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elaborate account is given by Professor Kidd, in the appendix to these memoirs. No one can adequately understand the labours of Dr. Morrison, who has not carefully perused this important document. It exhibits a most extended and luminous view of the literary character of his honoured friend ; and, as we think, successfully vindicates his reputation from the small criticism to which some portions of his translation have beeen subjected since his decease. We cannot withhold from our readers the closing account of Dr. Morrison's attainments and labours, given by Professor Kidd, as the results of his "position, acquirements, and influence :"
“First. Whatever he accomplished as an ardent scholar, a zealous divine, and a steady patriot, owed its origin to his religious character.
"Secondly. Notwithstanding the charge of ignorance and incapacity, constantly brought by worldly men of literary habits and acquirements against missionaries, and that of wild, misguided fanaticism against missionary societies--still the vast labours and rare attainments of Dr. Morrison sprung entirely from missionary zeal, patronized and cherished by the venerable men who founded the London Missionary Society.
* Thirdly. The direct influence of Dr. Morrison's literary and biblical labours, in connexion with China, has not only had a mighty religious bearing on the minds of many zealous men in his own country, America, and the continent of Europe, but also on public institutions, both literary, scientific, commercial, and religious.
“Fourthly. The attainments of Dr. Morrison have had indirect, yet most effective influence on the cultivation of Chinese literature. In addition to his own works, he was the medium of publishing others of great value; for example, the Notitia Linguæ Sinicæ,' printed at the Anglo-Chinese College, at the expense of the late Lord Kingsborough, a most valuable work, in Latin, on the oral and written language o China; wherein every thing necessary to be known on the principles, and structure, and beauties of the language, are most copiously illustrated by individual quotations in the native character, from the best authors. It is a work of the highest value; but unfinished, though extending to 262 quarto pages. The founding of the Anglo-Chinese College, and the numerous advantages subsequently conferred on its libraries, with the periodical communications from him, published in China and Malacca, all testify the value and extent of his reputation for Chinese knowledge ; but these matters have been fully developed in the preceding biography. I cannot, however, close these remarks without adverting to the magnificent attempt to introduce the permanent cultivation of Chinese literature in the noble and extensive library which employed him many years in collecting, and is now placed in University College, accessible to all classes of students without distinction. If it be important to cultivate Indian languages of the alphabetic kind, for purposes of mutual illustratration, and of defining the connexion which subsists between the several parent tongues of the earth, it cannot but be of equal moment to study one of the most ancient symbolic tongues, which is understood by four hundred millions of people, of which some of those of neighbouring countries are probably only dialects, at least modifications, such as the Japanese, Cochin-Chinese, Corean, Cambodgian, Loo-Chuan, and others. But, independently of the value of Chinese, from its local influence, its genius is so peculiar, dispensing with sound as of comparatively minor importance, that it addresses the mind immediately through the eye; and hence, so long as it is excluded from the usual course of philological studies, the philosophy of language is necessarily incomplete. Effects the most opposite have resulted from its unique symbols and original structure. The Chinese, aware of its dissimilarity to N. S, VOL. V.
other tongues, at once claim for it a celestial origin; while by foreigners, who have not studied it, it is too generally regarded as inexplicable and useless. Surely, when there is every reason to suppose it to have been connected with the ancient Egyptian, and to be the only one likely to shed light on those hitherto obscure hieroglyphics, while it is adapted to extend our acquaintance with the philosophy of mind and morals, it is high time to entertain more rational views of such a medium of intercourse; which, although no attainments in the knowledge of comparative grammar can ever elucidate it, is understood by more than one-third of the human race."Appendix, pp. 86, 87.
We have already adverted to the character and labours of Dr. MilNE. Our esteemed, friend Mr. Philip, has supplied most valuable and interesting information respecting this distinguished missionary, and his no less excellent wife, as well as several of their relative connexions. In the purity, integrity, and devotion of Dr. Milne, we have as lovely a specimen of sublime and self-denying consecration to the cause of missions, as the annals of modern times can present. From an humble and obscure station in life, he rose to intellectual eminence and moral elevation, by the force of native talent and single-hearted godliness. As long as the paramount claims of filial duty rendered it necessary, he repressed the ardour of his zeal, and remained in his own land, that he might "show piety at home,” in his attention to the claims of a widowed mother; and when the path of duty was cleared of all impediments, he gave himself to the Lord in the hallowed cause of missions, with intense and unremitting devotion.
