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MC., who has not resided in Ireland for the last ten years, and who evidently knows as little about it, as he does about the merits of the voluntary controversy, presumes to brand these statements as false, like the sheep-stealer, wło, though convicted on the evidence of credible eye-witnesses, attempted to rebut their testimony by offering to produce fifty witnesses to swear that they did not see him committing the act! That the doctrine of apostolical succession, which excludes all non-episcopal ministers from “holy orders,” denouncing them as unauthorised intruders into the sacred office, stripping their flocks of the character of churches and of all Christian privileges, denying that they have the sacraments, or the means of grace, and re-ordaining their pastors, should any of them join the establishment, a humiliation which is not required of the Roman Catholic priests—that this doctrine is now firmly held, and rigidly acted on by nine out of ten of the clergy of Ireland, is a fact quite notorious in that country. Nor can your friend (who, no doubt, has the cause of truth at heart) get over this fact, by saying it is “palpably false;" for those who are in a condition to feel it, find it palpably true. Neither will it avail, to say that the church clergy do not "cordially associate” with dissenting ministers, because, “they had combined with Roman Catholics and infidels of . every grade to pull down their church.” In Ireland this is “palpably false.” Dissenting ministers do not register votes there, do not attend elections, or political meetings, or if they do, it is to oppose the Roman Catholics and uphold the church. Most of the Presbyterians are redhot conservatives, hate “ voluntaries and radicals," as cordially as Mr. MC. could wish ; indignantly denying that they are dissenters, and stoutly defending the principle of establishments ; and yet no ministers in Ireland complain more bitterly of the exclusiveness, pride, and hostility, of the Episcopal clergy! Yes, this is their kindness to their friends! Friends who keenly feel it, and but for political considerations, would resent it much more loudly than they do.—They are biding their time.
If your correspondent doubts that the spirit and the “ leading principles” of Puseyism are spreading in Ireland, and have already been embraced by most of the clergy, let him consult Professor SEWELL, who travelled among them last year, and he may set his mind at rest; for that gentleman was very well satisfied on this point. Mr. M‘C. admits that very few of the church clergy preached the Gospel in Ireland thirty years ago ; and that the revival has been occasioned principally by the labours of dissenters. His version of the Home Mission affair is different from ours; but it betrays a total ignorance of the facts, and is evidently absurd. The bishops, forsooth, would not allow the clergy to itinerate for the purpose of preaching the Gospel in destitute parishes, lest they should neglect their own, which were invariably supplied with substitutes ; and yet they allow rectors to itinerate to fashionable watering-places in England, and on the
preached the Gosh
principallo he years ago ; and that they
continent, for at least four months in the year, if they wish. The fact is, the Home Mission placed the church on an “inclined plane” towards dissent. Puseyism has now placed it on a more inclined plane towards popery. True, Ireland is a fine field for missionary operations, and yet the voluntaries have not taken it up as they ought. May they have the wisdom and spirit to wipe off this stigma soon!
THE SINNER'S SACRIFICE.
TO THE TRINITY.
(Altered from Ben Jonson.)
Of persons three. One God in unity,
Help, help to lift
Yet take the gift!
Restore my heaven.
And be forgiven !
The death abhorr'd.
Show pity, Lord.
Help, with thy might.
A saint in light!
And soar above!
And see thy face.
O wondrous grace!
The Connexion and Harmony of the Old and New Testament : being an inquiry into the relation, Literary and Doctrinal, in which these two parts of the Sacred Volume stand to each other. By W. Lindsay Alexander, M.A., Edinburgh. pp. 510, 8vo. London : Jackson and Walford.
Notwithstanding the numerous productions upon subjects connected with the times in which the books of Scripture were written, and with the personal history of most of their authors, which occupy a place on the shelves of our theological libraries, we have hitherto lacked a work that should strictly treat of the bearings of the two grand component portions of the Divine volume upon each other. Prideaux, to whom the mind is naturally led by glancing at the title of the work which we have just announced, confined himself to the times intervening between the declension of the kingdom of Israel and Judah, and the time of Christ, chiefly illustrating the sacred history by the profane ; explaining such prophecies as were fulfilled in those times; and only in a general way taking up other matters, tending to elucidate certain points connected with the sacred oracles. Shuckford's “ Connections” were designed to illustrate the sacred history, previous to the period at which it had been taken up by the Dean of Norwich, and strictly relate to such history, and to that of the neighbouring nations, and not to any circumstances connecting the Old Testament with the New. As it only reaches to the occupation of Canaan, by the Israelites, under Joshua, the work has been continued by Dr. Russell, who brings the history down to the time at which Prideaux set out. Both productions contain much valuable matter, though the prolixity, with which the author of the latter treats of the affairs of foreign nations, greatly detracts from its utility, in regard to any specific bearing which it has upon the history of the Jews.
