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some adjacent valley ; in this way is drained all that part of the work which lies above ; and, secondly, by the use of pumps for drawing out the water from that part of the mine which is below the adit-level, or drain. Many of these drains are of great length, and are dug at great expense. One of these, in the mining region of Cornwall, England, begins in a valley near the sea, and a very little above its level, and goes through all the neighboring mines, which it drains to that depth, and with all its ramifications is thirty miles long.

The mode of raising ores varies with the depth of the mine. For a distance of fifty feet, or even one hundred, the ore and rubbish may be raised to the surface by the simple windlass, worked by hand, on which a rope is 80 wound that one bucket descends while the other ascends. As soon, however, as the depth of the shaft becomes more considerable, it is necessary to resort to horse or steam power for raising the ore. The common machine

although as yet it is but imperfectly explored. The first noteworthy dis coveries of gold within its limits were made in 1858, in the vicinity of Pike's Peak : since which, extensive auriferous regions have been developed on each side of the chain, both to the north and south-thus calling into political existence the new 'Territories of Colorado, Idaho, and Montana.

The Sierra Nevada gold-field is the most productive in the United States, and, compared with what we know of other similar regions, it is perhaps the richest in the world. It was first discovered in 1848, and it is calculated that, up to the end of 1863, it had yielded the enormous sum of nearly eight hundred million dollars, and that the annual product is now about fifty million dollars. This rich mineral region is in the great valley of California, which has a length of about 500 miles, and a breadth of from 50 to 100. It is drained by two principal rivers,—the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, the former flowing south, and the latter north. The gold is most commonly obtained in fine particles, and scales or flattened grains, and is obtained by washings, or the separation of the metal from the earthy substances with which it is mixed. It is also procured from veins of quartz by crushing the solid rock. Lumps or “nuggets” are not common, and rarely exceed a few pounds in weight.

IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. — Of the foreign countries, those most productive of gold are Australia, the Russian Empire, South Asia, the East Indies, Equador, New Guinea, Mexico, Brazil, and the Austrian Empire.

The Australian gold district is, next to that of California, by far the most productive of any known. The existence of gold there was first made known in May, 1851. The gold region embraces the southeast corner of Australia. The yield, for several years, exceeded that in the United States, but of late has considerably diminished. The gold of the Russian Empire is obtained almost entirely from the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains, from the vicinity of the Altai Mountains, and from the Caucasus. It is supposed that the countries of Russia yield gold to the value of about thirty million dollars annually.

DISTRIBUTION OF SILVER. IN THE UNITED STATES. — Extensive silver mines have lately been opened in Nevada and Arizona, and are yielding large returns. The silver fur. nished by this country formerly came mostly from the native gold of California, with which silver is alloyed. From this source a considerable amount is still obtained

IN OTHER COUNTRIES. — The countries particularly distinguished for their extensive yield of silver are Mexico, Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and Spain. Merico is by far the richest in mines of this metal, from which, it is estimated, about thirty-five million dollars worth are now annually obtained—an amount far greater than the yield of any other mines in the world.

The province of Guanaxuato is supposed to furnish about one half the amount of silver produced in Mexico. In Peru, the richest mines are at Pasco, on the Andes, over 13,000 feet above the sea. Besides the Pasco mines, which are the richest in the world, there are numerous other mining districts in Peru, especially in the province of Pataz, Huamanchuco, Caxamarca, and Hualgayoc. The richest silver mines of Chile are those of Copiapo; those of Bolivia are at Potosi, more than 16,000 feet above the sea-level. Of the silver furnished by Europe, that of Spain, Russia, and Great Britain is derived almost exclusively from the working of silver-lead ores. The only mining districts of importance in Europe, in which silver ores are worked by themselves, are those of Hungary and Transylvania, of the Erzebirge in Saxony and Bohemia, and of Kongsberg in Norway.

DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY. IN THE UNITED STATES.—No mercury is known to have been found east of the Mississippi River. It is produced in greater quantity than in any other part of the world from a mine at New Almaden, California, in one of the side valleys of the San José.

