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CHIEF PRODUCTIONS OF THE EARTH, ETC.

103

For its Gamboge.

CHIEF PRODUCTIONS OF THE EARTH, AND THE COUNTRIES
QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

WIIERE TIIEY ARE PRINCIPALLY PRODUCED.
NOTE. -As many branches of industry consist in a mere development

Almonds.. Syria, Tripoli, Barbary, Spain, Portugal.
of the natural resources or capabilities of the regions where they are

Aloes. .Socotra, Arabia, Barbadoes, South Africa.
prosecuted, they show forth, in a striking manner, the physical rela-

Allspice. .Jamaica.
tions of these regions to man. A reference, therefore, to the princi- Amethysts .... Brazil, Siberia, Ceylon.
pal seats of such branches of industry, as exhibited on the map, will

Arrow Root,.. South America, East and West Indies, South Sea Islands.
be found useful in the present connection. The following questions,

Barley.... .Between latitude 6920 and 450 Eastern Hemisphere, British Amer although necessarily incomplete, will suffice to show how the investi

ica, and Australia. gation of the subject may be pursued.

Bread Fruit.... Polynesia, East indies.

Cassia, ..... East and West, dies.
What fishery is the leading branch of industry in the Chestnuts..... Spain, Italy, Corsica, Turkey.
high northern latitudes ? What valuable fossil remains Cinnamon.. ..Ceylon, Cochin China.
are obtained in the northern part of Siberia ? What does Citron. Madeira, Polynesia.
the presence of this fossil together with accompanying

Cloves. . Molucca Islands,
relics show? Ans. That northern Siberia, at an earlier

Coal... . Britain, Belgium, United States, Australia.

Cochineal. geological period, was inhabited by a species of elephant Cocoa ....

Mexico, Central America, West India Islands.

West Indies, South America. which has since become extinct. The obtaining of what Cocoa Nuts ....Ceylon, Maldive Islands, Siam, Bengal, Brazil, Polynesia, Africa. vegetable products near the Arctic Circle, in Norway and Coffee . Arabia, Java, West Indies, Brazil, Mauritius. Sweden, shows that Western Europe has a mild climate Copper. Britain, Chile, United States, Sweden, Siberia, Persia, Japan. in the high latitudes ? What rich materials for warm

Cork.. ..France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Barbary. clothing are obtained chiefly in the cold regions of North

Cotton.. Grows naturally in Asia, Africa, and America ; it is much cultivated America and Asia ? Why are the furs from these regions Currants ....... Ionian Islands and Greece yield the sma

in the warmer parts of the United States and elsewhere.

dried grapes commonly preferable to those from warmer districts ? Ans. Because

called currants.
they are thicker and finer, nature having provided a supe- Dates... Egypt, Barbary, Arabia, Persia.
rior covering to protect the animals of these regions from Diamonds... . Brazil, Borneo, India.
the cold.

Ebony..

Mauritius, Madagascar, Ceylon.
What metal, in the New World, is obtained very abund- Emerald

Peru.
antly from Chile and the vicinity of Lake Superior ?

Figs .. .Turkey, Greece, France, Spain, Italy, North Africa,

Flax.. .Russia, Egypt, Ireland, Netherlands, New South Wales.
What, principally from the western part of the United

Furs..

British and Russian America, Russia, United States.
States ? What precious stone from Brazil ?

.. Siam, Cambodia.
yield of what minerals is Great Britain especially distin- Gold. United States, Australia, India, Russia, Africa, Hungary, Saxony
guished ? For what the Ural mountain-region, between

Equador.
Russia and Siberia? For what precious metal is Australia Hemp.. . . . . . . . Russia, Italy, Philippine Islands, Brazil, Britain, Esypt, North

America.
famous ?
What material for the manufacture of dress-goods, etc., Ipecacuhana... Brazil, South America.

