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and revolution, 276-280; Nüssler's
Interview with the King, 352-355 ;
a dull, though solid, accurate kind
of man, 353; interviews with
Queen Ulrique, 509-511; gets a
new Town Schoolhouse for Berlin,

511: mentioned also, 499, 639.
Bussy, Sieur de, vi, 204, 235 ; con-

ducts Choiseul's negotiations with

Pitt, 235.
Bute, Lord, v. 155 ; vi. 143, 146, 237,

239, 244 ; his shameful peace, 298,

315, 316, 326.
Butturlin, Feldmarschall, to command

the Russian Army in Silesia, vi.
181 ; will not venture upon Fried-
rich at Bunzelwitz, 189, 190; alter-
cations with Loudon, 192; returns
homewards, accelerated by General
Platen, 193-195; sends reinforce-
ments to Romanzow at Colberg,

210; returns to Poland, 231.
Byng, Admiral, i. 499, 559; iv. 531,

532; burnt in Effigy, 548.

CADIZ, blockade of, iii. 619.
Cæsar, v. 243, 265 ; vi. 82.
Cagliostro, vi, 684, 696.
Calas, Widow, v. 618.
Callenberg, Gräfin von, iii, 295, 557.
Calmet, Dom, iv. 455.
Calonne, Controller-General, vi. 682.
Calvin, i. 377, 507 ; ii. 278.
Camas, Colonel, i. 483; sent to the

French Court, iii. 7; to Glatz, 219,

224 ; death, 328.
Camas, Madame, Friedrich's great re-

spect for, i. 483; iii. 328; his Let-
ters to, ii. 521 ; vi. 135, 171, 262,

264 ; her death, 386.
Cambrai, Congress of, i. 500, 561.
Cameron, Dr. Archibald, iv. 467 ; exe-

cuted, 468.
Cameron of Lochiel, iv. 467.
Cameron, Dr., vi. 559.
Campbell, cited, i. 499 n.
Campbell, John, Duke of Argyle, iii.

607.
Campitelli, General, marches to join

Soltikof, v. 538.
Campitellis, vi. 317.
Canada, English and French in, iv. 472.
Candidatus Theologiæ, a, and the King

of Prussia, i. 420.
Cannabich, Pastor, iv. 301.
Carlos II. of Spain, i. 60.
Carlos III. of Spain, ii. 328, 489 ; King

of the Two Sicilies, 491, 548; iii.
621 ; iv. 278 n. ; v. 622 ; a diligent,
indignant kind of man, 625 ; de-
clares war against England, vi. 205,

206, 235, 236 ; quarrels with Portu-

gal on account of England, 240-243.
Carlowitz, Captain, at Prag, iv. 57.
Carlyle, cited, vi. 683 n.
Carmer, Silesian-Chancellor von, ri.

604 n.
Carmichaels, the Scottish, iii, 585.
Caroline, Queen, i. 229, 527 ; ii. 74,

125, 143, 164; a beautiful Bran-
denburg-Anspach Princess, i. 546;
refuses the Catholic Kaiser, 547;
ii. 376; Friedrich's Letters to, 14,
122; visit to her foolish Son, 619;
modest stoicism and death, 620:

mentioned also, üi. 373.
Carr, cited, i. 32 n.
Carteret, Lord, i. 449; iii. 405, COS,

659, 668; conferences at Hanau,
684 ; replies to Pitt's threat of re-
signation, vi. 238 : mentioned also,

iv. 39, 97, 243, 464 ; v. 64, 65.
Carzig, ii. 331, 340.
Carthagena, Expedition against, üi.

139, 382, 390.
Casano, Bridge of, i. 368, 397.
Casimir IV., King of Poland, i. 233.
Casimir. See Culmbach ; Poland.
Cassimir V. See John Cassimir.
Castéra, cited, vi. 413 n.
Castries, Marquis de, defends Wesel,

vi. 137-139.
Catechisms, Theological, i. 507.
Catharine II. of Russia, i. 91, 155 ; ii.

