on to Scio (old Chios of the wines); and on July 5th, takes refuge behind Scio, between Scio and the Coast of Smyrna, in Tchesme Bay. “Safe here!" thinks the chief • Turk Admiral. “Very far from safe!” remonstrates Hassan ; 'though to no purpose. And privately puts the question to himself, “ Have these Giaours a real Admiral among them, or, like us, a sham one ?"

Tchesme Bay, 7th July 1770. Nothing can be more ima'ginary than Alexei Orlof as an Admiral: but he has a Cap"tain Elphinstone, a Captain Gregg, a Lieutenant Dugdale; and 'these determine to burn poor Hassan and his whole Fleet in * Tchesme here:--and do it totally, night of July 7th; with one single fireship; Dugdale steering it; Gregg behind him, to support with broadsides; Elphinstone ruling and contriv‘ing, still farther to rear; helpless Turk Fleet able to make no • debate whatever. Such a blaze of conflagration on the help« less Turks as shone over all the world—one of Rulhière's finest ' fireworks, with little shot ;—the light of which was still dazzling 'mankind while the Interview at Neustadt took place. Turk · Fleet, fifteen ships, nine frigates, and above 8,000 men, gone

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