Indigo........ East and West Indies, Guinea.
is most abundantly produced in the southern part of the Iron. . Most countries, particularly Britain and the United States.
United States ? What rich material for the same purpose Ivory

Africa, East Indies.
is largely produced in the Mediterranean countries of Lead.. .Britain, United States, Germany, Spain.
Europe ? What other fibrous material is produced in Lemons

.Syria, Persia, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Azores, West Indies.
Mace

East and West Indies.
Spain, of the finest quality? For the yield of what fibrous

Mahogany. .... West Indies, Central America.
materials is Russia especially noted? In what parts of Maize, or In- America, from Canada to La Plata, South Europe, Central Africa,
Asia is silk an important product? In what portion of dian Corn. S Australia.
Africa is wool a noted staple? In what great island is its Maple Sugar... Canada, United States.
yield likewise of much importance? In what portion of Marble.. Italy, Greece, Egypt, Britain, France, United States.
South America is it a chief staple? What is the general Mercury ..Spain, Austria, California, Peru, China

Millet.. ..Germany, Poland, India, Africa. character of the great wool-growing regions ? Ans. They

Molasses., West Indies, Mauritius, Louisiana. are regions of a dry climate, chiefly suited to pastoral em

Morocco .Levant, Barbary, Spain, Flanders ployments. What else is generally a principal product of Mulberry and

South Europe, South Asia. the same regions ? Ans. Hides.

Silk Worms In what country of South America is coffee produced Nutmeg... . Moluccas, Sumatra, Penang, Borneo. more abundantly than elsewhere in the world? Of what Oats.. ..Chiefly grown in atitudes north of Paris, though cultivated in part of the world is it an indigenous product? Ans. Of

Bengal as low as the 25th degree.

Olives.. .Syria, Greece, Africa, Spain, Italy Brazil, Ionian Islands. the uplands of Eastern Africa. In what archipelago are

Opals. Hungary, East Inc: 28.
spices most abundantly obtained ? In what peninsula of Oranges.. . The Azores, Spair., Portugal, China, Italy, Malta, Polynesia, West
southern Asia is opium chiefly produced ?

Indies.
In what desert does rock-salt abound? How does the Palm Oil.. Western Africa, Fernando Po, Brazil, Hindoostan,

East and West India Islands, French Guayana.
dryness of the desert favor the formation of salt beds ? Pepper.....
Ans. By evaporating the moisture that collects in the hol Pine Apples... Mexico, West Indies, Hindoostan, Polynesia.
lows, and which brings thither in solution saline matter Bananas

, of } Tropical America (especially in Mexico), Polynesia, East Indies
gathered from the neighboring soil, leaving it behind as Platina.. ..Spain, Asiatic Russia, South America.
the aqueous particles pass off into the atmosphere.

Pomegranates . Persia, South Europe, Tropical Asia, West Indies.

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Rice....

Persia.

.Silks, carpets, cotton goods, shawls, sugar, rice, dried

fruits, leather, drugs, tobacco. Arabia. ... Coffee, aloes, gums, myrrh, frankincense, perfumes, drugs. Turkey in Asia.. ....Coffee, carpets, silks, fruits, drugs, opium. Siberia..

.Metals, precious stones, leather, and furs. Kamtchatka ..Furs and dried fish. Asiatic islands. ....Cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, pepper, ginger, sago, cam

phor.

AFRICA, Mauritius..........

Palm oil, teak timber, aloes, dye-woods, ostrich feathers,

ivory, gold, sugar. Morocco..........

.Leather, goat-skins, gums, fruits.
Algiers and Tripoli. Ostrich feathers, dates, wax, wool.
Egypt...... ..Cotton, indigo, drugs, fruits, wheat, rice
Madeira Islands. ... Wine, fruits.
Canary Islands..... Wine, fruits, silks, barilla

}

Prunes ....... South France.
Raisins .Smyrna, Valencia, Malaga, Italy.

..India, China, West Indies, United States, Italy, Africa.
Ruby.. .Ava, South America, Siberia, Egypt.
Rye. The Bread-corn of Germany and Russia.
Sago..

East Indies.
Sapphire. . Ava, Bohemia, Saxony, France.
Silver Mexico, Peru, United States, Hungary, Saxony, Siberia.
Sponge. .Found upon the rocks of the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
Sugar Cane.... Tropical America, East and West Indies, Louisiana, Sicily,

Canary Islands, Polynesia, Africa.
Sugar from

France, Belgium, Germany, Prussia, Russia.
Beet Root.
Tamarinds .... East and West Indies, Arabia, Egypt, Cuba, Brazil.
Tapioca ....... South America, West Indies.
Tea.... .China, Japan, Assam
Tin.