186 ; iv. 516, 521; one of the cle.
verest of young ladies, 522; her
married life, vi. 256; rapid sue-
cession of lovers, 257, 413; books
about her, 258; becomes Czarina
of Russia, 259; shocked at Colonel
Hordt's treatment, 268 ; misgivings
about her husband's fate ; graci.
ous attentions to Hordt, 274 ; dis.
cerns that either Peter or she must
fall, 275 ; conspires for his destruc-
tion, 277-281; manifesto against
Prussia; afterwards withdrawn.
282 ; treaty of alliance with Fried-
rich, 388 ; difficulties with Poland,
395 ; virtual sovereign of Poland,
and intends to keep so, 411 : %
kind of she-Louis Quatorze ; never
in the least a Cat or a Deril
towards Poland, 411, 412; makes
Poniatowski king, 413, 414; gets
impatient of the Dissident Ques-
tion, 419; locks up the refractory
Bishops, 421 (see Turk War); en.
mity to Maria Theresa, 467, 475;
sumptuously entertains Prince
Henri, 471-474 ; proposes dismem.
berment of Poland, 474; her share
in the partition, 477, 479, 492 ;
mediates on the Bavarian Succes.
sion question, 600, 601 ; forms alli-
ance with Kaiser Joseph, and hopes
to get Constantinople and a new
Greek Empire, 634, 635: mentioned

also, 256 n., 629, 655, 671.
Catherine, Wife of Czar Peter, i, 453;

at Berlin, 454, 457, 569.
Catherine-Alexiewna, formerly Sophie-

Frederike of Anhalt-Zerbst, iii. 736.
Cathcart, Charles Lord, iii. 385.
Catholic Religion, mournful state of,

iii. 82.
Catt's, De, first interview with Fried-

rich, iv. 490; enters his service,
493 ; at Breslau, v. 269; Hoch-
kirch, 370; surprise at Friedrich's
Sermon on the Last Judgment,'
395 ; introduces Zimmermann to

the King, vi. 500-505.
Caulaincourt, v. 275 n.
Caumartin, M., ii. 581.
Cellamare, Ambassador, i. 451.
Chalmers, cited, vi. 143 n.
Chapelle, La. See Bachaumont.
Charlemagne, i. 69 ; iii, 601.
Charles XII. of Sweden, i. 184 ; ii. 478;

arrives suddenly at Stralsund, i.
426; his surprising career, 427,
437, 450 ; desperate defence of
Stralsund, 435; assassinated at
Frederickshall, 438; last of the
Swedish Kings, 439; Treaty of
Altranstadt, iii, 171, 188, 259. See

Karl XII.
Charles Amadeus, King of Sardinia,

iii. 350.
Charles Edward, the Young Pretender,

iii. 743.
Charles Emanuel, King of Sardinia,

ii. 618, 620, 722.
Charlotte, Queen, ii. 103, 424, 615 ;

her Father, 612; Ancestress of
England, iv, 298; Princess of
Mecklenburg, vi. 172 ; letter to the
King of Prussia, 173-175 ; question

of authenticity, 176.
Charlotte. See Philippina.
Charlottenburg, i. 44, 51; George I.

at, 534.
Chasot, Lieutenant, fights a duel ; is

introduced to Friedrich, ii. 528,
567 ; becomes Prussian Major of
Horse, iii. 718; Lieutenant-Colonel,
iv. 151, 457 ; affront on his Aus-
trian friend, 298, 299; Voltaire's
Hirsch affairs, 349, 350, 392 : men-

tioned also, vi. 189.
Châteauroux, Madame de la, iii. 459,

701, 716, 727 ; her Ministry, iv. 4;

with Louis XV. in the Nether-

lands, 5 ; dismissed, 11 ; death, 14.
Châtelet, Madame du, ii. 592, 605 ;

not invited by King Friedrich, iii.
55 ; hope disappointed, 85; her re-
lation to Volta no so celestial
as it once was, 119, 702 ; with
Voltaire on a visit at Sceaux, iv,
257-264 ; intrigue with M. de St.
Lambert, 265, 266 ; death from
child-birth, 284, 285: mentioned

also, iii. 633, 648; iv. 251.
Châtelet, Marquis du, in Maillebois's

Army, iii. 499 ; at Dingelfingen,
654, 658 : mentioned also, iv, 265,

285, 321.
Chauvelin, M. de, iv. 393.
Chesterfield, Lord, ii. 143, 158, 265;

iii. 758 ; iv. 275, 295, 465; cited,

268 n.
Chétardie, Marquis de la, ii. 535, 541 ;

iii. 255.
Chevert, French Brigadier, at Prag,

iii. 642, 643; General, at Hasten-

beck, v. 128 ; Meer, 383 n.
Chivalry Orders, Era of, i. 111.
Chlum, Camp of, iv. 155.
Chlumetz, ii. 438.
Chodowiecki, i. 447; ii. 213; his En.