In Foreign COUNTRIES. —Nearly all the mercury supplied by Europe is obtained from the mines of Almaden in Spain, and Idria in the Austrian Empire. The mines of Almaden are situated in the province of La Mancha, near the frontier of Estramadura. These mines have been worked longer than any others in the world ; they were known to the Greeks at least 700 years before the Christian era. The present yield of the Spanish mercury mines is about two and a half million of pounds per annum, or but little short of that of the California mines. Mercury is obtained from several

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NOTE.—The author is indebted for the following facts, relating to the distribution of metals, chiefly to the able work of J. D. Whitney, Esq., entitled, “ METALLIO WEALTH OF THE UNITED STATES.”

DISTRIBUTION OF GOLD. IN THE UNITED STATES. — The United States contains three principal goldfields ; viz., the Appalachian gold-field, the Rocky Mountain gold-field, and the Sierra Nevada gold-field ; but they are of very unequal importance. That of the Atlantic slope, the “ Appalachian gold-field,” has been worked to a moderate extent for about forty years; the others are of comparatively recent discovery, but have yielded vastly more than the former,

The Appalachian gold-field extends from Georgia, in a northeasterly direction to Maryland, and is developed in the following counties : in Georgia, in Carroll, Cobb, Cherokee, Lumpkin, and Habersham counties; in South Carolina, through the whole northwestern corner of the State, especially in the following districts : Abbeville, Pickens, Spartanburg, Union, York, Lancaster ; in North Carolina, in Mecklenburg, Rutherford, Cabarras, Rowan, Davidson, Guildford, and Rockingham ; thence through Virginia, in Pittsylvania, Campbell, Buckingham, Fluvanna, Louisa, Spottsylvania, Orange, Culpepper, Fauquier ; in Maryland, Montgomery County. Gold has also been found in Canada on the Du Loup and Chaudière rivers.

The Rocky Mountain gold-field is known to be of extraordinary richness ;

DISTRIBUTION OF METALS.-PRODUCT OF MINES

107

localities in South America, but chiefly from the mines of Huancavelica, in Peru, which yield about 200,000 pounds per annum.

DISTRIBUTION OF TIN. IN THE UNITED STATES. —Tin, which is used in the manufacture of tin plates, is nowhero obtained in the United States in any great amount. The only locality in the eastern part of this country where this ore has been found in any considerable quantity, is at Jackson, in Carroll County, New Hampshire, but it has not been obtained there to such extent as to render its manufacture profitable.

IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.—The most productive tin mining region in the world is in Cornwall, England. The Cornish mines have been worked from a very early period, the metal from which formed an article of traffic with the Phænicians and Greeks before the time of our Saviour. It is estimated that about 7,000 tons of tin are annually made from the ores of there mines. The most valuable tin mines on the continent of Europe are those of Erzgebirge, which are partly in Saxony and partly in Bohemia. One of the richest deposits of tin known is in the province of Tenasserim, in the Malayan peninsula. The best quality of tin is obtained from the island of Banca, at the extremity of the Malacca peninsula.

DISTRIBUTION OF COPPER. IN THE UNITED STATES. -Copper is, next to gold and iron, the most important metal in the United States. The richest copper mining district in this country is that of Lake Superior. The occurrence of native copper on this lake was known to the Jesuit Fathers, who, in the latter half of the seventeenth century, traveled extensively in that region. The mines were not extensively worked until after the year 1844, when the country was ceded to the United States by the Chippewa Indians, and opened to settlement. Since that time, numerous companies have been organized, and large amounts of stock contributed, for the purpose of opening and working mines in this region. The principal mines are those of Kewenaw Point, Isle Royale, Ontonagon River, and Portage Lake. The Cliff Mine of Kewenaw Point has been worked for the longest period, and has yielded the greatest amount of metal.

