April-Oct. 1777. “ very Orthodox and little Philosophical, who forbade her Son to “ visit the Apostle of Tolerance.” D'Alembert (in answer): “ No doubt your Majesty's guess is right. It must have been “the Lady Mother. Nobody here believes that the advice came “ from his Sister" (Queen Marie Antoinette), “who, they say, “ is full of esteem for the Patriarch, and has more than once let “him know it by third parties.”*6

According to Friedrich, Joseph's reflections in France were very gloomy: “This is all one Country; strenuously kneaded into perfect union and incorporation by the Old Kings: my discordant Romish Reich is of many Countries,—and should be of one, if Sovereigns were wise and strenuous !"77

2. A Cabinet-Order and actual (facsimile) Signature of Friedrich's.—After unknown travels over the world, this poor

brown Bit of Paper, with a Signature of Friedrich’s to it, has wandered hither; and I have had it copied, worthy or not. A Royal Cabinet-Order on the smallest of subjects; but perhaps all the more significant on that account; and a Signature which readers may

like to see.

Fordan, or Fordon, is in the Bromberg Department in WestPreussen,-Bromberg no longer a heap of ruins; but a lively, new-built, paved, canalled, and industrious trading Town. At Fordan is a Grain-Magazine: Bein (“ Leg,” der Bein, as they slightingly call him) is Proviant-Master there; and must consider his ways,—the King's eye being on him. Readers can now look and understand: “An den Ober-Proviantmeister Bein, zu Fordan.

“Potsdam, den 9ten April 1777. Seiner Königlicher Majestät “ His Royal Majesty of “ von Preussen, Unser allergnäd- Preussen, Our most all-graigster Herr, lassen dem Ober- “ cious Lord, lets herewith, Proviantmeister Bein hiebey “ to the Head Proviant-master “ die Getraide-Preistabelle des “ Bein, the Grain-Prices Table Brombergschen Departments 6 of the Bromberg Department

zufertigen; Woraus derselbe “ be despatched; Wherefrom ersiehet wie niedrig solche an “ Bein perceives how low in einigen Orthen sind, und dass some places these are, and 78 Euvres de Frédéric, xxv. 84.

97 Ibid. vi. 125.

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April—Oct. 1777. Inovraclaw und Strezeltnow 66 that at Inovraclaw and Streder Scheffel Roggen um 12 66 zeltnow the Bushel of Rre « Groschen kostet : da solches 6 costs about 14 Pence: now, nun hier so wohlfeil ist, so as it is so cheap there, the

muss ja der Preis in Pohlen price in Poland must be still noch wohl geringer, und ist “ smaller; and therefore it is 6 daher nicht abzusehen warum “ not to be conceived why the 66 die Pohlen auf so hohe Preise “Poles demand such high “ bestehen; der Bein muss sich “ prices," as the said Bein redaher nun rechte Mühe geben, ports: “Bein therefore is char“ und den Einkauf so wohlfeil ged to take especial pains, and als nur immer möglich zu try not to make the purchase " machen suchen."

“ dearer than is indispensable.”

-kup, Ju mufrufrufen,

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• Original kindly furnished me by Mr. W. H. Doeg, Barlow Moor, Manchester; whose it now is,-purchased in London, A.D. 1863. The Frh of German cursiv-schrift (current hand), which the woodcutter has appended, shut off by a square, will show English readers what the King means : an Frhdone as by a flourish of one's stick, in the most compendious and really ingenious manner, suitable for an economic King, who has to repeat it scores of times every day of his life!



At the very beginning of 1778, the chronic quarrel with Austria passed, by an accident just fallen out, into the acute state; rose gradually, and, in spite of negotiating, issued in a thing called Bavarian-Succession War, which did not end till Spring of the following year. The accident was this. At München, December 30th, 1777, Max Joseph Kurfürst of Baiern, only Brother of our lively friend the Electress-Dowager of Saxony, died; suddenly, of small-pox unskilfully treated. He was in his fifty-second year; childless, the last of that Bavarian branch. His Heir is Karl Theodor, Kur-Pfalz (Elector Palatine), who is now to unite the Two Electorates,-unless Austria can bargain with him otherwise. Austria's desire to get hold of Baiern is of very old standing; and we have heard lately how much it was an object with Kaunitz and his young Kaiser. With Karl Theodor they did bargain,-in fact, had beforehand as good as bargained, and were greatly astonished, when King Friedrich, alone of all Teutschland or the world, mildly, but peremptorily, interfered, and said No,—with effect, as is well known.