gravings, vi. 547 n., 607 n.
Choiseul, Duc de, French Minister of

Foreign Affairs, v. 391, 539, 541,
594 ; implicated in publication of
Euvres du Philosophe de Sans-
Souci, 601 ; tries to make mis-
chief between Pitt and Friedrich,
610, 611; letter from Voltaire,
617; vi. 6; issues peace pro-
posals, 169; succeeds Belleisle as
War-Minister, 171 ; spasmodic ef-
fort towards Hanover, 197, 200;
artful negotiations with Pitt, 204-
206, 235; intrigues with Poland and

Turkey, 430, 459; his death, 673.
Chotusitz, Battle of, iii. 566, 579; topo-

graphy of, 575.
Christian Ernst of Baireuth, ii. 362.
Christian Ernst of Saalfeld-Coburg,

ii. 215,
Christian of Anhalt, i. 313, 330.
Christian of Brunswick, i. 329, 331.
Christian II. of Denmark, a rash, un-

wise, explosive man, i. 269, 273.
Christian IV. of Denmark, i. 331, 344.
Christian Wilhelm Archbishop of Mag-

deburg, i. 331, 340.
Cideville, M. de, iii. 94, 635.
Cimburgis, i. 221.
Clairaut, the Mathematician, letter

from Voltaire to, v. 617.
Clamei, Meadow of, ii, 82, 86.

Clarendon, Earl of, ir. 205.
Clayton, General, iii. 660.
Clemence, Princess, Wife of Prince

Clement, iii, 530.
Clemens, Engraver, vi. 680 n.
Clement August. See Köln.
Clement, the Hungarian Swindler, i.

485, 498.
Clement, Duke of Baiern, iii. 527.
Clement, Prince, Nephew of Elector

of Köln, iii. 530.
Clement XII., Pope, iii. 134.
Clement, Duchess, protests against the

Austrian attempt on Bavaria, vi.
570, 873; writes to Friedrich, 574 ;
counsels and aids Görtz in the mat-

ter, 576.
Clermont, Prince de, iii. 241 ; succeeds

Richelieu, v. 213; beaten by Fer-
dinand at Crefeld, 311; dismissed,

312.
Cleveland, Duchess of, i. 166.
Cleve, Wilhelm Duke of, i. 294, 302;

his Heritage Settlement, 303 ;

death ; his Son's tragic career, 304.
Cleve, Duchy of, i. 300; a naturally

opulent Country, 302; disputed
Heritage, 305, 310, 322, 347, 600 ;
ii. 240 ; occupied by Spanish and
Dutch troops, 318, 322; Friedrich
Wilhelm's interest in, 488,567,599 ;

ii. 76, 239, 447, 625.
Cleve, Friedrich at, receiving Homage,

iii. 49.
Clogenson, Commentator on Voltaire's

Letters, cited, iii. 704 n: mentioned

also, v. 612.
Clubs, i. 111.
Clue, De la, Admiral of the Toulon

Fleet, v. 509.
Cobenzl, Count, at Berlin, vi. 552, 586 ;

at Congress of Tetschen, 601.
Coblenz, ii. 254.
Cocceji, jun., marries Barberina, iii.

753; with Collini at Berlin, iv.