Copper deposits are found at numerous localities in the valley of the Mississippi, —those in the neighborhood of Mineral Point, Wisconsin, being the best known. They are found also in the region which extends along the western slope of the Appalachian chain of mountains from New Hampshire to Georgia. The principal localities in this district occur at or near the following places : Warren, in New Hampshire; Orange, in Vermont ; Bristol, Manchester, Litchfield, and Plymouth, in Connecticut ; Belleville, Griggstown, Brunswick, Woodbridge, Greenbrook, Somerville, and Flemington, in New Jersey ; Montgomery and Chester counties, in Pennsylvania ; Liberty and New London, in Maryland ; Fauquier County, in Virginia ; Greensboro, in North Carolina ; and Polk County, in Tennessee.

In FOREIGN COUNTRIES. — The most noted copper mines of foreign countries are those of Chile, in South America, where copper is the most important product. The principal mines are located at Carrisal, north of the valley of Huasco; and at San Juan and La Higuera, between Huasco and Coquimbo. Numerous others are worked in the vicinity of Copiapo. The annual yield of copper in Chile is over 20,000 tons. The copper mines of Cornwall and Devonshire, in England, are highly celebrated ; and have been worked longer, and have produced more of this metal than any other mines in the world. They are supposed to yield about 14,000 tons annually.

The other principal copper mining districts are those of the Ural Mountains and the Caucasus, in the Russian Empire; Mansfield, in Prussia ; Upper Hungary, in Austria ; and Namaqua Land, in Southwestern Africa. Copper is also obtained in Norway, Sweden, Spain, and in the East Indies, Japan, Australia, and Cuba.

DISTRIBUTION OF ZINC. IN THE UNITED STATES.—The ores of zinc are distributed over the United States in great abundance. Some of the more important localities are at or near the following places; Easton, in New Hampshire ; Wartstoro, in Sulli

van County, New York ; Sussex County, New Jersey; and Friedensville, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Of the above mines, those in New Jersey and Pennsylvania have, as yet, yielded by far the greatest amount of this metal. The ores of zinc are plentifully distributed through the lead mines of the Mississippi valley.

IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.--Zinc is procured in Great Britain, Austria, and Poland ; but the countries particularly distinguished for extensive zinc mines are Belgium and Prussia, which, together, yield more than eight tenths of all that is manufactured in the world. The great Belgian zincworks are in the province of Liège. The principal zinc district of Prussia is in the province of Upper Silesia, which produces nine tenths of the whole amount of this metal furnished by Prussia.

DISTRIBUTION OF LEAD. IN THE UNITED STATES.—The lead mines of this country are abundantly scattered over its surface, and have yielded a larger amount in value of this metal than of any other, with the exception of iron, gold, and copper. The most productive mines are those of the Upper Mississippi lead region ; but there are numerous localities in the Atlantic States where considerable amounts of lead have been obtained. The most noted of the lead districts in the latter division are those of Rossie, in St. Lawrence County, Ancram, in Columbia County, Northeast, in Dutchess County, New York ; Middletown, in Connecticut; and Christie and Montgomery counties, in Pennsylvinia.

The great lead deposits of the Mississippi valley are known as the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri mines. The first of these divisions comprehends the lead region lying in the southwestern portion of Wisconsin and including a small part of the adjacent States of Illinois and Iowa. The principal mining centers of this division are Galena, in Illinois ; Mineral Point, in Wisconsin ; and Dubuque, in Iowa. The Mississippi runs along the western edge of this tract, and the course of the Wisconsin River is nearly parallel with the northern line, and distant from it only a few miles. The mines of this division yield annually upward of 13,000 tons. The second division embraces the mines of the State of Missouri, lying principally south of the Missouri River. The principai mines are in Washington County, near Big River and Mineral Creek.

IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. -Lead mines are distributed through most of the countries of Europe, but those of Great Britain, France, and Spain are by far the most productive. The most extensive lead mining districts of Great Britain are in Cardiganshire and Montgomeryshire in Wales, and at Alston Moor, where the three counties of Northumberland, Durham, and Cumberland come together.