Cornwall, Devon, Galicia, Erz-gebirge Mountains in Saxony,

Bohemia, Malay, China, Island of Banca in East Indies. Tobacco. . Tropical America, United States, Turkey, Asia, Prussia,

France, Australia. Topaz...... .South America, India, Egypt, Siberia, Mexico. Turquoise..... Nishapore in Persia. Vine.... South Europe, Canary Islands, Africa, North America in lat

itude 46°,

Brazil. Wheat.... We are in total ignorance where this important grain was

first cultivated ; some suppose in Northern Africa. It is raised in almost every part of the temperate zones. Little is grown beyond latitude 580 in Europe, but on the Alps it ripens to the height of 3,500 feet above the

level of the sea.
Wines......... Port.—Province of Upper Douro, in Portugal.

Xeres, near Cadiz, in Spain. Claret.-Bordeaux, in France.
Champagne. - From a province in France of the same name.
Burgundy.--Ditto. Madeira.–From the Madeira Islands.
Malmsey.--Ditto. Teneriffe. From the island of Teneriffe.

Marsala. ---Sicily. Cape. -- From South Africa.
Yams...... .Africa, South America, Polynesia, Australia.

NORTH AMERICA Canada ...... .Timber, wheat, pot and pearl asbes, furs, fish Newfoundland.... .Cod and other fish. Nova Scotia ... Timber, dried fish, plaster of Paris. Hud. Bay Territory..Furs. United States : Eastern States... Cotton and woolen goods, boots and shoes, metallic

wares, lumber, beef, fish, oil. Middle States.... Grain, flour, dairy produce, iron merchandise, clothing,

coal, rock oil.
Southern States .. Cotton, tobacco, lumber, naval stores, rice, sugar.
United States :

Western States... Grain, flour, beef, pork, lumber, copper, lead.
Territories and

Sherry.

Pacific States} Gold, silver, timber, furs.

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EXPORTS OF COUNTRIES.

EUROPE, Timber, deals, tallow, corn, hemp, flax, furs, linseed,

hides, leather, pitch, tar, wax, feathers, pearl-ashes.

Caraccas... Cocoa, coffee, indigo, tobacco.
Guayana ..Sugar, rum, cotton, coffee, tobacco, indigo, cayenne

pepper. Brazil.... .... Cotton, sugar, coffee, tobacco, dye-woods, drugs from

the northern provinces ; gold and diamonds from the middle; and wheat, hides, and tallow from the

southern. Buenos Ayres......Gold and silver, hides, beef, and tallow. Peru..

Silver, gold, alapaca hair, cinchona, hides, guano. Chile..

Silver, gold, and copper from the northern provinces ;

wheat and hemp from the southern. West Indies ....... Sugar, coffee, rum, molasses, cotton, pimento, ginger,

logwood, mahogany, cocoa, cochineal, cigars.

Russia.......

Spain and Nor-} Timber, deals, iron, pitch, tar

, turpentine, resin, oak

way.. Germany.. .Wheat in large quantities from Dantzic; hemp, flax, wool,

bark, amber, Rhenish wines, hops, toys, etc. Denmark........

.Hogs, rape-seed, fish, and feathers. Holland and Butter, cheese, spirits, flower roots, madder, hops, lace

Belgium .... and linen, clocks, toys, etc. France... Wines, brandy, fruits, silks and gloves, perfumery, trin

kets, and fancy articles. Spain...... Wine, fruits, olive oil, cork, wool. Portugal. .Wine, fruits, cork. Italy ... Raw and manufactured silks, fruits, olive oil, straw-plait,

cheese, maccaroni, vermicelli, sulphur, pumice stone,

marble, paper rags. Greece.... .Raw silk, dried fruits. Turkey .Leather, raw silks, figa

TRADE ROUTES. The navigation of the ocean constitutes an important branch of industry, in which a greater or less number of people of all civilized countries are engaged. The most wealthy and powerful nations are those which have the most extended foreign commerce; as, Great Britain, France, the United States, Holland, Deninark, Sweden, and Russia. Commerce has always been a fruitful source of individual and national prosperity.