He appears to have been as successful and assiduous in self-improvement as Dr. Morrison ; and to have possessed at the same time a blandness and suavity of temper, which, without any interference with firm and uncompromising decision, rendered him peculiarly suited to cooperate with his distinguished precursor in the Chinese missions. His early religious associations were with eminently pious and devoted men; and from Mr. Philip's graphic account of some of the “fathers in Israel," members of the church in Huntley, there appears to have been exerted by them a most powerful influence on the mind and devotional habits of the young convert. At Gosport, he was much noticed and honoured by the venerable Dr. Bogue; and the letters he addressed to the directors of the London Missionary Society, before and after his admission to preparatory studies, are most interesting and instructive records.
He made a most judicious choice of a partner, who proved to be truly a "helpmeet” for him ; and the illustrations of personal piety, conjugal happiness, and united efforts in the cause of God, which the Memoir exhibits, are truly delightful and refreshing. They “walked together in the ordinances and commandments of the Lord blameless ;” and their prayers were “not hindered.” The accounts of both in Mr. Philip's volume are peculiarly interesting; and we feel in no small degree indebted to our friend, for the high and hallowed satisfaction,
which the records of their character have imparted. There are, indeed, passages in the biographical accounts, which might furnish material for remark, if not animadversion. If less of the writer and his peculiarities were obvious, and the Scottish terms and phrases were either translated, or a needful glossary added for English readers, it would be an improvement of no small value in another edition. Whatever their raciness or force in a Caledonian's ear, they present no special attraction to us “Southrons," who happen to be destitute of the associations and recollections of the author. Yet some of these passages of our good brother's memorabilia are interesting. They may not be in the best taste ; but there is a naivété, that gives internal proof of the writer's identification of the scene depicted, or the character pourtrayed, with himself and his own cherished reminiscences; and there is an evidence in the manner of the relation, that proves him to be perfectly conscious of his right, to tell his story in his own way.
Apart from these minor observations, we very sincerely and cordially recommend this volume to the attention of the Christian churches. It is a rich and ample in its information respecting the state of China, the missions there, and several collateral subjects of high and important interest ; nor can the character and labours of Dr. Morrison be fully understood, or adequately estimated, without the addition of this volume on “ the Life and Opinions of Dr. Milne.”
The Arguments of Churchmen Reviewed, and the Evils of a Religious
Establishment Exposed. By James Gregory, Minister of Kippin,
Thornton, Yorkshire. 12mo. pp. 156. Bradford, John Dale. The editor of the “Nonconformist,” in his opening “address to the readers," laments that English dissenters act in the maintenance of their own cause, as far as its political aspect is concerned, like those of whom Burke complains, that “they refused to take any step which might strike at the heart of affairs ;” and that “as a body, they have acted as if they were ashamed of their grand leading principle, and secretly distrustful of its efficacy.” Now, while we allow that there is too much cause for this charge, and that against many it may be urged in all its force, there are not a few who feel that to them it will not apply. And we hope our friend will be convinced, from the pamphlet which we have introduced to the notice of our readers, that there are some who did not need his pungent and spirit-stirring appeals, to prevent them from acting as if they were ashamed of “ their great leading principle," or to induce them to “strike at the heart of affairs.” For this work was written before the first number of the “ Nonconformist" was published, and yet Mr. G. has “abandoned the ground of expediency, and resolutely adopted that of principle ;” and his aim is the same with that which is avowed to be the “primary object of the
Nonconformist,' to show that a national establishment of religion is essentially vicious in its constitution, philosophically, politically, and religiously."
The pamphlet which is announced at the head of this article, was written, it is true, partly in self-defence. But, as is frequently the case, those who draw the sword at first to resist aggression, become, ere long, the aggressors themselves ; 80 is it here. We do not blame the author for this ; quite the contrary. It was necessary in order to do justice to his cause, and fully to repel the attacks of his opponent. He informs us, that “recently he had printed a small pamphlet, The claims of Dissent, and the Church of England Examined,' in reply to the lectures of the Rev. G. Thomas, B.A., entitled National Duties in connexion with Religion.'” Since that time Mr. T. has put forth his remarks on the “Principles of the Established Church, as compared with those of Dissent,” in the shape of a tract, doubtless intended as an immediate and infallible corrective to what he deems errors poisonous and insidious, unscriptural and antichristian. Mr. G.'s “ Arguments of Churchmen Reviewed,” is intended partly as an answer to Mr. T.'s “Remarks,” and partly, and perhaps we may say principally, as an exposure of the numerous and deadly evils of religious establishments in general; and, consequently, a statement and defence of the grand principles of Nonconformity.