Numerous points, relating to the several parts of the Bible, as well as to the book as a whole, have engaged the attention of those authors who have furnished us with introductions to the sacred writings; while such writers as Sykes, Chandler, Dr. J. Pye Smith, Hengstenberg, and others, have gone more minutely into the elucidation of particular subjects of difficulty, arising out of the relation in which the two principal divisions stand to each other. The only author who has especially discussed the connexion between them, in a literary and doctrinal point of view, is the late A. Th. Hartmann, Professor of Divinity at the University of Rostock, in a work entitled, “ The close Connexion of the Old Testament with the New, developed on principles purely biblical. Hamburgh, 1831." Yet, much as this writer might be expected, from his profound Oriental learning, and his long continued study of the Scriptures, to have exhausted the subject, it must be obvious to any who read his volume, that ample room was still left for another labourer in the same field ; especially one who, possessed of literary talent and furniture, and imbued with a genuine spirit of biblical piety, should devote his researches to the intimate connexión, the mutual harmony, and the sound interpretation of the Old and New Testaments.
Such a labourer we are happy to find in Mr. Alexander, and have read, with intense interest, the results of his labours, as embodied in the volume before us. He has, evidently, come to his task well prepared by thorough processes of previous mental training; a familiarity with the distinctive properties and idiomatical peculiarities of the classical and Oriental languages ; an acute perception of the nicer shades of meaning, which are frequently exhibited by the sacred writers ; a susceptibility for the highest and finest strains of poetical inspiration ; a mind, capable, on the one hand, of taking a broad and comprehensive view of a subject, and, on the other, of entering, with all the patience and perseverance of a German micrologist, into the most minute verbal investigations; a correctness and refinement of taste rarely found in alliance with philological ploddings; and, above all, a profound reverence for the authority of Scripture truth, and a commendable zeal for the advancement of its interests in the world. We congratulate the Committee of the Congregational Lecture on their having secured the efforts of such a writer for the discussion of a subject of so much importance, and on the masterly manner in which their lecturer has acquitted himself of his task.
We shall now endeavour to furnish our readers with an analysis of the contents of a volume, which we cannot sufficiently recommend to their earliest perusal.
The first of the eight lectures of which it consists, embraces the EXTERNAL or LITERARY connexion of the Old and New Testaments, in which, after stating the object of the present course, and pointing out the interest and importance of the inquiry, from its bearing on the meaning and use of the writings of the ancient economy, and on our controversies with Infidels and Jews; from the pleasure it is calculated to afford, and the attention which it has already received, Mr. A. proceeds to consider the affinity of the two great divisions of Scripture in respect of form, structure, language, and nomenclature. He shows that, besides the literary identity, discoverable in the mode of thought and phraseology obtaining in both, the peculiar opinions of the writers, the historical and topographical allusions, the entirely Oriental and Jewish cast of the authorship, there is the same absence of systematic representation ; the same teaching by means of narratives, apologues, conversations, popular discourses, and epistolary communications; the same initiatory
basis, laid in an historical narrative; the same nucleus of two distinct societies, to neither of which is attached the idea of perfection or finality, but which are represented as merely introductory to a better and more perfect state of things, in which they were finally to emerge.
On the nature of the New Testament dialect, Mr. A. has some very apposite remarks, which go to show that the books of this division could only have been written by persons familiar with Old Testament ideas and phraseology; and that they must have been written by men who lived after the prevalence of the Kolv» dialektos. The names or terms which they have selected for the purpose of designating the leading subjects of which they treat are, with few exceptions, borrowed directly from the Old Testament, the appropriateness and full meaning of which, can be understood only by a reference to the writings of the earlier dispensation.
He next adduces proofs of a more obvious nature, namely, those which arise from the direct references to, or quotations from, the Old Testament, which occur in the New. These allusions he distributes into three classes ; the First comprising those passages which contain simple references to the Old Testament Scriptures as extant in the days of our Lord and his apostles ; as being, in their estimation, of Divine authority; and as containing pre-intimations of the facts and doctrines of the Christian revelation; the Second, those in which notice is taken of certain incidents, institutions, and characters mentioned in the historical portion of the Old Testament ; and those in which a quotation more or less exact of the words of the earlier Scriptures occurs. In relation to the purposes for which the second class of allusions was made, he specifies genealogical catalogues ; allusions for the sake of example or illustration, the incidental and general uses of which are pointed out; references to authentic Jewish traditions ; allusions to erents on which some doctrine or duty is based; and allusions to typical facts or institutes.
In treating of verbal quotations from the Old Testament in the New, a subject which is clogged with difficulties of no small magnitude, and which has engaged the learning, ingenuity, and patient research of some of the first-rate biblical critics, Mr. Alexander, after stating as the result of his own comparison of passages, that the customary practice of the New Testament writers was, to take their quotations from the Greek version, rather than from the Hebrew original, adverts to the fact, that, of the quotations decidedly traceable to the LXX, (and the same may be said of those referable to the Hebrew) very few are made with perfect accuracy ; by far the greater part presenting certain deviations from the received text of the book from which they were taken. These deviations he classifies thus :—First, Changes of person, number, or tense in particular words; Second, Substitution of synonymous words or phrases ; Third, Words and phrases transposed; Fourth, Words and clauses