315; at Hochkirch, v. 365 n.
Cocceji, Samuel von, iij. 753, 755 ;

Chief Prussian Law-Minister, iv.
242, 243, 272; finishes his Law.
Reform, 288-290 ; Voltaire's Law.
suit, 351 ; washes his hands of the

sorry business, 355.
Cochius, ii. 683, 687.
Coehorn's Masterpiece, iv. 269.
Cogniazo, cited, iv. 144 n. ; v. 106 n.;

on the Camp of Bunzelwitz, vi. 188:

mentioned also, 591 n.
Coigny, Maréchal de, iii. 681, 696, 742;

at Stockstadt, iv. 6; guarding Bris-

gau, 71, 75.
Colberg, Russian siege of, v. 342, 343;

again besieged by Russia, vi. 77;
siege raised, 86; third and tough.
est siege of all, 206-211; garrison

fairly starved out, 230-232.
Colbert, iii. 243; iv. 259.
Colignon, Colonel, and his recruiting

practices, v. 628, 629.
Collenbach, Plenipotentiary von, vi.

329.
Collini, Como Alessandro, iii. 753; iv.

314, 315; his first sight of Voltaire,
319, 320; becomes his secretary,
335 n., 394, 436, 438, 439; at
Frankfurt, 447-454; cited, 315 n.;

v. 115 n.
Cöln on the Spree, i. 136.
Cologne. See Köln.
Columbus and the Atlantic, ii. 5.
Comines, Philippe de, vi. 457.
Condé, Prince de, vi. 312.
Conflans, Admiral, v. 510; his fleet

utterly ruined by Hawke, 589-594.
Conrad of Hohenzollern, i. 97; becomes

Burggraf of Nürnberg, 101; ü. 220.
Conrad of Thüringen, i. 119; ' whip my

Abbot ?' 120; plunders Fritzlar; re-
pentance and Teutsch-Ritter vows,

121.
Conradin, Boy, last of the Hohenstauf.

fens, i. 127, 129.
Conservatism, iii. 337.
Constantine of Russia, vi. 634, 635.
Constitutional Government, iii, 373.
Contades supersedes Clermont, v. 312;

against Ferdinand in the Rhine
Provinces, 383-385; defeated at

Minden, 445-453.
Conti, Prince de, joins the Army for

relief of Prag, iii. 625 ; with Brog.
lio at Wolnzach, 653 ; driven from
Deggendorf, 655; Army for Italy,
742; in the Middle-Rhine coun-
tries, iv. 71, 94, 106 ; retreats across
the Rhine, 159, 160; to be a Ge-
neral-in-chief of the grand Inva-
sion-of-England Army, v. 593 ; De

Ligne's opinion of him, vi. 453.
Conway, Fieldmarshal, at Langensalza,

vi. 165 ; account of King Friedrich
at Potsdam, and at his Silesian Re-
views, 535-543; kindly entertained

by Lord Marischal, 537, 541.
Cook, Captain, at Quebec, v. 560.
Cookery, spiritual, i. 19.
Cope, General, iii. 680, 745.
Cöpenick, ii. 285.
Cöper, Secretary, v. 485; vi. 361.
Coram, Captain, iv. 474.
Corn, La, in America, iv. 475, 476.
Cornwallis, Colonel Edward, iv. 474,

475.

opposition to Pitt, 69, 71 ; defeated
at Hastenbeck, 127 ; Convention of
Kloster-Zeven, 149; returns home,
and resigns his military offices, 150 :

mentioned also, iv. 4, 92, 294, 364.
Cunningham's Friedrich's Last Re-

view, vi. 680 n.
Cüstrin, i. 287, 334, 337 ; Friedrich a

prisoner at, ii. 273, 282; Katte's
execution, 289; Friedrich’s life at,
330; a rugged little town, with
strong castle, v. 320; town burnt

by the Russians, 316, 320-2.
Czarina. See Elizabeth ; Catharine.
Czartoryskies, the Polish, vi. 417, 419,

420.
Czernichef, General, prisoner at Zorn-

dorf, v. 343; with Soltikof in Si.
lesia, vi. 59, 73; marches on Ber-
lin, 88, 91, 95; with Loudon in Si-
lesia, 193, 214, 220; ordered home
by Czar Peter, 260 ; to join himself
with Friedrich, 201 ; with less ad-
vantage than he expected, 265 ;
joins with him at Lissa, 285; re-
called home, 291 ; generously stays

three days, 292, 299.
Czetteritz, General, taken prisoner

with his copy of Military Instruc-
tions, v. 631, 2.