DISTRIBUTION OF IRON. IN THE UNITED STATES. — Iron is so very extensively distributed through. out the United States, that only a mere mention of the States in which it is most abundant can be given in this article. Rich deposits of this metal are found in almost, if not quite, every State in the Union ; but the States in which they were wrought to the greatest extent in 1860 were, in the order of their rank in this respect, Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York, Maryland, Kentucky, New Jersey, Tennessee, and Missouri. Pennsylvania excels all other States in the manufacture of iron, having yielded in 1860 five eighths of all that was made in the Union. The number of tons of iron made in the United States, according to the census of 1860, was 884,474. Owing to the cheapness of foreign iron, and the extensive importation of it, the iron mines of this country are not worked so largely as they otherwise would be.

In FOREIGN COUNTRIES. -Great Britain stands pre-eminent for the abund. ance of its iron and the extent of its manufacture, the annual produce of its mines being estimated at about 3,000,000 tons. Of the other foreign countries noted for the production of iron, are France, Belgium, the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire, Sweden, and Prussia

NOTE.–For the approximate amount of metals produced in various countries about the year 1860, see the following table:

Country. AMERICA : Canada . New Brunswick. Nova Scotia.. United States.: Mexico.

PRODUCT OF MINES IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES NEAR 1860.
Coal,
Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin,

Salt,
Gold, Silver,

Mercury, tons.

tons.
tons.
tons.

tous.
tons.
tons. lbs. Troy. lbs. Troy.

lbs. Troy. 27,000.... 6,000....

160,000.... 200.... 20,000... 6,500.

40,000.

50. 265,000. 22,000.

26,000. 1,000..

50. .16,000,000. 885,000. .14,400....18,000. 6,000.

320,000....260,000.. 52,000.... 1,200,000 48,000.... 3,000..

120,000.... 15,500....2,400,000... 300,000

Mercury,
Ibs. Troy.

1,600.. {

200,000

Coal,
Iron, Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin,

Balt, Gold,
Country.

Silver,
tons.

tons.
tong
tons.
tons.
tons.

tons. Ibs. Troy. Ibs. Troy.
Central America.
2,000....

16,000.... 1,200.... 160,000.... Cuba...

8,000. Columbia. 20,000. 32,000.

300,000... 15,000. 20,000.. Brazil. 38,000..

100,000.... 8,000.... 1,200.. Bolivia.

16,000. 1,800.

200..

1,600. 128,000. Peru . 50,000.. 5,000.. 2,000.

50,000. 2,800. 340,000. Chile. 100,000.. 10,000....22,000.

4,600....

200,000.... EUROPE : Great Britain..

:72,000,000....3,000,000....16,000....63,000. 3,000.. 6,500.... 800,000.... 200.... 48,000... France. 5,500,000. 800,000. 5,600.. .45,000.

360,000.

20,400. Spain.. 1,000,000 82,000. 800.. .34,000. 35. 16. 156,000.

40. 137,000. Belgium. 8,300,000. 365,000. 2,100. .23,000.

11,000. Prussia 7,600,000. 160,000. 1,700. 9,500....35,000.

200,000.

60,000. Austria.. 1,820,000. 280,000. 3,500.

8,200.. 1,600.

356,000. 6,000. 95,000. Germany 500,000. 140,000. 600....12,000. 40..

135.

300,000. 100. 120,000. Sweden and Norway. 188,000. 3,100.. 600. 100.

100,000.

50. 28,000. Russian Empire .. 200,000. 218,000. 8,000.... 1,000. 4,000..

500,000. 120,000. 65,000. Italy.... 23,000.... 400.... 630.

200,000. OTHER COUNTRIES : Southern Asia and E. India Islands. 1,000,000,... 300,000. ... 4,500.... 5,000.

6,000....1,000,000. ... 30,000.... 200,000.... Australia .... 100,000... 10,000. 4,200....

200. 160.