In former times, maritime pursuits were very slowly conducted. This was owing to the imperfect construction of vessels (which were built more with reference to strength than qualities of fast sailing), and to the prevailing ignorance of the winds and currents of the ocean, and how the mariner might best avail himself of them in steering his vessel from one part of the world to another.

The winds and currents of the ocean have formed subjects of the most careful study and research, the results of which have been of the greatest utility to all engaged in navigating the sea. No seaman is qualified to direct the course of a ship who does not know where prevailing winds and currents are to be met with, and how to turn them to the best advantage in prosecuting his voyage.

ASIA. Hindoostan...... Silk, opium, sugar, coffee, pepper, indigo, rice, lac-dye,

salipeter, precious stones. Birman Empire. . Teak timber, rice, indigo, gums, drugs, palm sugar, cotton

goods, silk, varnish. China... . Tea, silk, cotton goods, porcelain, lacquered ware, gums,

paper, drugs. Japan

.Silks and cotton goods, drugs, spices, varnish, porcelain,

rice, cedar.

METALLIC PRODUCTIONS.

105

On this subject Captain Basil Hall remarks : “It is one of the chief points 12,000 and 13,000 miles from the Atlantic ports of the United States or Euof a seaman's duty to know where to find a fair wind, and where to fall in rope. The best way for vessels in the Australian trade, from Europe or with a favorable current. If we take a globe and trace on it the shortest America, via the Atlantic, to go, is by doubling the Cape of Good Hope ; route by sea to India, and then fancy that such must be the best course to and the best way to come is, via Cape Horn; and for this reason, viz. : The follow, we shall be very much mistaken. And yet this is very much what prevailing winds in the extra-tropical regions of the southern hemisphere our ancestors actually did, till time and repeated trials, and multitudinous are from the northwest, which of course makes fair winds for the outfailures, gradually taught them where to seek for winds, and how to profit ward bound around the Cape of Good Hope, and fair winds for the by them when found."

homeward bound around Cape Horn. Here, all is plain sailing ; vessels Map 6 exhibits the tracks usually taken by ships prxceeding from New homeward bound should steer by the shortest cut for Cape Horn, and the York across the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. The outward and home- outward bound, after doubling the Cape of Good Hope, should shape their ward tracks are distinguished by arrows.

course as direct for the port of destination as the land and winds will perROUTE FROM NEW YORK TO SAN FRANCISCO. –The route marked on the

mit them." map shows the course taken by vessels which have made the quickest pas

Many of the other routes, as marked on the map, appear to be very cirsages between these, ports. The pupil will notice that it is not the shortest cuitousand some of them are actually so; but they are such as the long as regards distance. Between New York and the point where it crosses the

experience of seamen have found to be the best, and such, too, as would be equator (on or near the 30th meridian), and also between Cape Horn and San pursued, without much experience by a commander of a vessel who was

The Francisco, it diverges very considerably from a direct line.

fully acquainted with the regular movements of the air and ocean. To understand this route, and others marked on the map, it is necessary

limits of this book do not admit of a further explanation of the tracks of for the learner to bear in mind the direction of the prevailing winds as ex

vessels. By perusing Lesson XVI., Part II., on the Currents of the Ocean, plained in Lesson IV., Part III. From the parallel of about 300 north

and also Lesson IV., Part III., on the Permanent Winds, the learner may and south, nearly to the equator, there are two zones of perpetual winds,

be able to understand why particular deviations from a direct line are namely: the zone of northeast trade-winds on this side, and of southeast

made in the several routes marked on the map. trade-winds on that. Now, a vessel sailing from New York to Cape Horn is necessarily obliged to pass through these zones. Before striking the northeasterly trades, she must make a good deal of easting, that is, proceed to the east; for if this is not done they would, perhaps, carry the vessel too

METALLIC PRODUCTIONS. close to the Windward Islands and the northern coast of South America, so that she would find it very difficult to double Cape St. Roque.