Cornwallis, Lord, vi. 679.
Cossack brutality, v. 318, 460, 487;

vi. 97.
Cothenius, Dr., iv. 363, 392, 399, 437.
Councils, Church, i. 48; Council of

Constance, 186, 190.
Courage, ii. 382.
Courland, Duke of, ii. 363. See Anne

of.
Courten, Chevalier de, at Berlin, iv. 86.
Coxe, cited, i. 537 n.; ii. 328 n.; iv. 80 n.
Cramer, cited, ii. 37 n.
Craven, Lady, i, 229; ii. 107; vi. 439,

587.
Crébillon, iv. 256.
Crécy, Battle of, i. 168; v. 207.
Crefeld, Battle of, v. 311, 312.
Creutz the Finance Minister, i. 440 ;

ii. 396.
Crillon, Duc de, at Weissenfels, v. 192.
Crillon, jun., vi. 521, 522.
Crinoline, fashion of, vi. 333.
Crochardiere, M. de la, at Strasburg,

iii. 72.
Crochet, ii. 431.
Cromwell, what a German, might have

done, i. 261; Cromwell and his
Puritans, 264, 327, 355; his time,
iii. 378; his soldiers, iv. 283; his
worth to England, v. 65, 66 ; his
Ironsides, 260; Cromwell and At-

tila, vi. 481.
Cronström, Commandant of Bergen-

op-Zoom, iv. 270.
Crossen, ii. 461.
Croze, La, ii, 573.
Culloden, Victory of, iv. 124.
Culmbach, Margraf of, i. 225 ; Fried-

rich founder of the Elder Line,
229; Casimir, a severe, rather tru-
culent Herr, 231 ; Margraf George,
and his connection with the King
of Hungary, 232 ; gets the Duchy
of Jägerndorf, 235; noble con-
duct in the Reformation, 237 ; at
the Diet of Augsburg, 238 ; few
truer specimens of the Honest Man,
241 ; his Son and Brothers, 242;
troubles with Albert Alcibiades,
255 ; Diagram of the Elder and
Younger Culmbach Lines, 378 a.

See Friedrich George of.
Cumberland, Duke of, iii. 608; at

Dettingen, 668, 678; in the Ne-
therlands, iv. 112, 274, 275; at
Fontenoy, 113; at Culloden, 124 ;
disagreements with the Duke of
Newcastle, 529, 532; takes com-
mand of Britannic Army, v. 7 ; to
little purpose, 62, 115; aiming to
oust the Duke of Newcastle, 63;

DALRYMPLE, Major, at Berlin, vi. 552,

554, 696.
Dalwig, Lieutenant-Colonel, vi. 124,

212, 595.
Damiens, v. 7.
Danes, the, seize Schleswig-Holstein,

vi. 255, 256.
Dankelmann, i. 54.
Dante, i. 129, 145, 148.
Dantzig, not to belong to Friedrich, vi.

492; siege of, ii. 485, 504, 546.
Danz, Dr., iv. 307.
D'Arget, iii. 549; saves Valori from

Pandours, iv. 173; despatched to
Friedrich at Dresden, 222; letter
to Valori describing his interview
with the King, 222-226; taken into
Friedrich's service, 226, 241, 325,