Mr. G. divides his pamphlet into three parts. In the first, which is “A Review of the Reasonings and Arguments of Churchmen,” he shows-1. That the motives and purposes of dissenters in opposition to the establishment are misrepresented. 2. He examines historical facts and statistical details. In doing this, he gives his readers much valuable information respecting the statistics of both churchmen and dissenters. 3. He considers the mode in which churchmen treat the arguments of dissenters ; and shows clearly that this is any thing but fair, generous, and indicative of a good cause.
The title of the second part is “ The Inevitable Evils of a Religious Establishment Exposed.” Here Mr. G. shows-1. That an establishment gives to all its members and ministers an unreal and conventional importance. 2. That a religious establishment is a serious hindrance to the discussion and free circulation of the truth. A serious charge; but we must think, fully substantiated. 3. Many portions of the church service are highly objectionable, and have an injurious influence on the minds of her members. 4. A religious establishment destroys the broad and Scriptural distinction between the church and the world. 5. The extensive system of patronage in the national church prevents the possibility of her purity. 6. An established church has an extensive and unwarrantable power of persecution. And we maintain that it necessarily involves in it the great principle of persecution ; and that there can be no warrantable power to persecute in the least degree. 7. He adduces the testimony of churchmen in proof of the existing evils of an establishment. And, verily, he shows clearly that the church is wounded in the house of her friends ; their testimony against her is indeed copious, forcible, and humbling. This section is one of the most valuable of Mr. G.'s pamphlet. We wish he had either added or prefixed another particular, the substance of which is indeed implied in what he has advanced, that a national church is altogether unscriptural, not only in the sense that it is unsupported by Scripture, but plainly condemned by the principles, rules, and precedents of the word of God. This, after all, is the most important consideration. “To the law and to the testimony,” is our first and last appeal.
The third part consists of practical remarks addressed to dissenters. Mr. G. shows-1.“ That dissenters in general should have sounder and juster views of their own sentiments.” 2. “That they have many inducements to study and value their privileges.” 3. “ That they ought to seek the maintenance and extension of their privileges in the spirit of the Gospel.” From this brief analysis our readers will see that Mr. G. takes no narrow or superficial view of the important subject of his pamphlet. And we can assure our readers, that they will find in it extensive research, sound argument, vigorous writing, and much valuable information : and that they will not regret either the money it will cost to make it their own, or the time they will have to spend to master its contents.
That our readers may judge of the character and style of the work, We extract the following passages on patronage; a usage which is execrated by a large portion of the church of Scotland, but against which no voice is raised in the church of England.
* We have specified many evils, evils not accidental but constitutional, parts of the system to which they belong; and many of them, no doubt, are traceable to the prevailing practice of patronage in the English establishment. Its influence is most subtle and insidious, extensive and corrupting, branching out in a thousand directions, and flowing forth in a thousand channels, operating and extending itself from the centre to the circumference of the national commonwealth. It is this which gives animal vitality to the church, at the expense of spiritual life and energy, enlarging her dimensions, but paralysing her moral power. Strengthening and adorning the body may be at a cost no less than that of weakening and confining the spirit. A liberal supply of wealth cannot be a substitute for the simplicity of the Gospel. A religion which depends for its extension on princes' favours, is shorn of its beauty as well as of its power. The truth of God has a native, inherent, unconfinable energy, which requires no meretricious mediums through which to operate, and no state appliances to endow it with additional energy. This is a doctrine which well-paid agents in government service cannot understand, and hence the friends of church and state are faithful in their attachment to the establishment, and vigorous and often violent in her defence. Promotions have many temptations. Preferments make many friends. Patronage is the bond that binds the altar very firmly to the throne: destroy the patronage, and we dissolve the bond. This moralizing we introduce as a forerunner of facts. Hundreds and thousands, from their cradle, are