Of the great number of metallic substances found in the earth, the most After crossing the equator, the route extends through the South Atlantic, useful are gold, silver, mercury, tin, copper, zinc, lead, and iron.t at no great distance from the eastern coast of South America, passing inside Metals are deposited in vcins or fissures of rocks, in masses, in beds, and the Falkland Islands. The most difficult part of the route is that which ex- sometimes in gravel and sand. Most of the metals are found in veins; a tends from the 50th parallel in the South Atlantic to the same parallel in the few, as gold and tin, iron and copper, are disseminated through the rocks, Pacific. In this part of the voyage is performed the labor of doubling Cape though rarely. The veins are cracks or fissures in rocks, seldom in a straight Horn, a very troublesome operation in consequence of the continuous cold line, yet they maintain a general direction, and sometimes extend to an unwesterly winds which sailors always find there. The best months for doubling fathomable depth. the Horn are our winter and summer, excepting July. October appears to Metals are peculiar to particular rocks : gold and tin are most plentiful in be the most unpropitious month for the passage.

granite and the rocks lying immediately above it ; copper is deposited in After reaching the 50th parallel, the California vessel stands far out into various slate formations ; lead is found in the mountain-limestone system ; the Pacific at a great distance from the coast. This is done to get the south

iron abounds in the coal strata ; east trades in their full force, for, it is to be remembered, these winds are

and silver occurs in almost all these considerably impeded by the continent, and are the strongest and steadiest

formations ; its ores being frequentat a distance from shore. On passing the region of calms, near the equator,

ly combined with those of other the zone of the northeast trades is niet with, and in crossing this belt, the

metals, especially of lead and coptrack, instead of leading directly to San Francisco, continues on still in a

per. northwest direction until the vessel, in about the 35th parallel north lati

When a mine is opened, a shaft tude, has got beyond the influence of these trades; then easting is made and

like a well is sunk perpendicularly the port reached.

from the surface of the ground, Returning from San Francisco, a vessel pursues a course nearly due

and from it horizontal galleries are south, between the meridians of 1200 and 1250 west longitude, to about

dug at different levels according to the 50th parallel south latitude, where westerly winds are met, which

the direction of the metallic veins. rapidly bear her past Cape Horn into the South Atlantic. Here her course

When mines extend very far in is rather slow and irregular until Cape St. Roque is reached. At the latter

a horizontal direction, it becomes point she enters the strong current which sweeps westwardly from the

necessary to sink more shafts, which Gulf of Guinea, and flows along the northern coast of South America.

are connected together by horizon (Art. 364, 365.) From the equator to New York the track is very nearly

tal galleries. Shafts are from eight straight.

to twelve feet square, and are usuFROM New YORK TO PORT PHILIP, AUSTRALIA.—The track of vessels

ally walled up with timber or stone bound from New York to Australia is the same as that pursued by ships

to prevent the sides from caving in. bound for California, until the 20th parallel south latitude is reached. In

The water which filtrates through deed, all vessels sailing for the South Atlantic, whether their destination be

the earth would soon collect into a mine and put a stop to the work, were Rio Janeiro, San Francisco, Cape of Good Hope, or Port Philip, are advised to follow about the same course until they have passed the latitude of Cape * This work has been prepared for several years under the direction of the SuperinSt. Roque.

tendent of the National Observatory at Washington. It is designed to accompany and

Both have been The following remarks relating to this route are taken from the “ Sailing

explain the “ Wind and Current Charts,” issued from the same source. Directions :” “The gold ports of Australia, whether the distance be mea

published at 'he expense of the United States Government, and distributed gratuitou-ly

to the commanders of all vessels who have pledged themselves to keep a journal of their sured via Cape Horn, or by the way of the Cape of Good Hope, are between

voyages, and, on their return, to transmit the same to the National Observatory.

+ Thirty-five metals are now known: they are gold, silver, platinum, copper, lead, tin, • The track above described is sometimes departed from, more or less, by vessels bound iron, zinc, arsenic, bismuih, antimony, nickel, quicksilver, manganese, cadmium, ceriori, from New York to San Francisco; but it is the one recommended in the “ Sailing Direc. cobalt

, iridium, uranium, chrome, Jantanium, molybdenum, columbium, osmium, pallations.” It is very nearly the course taken by the ship “Flying Cloud” on the trip she made dium, pelapium, tantalum, tellurium, rhodium, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, dydyníum. In 90 days—the quickest passage ever performed between these porte

i ierbium, orbium

[graphic]

SHAFT.

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