337, 394.
Darlington, Countess of, i. 531; ii. 13,

286.
Darmstadt, Landgravine of, visits the

Czarina with her daughters, vi. 521,

522. See Ernst Ludwig of.
Dashkof, Princess, vi. 275.
Daun, Leopold Graf von, iii. 654; un-

der Bärenklau at Stockstadt, iv.
7; advances to relief of Prag, v. 46;
retreats on hearing of the Prussian
victory, 56; order from Vienna to
proceed, 80; battle of Kolin, 79;
orders retreat, 93; order disobeyed,
94; victory, 95; makes no chase of
the Prussians, 96, 105; the first chief
of the Order of Maria Theresa, 98;
with Prince Karl, following the
Prince of Prussia, 120; following
Bevern, 224; at Breslau, 237 ; Leu-
then, 247, 262 ; supersedes Prince
Karl, 264; guarding the Bohemian
Frontier, 290; on march to assist
Olmütz, 291; at Leutomischl, 294;
sits on his magazine, clear not to
fight, 295; Bos against Leo, 296;
encamps at Gewitsch, watching
Friedrich, 297; gets cautiously on
foot again, 299; gets reinforcement
into Olmütz, 299; aware of Fried-
rich's convoys, 301; attack on Mo-
sel, 302-306; siege of Olmütz ended,
307; cautiously follows Friedrich
to Königsgrätz, 309; to recapture
Saxony, while Friedrich is engaged
with the Russians, 344; at Zittau,
345; near Meissen, hears of Fried.
rich's approach, 348; a note sent
to Fermor unexpectedly answered,
348; retires to Stolpen, 349, 350;
encamps ahead of Friedrich, at
Kittlitz, 352; surprisal of Friedrich
in his camp at Hochkirch, 358;
consecrated hat and sword from
the Pope for his victory, 372, 417;
cannot prevent Friedrich reaching
Silesia, 376; tries to get Dresden,
377; wheels homeward, unsuccess-
ful, 380; puzzled at having to take
the offensive, 415; encamps near
Mark-Lissa, 416, 422; content to
play jackal to the Russian lion,
423; expects always to succeed by
help of others, 492, 494 ; cannot
persuade Soltikof to do all his
fighting for him, 500-502; deter-
mines on siege of Dresden, 510; in-
forms Soltikof of success, 528; rea-
son to be proud of his cunctatory
method, 530; carting endless pro-
visions for self and Soltikof, 531;
almost captures Ziethen at Sorau,
534; sits on his magazine at Baut-
zen, 536; dare not attack Prince
Henri, 537; concessions to Soltikof,
537, 538; will attack Prince Henri
to-morrow, 544 ; finds only an
empty camp; Prince Henri vanished
in unknown space, 545; Prince
Henri out-manceuvres him in Sax.
ony, 553, 554; is compelled to re-
treat on Dresden, 555; going at his
slowest step, 565; hears uncom-

fortably that Finck is at Maxen,
but decides to attack, 569; three
simultaneous assaults, 572, 573;
captures Finck and his whole army,
575; also another outpost of Fried.
rich's at Meissen, 579; dare not at-
tack Friedrich, 579; contents him-
self with holding Dresden; Vienna
nightcaps, in token of his talent
for sleep, 580; vi. 304; in winter-
quarters, v. 582; again to have
chief command in the new cam-
paign, 629; continues near Dresden,
vi. 5, 12; entrenched and palisaded
to the teeth, 12, 17; intercepts
Friedrich's march for Silesia, 18.
23; arrives to relief of Dresden, 29;
safe on his Northern side, 30; at.
tends Friedrich's march into Silesia,
54-57; battle of Liegnitz, 60; his
beautiful plan all gone to distrac-
tion, 69, 70; indolently allows Fried-
rich to get clear away, 73, 74; and
has a troublesome time with him
in consequence, 81-83; sends Lacy
to join the Russians in seizing Ber.
lin, 87; ordered to maintain Saxony,
102; inexpugnably encamped at
Torgau, 104; moves to Eilenberg,
105 ; returns to Torgau, 106 ; at-
tacked by Friedrich, 117; furious
slaughter on both sides, 118-128;
thinks the victory his, 125; defeat
and swift retreat, 129; at Plauen,
131; his return to Vienna, 132;
takes charge of Saxony, 181, 182;
attacks Prince Henri's outposts,
232; takes command in Silesia
against Friedrich, 283-285 ; skil.
fully defends himself, 287; attacked
and defeated by Friedrich at Bur.
kersdorf, 289-296 ; attempts to
break in upon Friedrich's siege of
Schweidnitz, 301, 303; defeated at
Reichenbach, and gives up the en-
terprise, 304; his fighting all over,
310, 311; dies some three years
afterwards, 311: mentioned also,

450.
Dauphiness, the, intercedes for Polish

Majesties, iv. 565, 566.
David's Psalms, ii. 650; v. 163.
Deblin, Cordwainer, works -against

Browne at Glogau, üi. 206; v. 263.
Debt, National, sublime invention of,

v. 396.
Deffand, Madame du, iv. 258; letter

from D'Alemburg to, vi. 367.
Degenfeld, ii. 173, 625.
Deggendorf, iii. 655.
Demikof, General (Thémicond), with

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