Something, not much, must be said of this Bavarian Succession War; which occupied, at a pitch of tension and anxiety foreign to him for a long time, fifteen months of Friedrich's old age (January 1778—March

30th Dec. 1777. 1779); and filled all Europe round him and it, in an extraordinary manner. Something; by no means much, now that we have seen the issue of such mountains all in travail. Nobody could then say but it bade fair to become a Fourth Austrian-Prussian War, as sanguinary as the Seven-Years had been ; for in effect there stood once more the Two Nations ranked against each other, as if for mortal duel, near half a million men in whole; parleying indeed, but brandishing their swords, and ever and anon giving mutual clash of fence, as if the work had begun, though there always intervened new parleying first.

And now everybody sees that the work never did begin ; that parleying, enforced by brandishing, turned out to be all the work there was: and everybody has forgotten it, and, except for specific purposes, demands not to be put in mind of it. Mountains in labour were not so frequent then as now, when the Penny Newspaper has got charge of them; though then as now to practical people they were a nuisance. Mountains all in terrific travail-throes, threatening to overset the solar system, have always a charm, especially for the more foolish classes : but when once the birth has taken place, and the wretched mouse ducks past you, or even nothing at all can be seen to duck past, who is there but impatiently turns on his heel?

Those Territories, which adjoin on its own dominions, would have been extremely commodious to Austria ;-as Austria itself has long known; and by repeatedly attempting them on any chance given (as in 1741-45, to go no farther back), has shown how well it knows. Indeed, the whole of Bavaria fairly incorporated and made Austrian, what an infinite convenience would it be !

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30th Dec. 1777.

‘Do but look on the Map' (this Note is not by Büsching, but by somebody of Austrian tendencies): "you would say, Austria • without Bavaria is like a Human Figure with its belly belonging to somebody else. Bavaria is the trunk or belly of the Austrian Dominions, shutting off all the limbs of them each from the other; making for central part a huge chasm.

Ober-Pfalz,—which used to be Kur-Pfalz’s, which is Bavaria's since we took it from the Winter-King and bestowed 'it in that way,–Ober-Pfalz, the Country of Amberg, where

Maillebois once pleased to make invasion of us ;-does not it adjoin on the Bohemian Forest? The ribs there, Bohemian all, up to the shoulder, are ours: but the shoulder-blade and left arm, whose are they! Austria Proper and Hungary, these may be taken as sitting-part and lower limbs, ample and fleshy; but see, just above the pelvis, on the south side, how Bavaria and 'its Tyrol sticks itself in upon Austria, who fancied she also “had a Tyrol, and far the more important one.

Our Tyrol, our Styria, Carniola, Carinthia,Bavaria blocks these in. Then

the Swabian Austria,—Breisach, and those Upper-Rhine Countries, from which we invade France,—we cannot reach them except through Bavarian ground. Swabian Austria should be our right arm, fingers of it reaching into Switzerland; OberPfalz our left:-and as to the broad breast between these two; ' left arm and broad breast are Bavaria's, not ours. Of the Netherlands, which might be called geographically the head

of Austria, alas, the long neck, Lorraine, was once ours; but whose is it? Irrecoverable for the present, perhaps may not always be so!

These are Kaunitz's ideas; and the young Kaiser has eagerly adopted them as the loadstar of his life. 66 Make the Reich a reality again,” thinks the Kaiser (good, if only possible, think we too); “make Austria great; Austria is the Reich, how else can the Reich be real ?''


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In practical politics these are rather wild ideas; but they are really Kaunitz's and his Kaiser's; and were persisted in long after this Bavarian matter got its check: and as a whole, they got repeated checks; being

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