100.000....286,000. 22,000... Africa ... 100,000.... 1,600....

.1,000,000. ... 10,000....

2,500,000

60.

400,000

E

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Alleghanies Proper, near lat. 371°, 2,650; near lat. 360, for a
distance of 150 miles, 5,000 ; at their terminus in Ala., 1,200.
Peaks of Otter (the highest) ....

White Top (southern border of Va.).
Black Mts. (average of eight highest peaks)....

Black Dome, or Mitchell's High Peak, or Clingman's Peak
Balsam Cone ...
Black Brother or Sandoz Mt..

Cattail Peak....
Smoky or Unaka Mts. (highest range of the Appalachian System) av-

erage about 6,300 ? feet.
Smoky Dome or Clingman's Mt..
Mt. Guyot........
Mt. Leconte (central peak).
Mt. Buckley......

ISLANDS OF AMERICA.
Sierra Maestra (Cuba, West Indies) :

Parco de Tarquino ....

Le Gran Piedra ..
Blue Mts. (Jamaica, West Indies)..
Cibao Mts. (Hayti,

).
Sierra de Languilla (Porto Rico, West Indies)
Mt. Misery (V.) (St. Christopher,

)
Souffriere (V.) (Guadaloupe,

) Solfatara (V.) (Dominica,

) Mt. Pellee (Martinique,

) Volcano (St. Lucie,

) Mt. Garoa (St. Vincent,

) Sarmiento (East Tierra del Fuego).

6,660 6,636 6,612 6,599

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS, AND THEIR ELEVATION.

NORTH AMERICA.
Rocky Mts., between 700 N. lat. and Lewis and Clark's Pass (47° 30'

N. lat.), 3,000 to 10,000 feet ; from the latter to South Pass
(42° N. lat.), 10,000 to 14,000; thence to El Paso (about 320
N. lat.), 15,000 to 7,000.

Feet. Mt. Brown ..

15,690 Mt. Hooker.

15,700 Fremont's Peak.

13,570 Long's Peak.

12,500 Pike's Peak

14,500 Spanish Peaks..

11,000 Mountain Peaks in the southern part of the Plateau of Anahuac : Toluca.....

15,751 Popocatapetl (V., highest peak in N. America)

17,884 Istaccihuatl

15,705 Perote....

13,415 Orizaba (V.).....

17,373 Peaks on the Plateau of Central America : Volcano of Agua .....

13,578 Cartago....

11,480 Northwest Coast Ran Mt. Ilaeman (V.)

12,066 Mt. St. Elias

16,756 Mt. Fairweather

14,708 Cascade Range : Mt. St. Helens..

..about 12,000 Mt. Shasta.

14,390 Sierra Nevada...

. probably from 10,000 to 12,000 Note. — The heights, given below, of the principal peaks of the Appalachian Mountain System are according to the recent barometric measurements of Professor Guyot. White Mts. (average of eight highest peaks)

5,601 Mt. Washington....

6,288 Mt. Adams.

5,794 Mt. Jefferson

5,714 Green Mountains : Mansfield Mt (the Chin)...

4,430 Killington Peak ...

4,221 Adirondac Mts. (average of ten highest peaks)

9 4,975 Mt. Marcy or Tehawus

5,379 Catskill Mts. (average) .....

? 3,000 Alleghany Mts. : average of Blue Ridge, in Pa., 1,100 feet; in Md.

and Va., near Harper's Ferry, 1,800 ; of highest peaks in central Va., 4,000; of the entire ridge in N. C., 3,200; in Ga., 1,800 ;

:

7,900 5,800 6,739 7,200 3,678 3,712 5,500 6,075 4,430 4,000 5,007 6,900

66

SOUTH AMERICA,
Silla de Caracas (Sierra Castanera, Venezuela).....

8,632
Horqueta (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, New Granada)...... ... 19,184
Andes Mts., or Cordillera de los Andes : between 50 N. lat. and 20 S.

lat., average from 11,000 to 12,000 feet; between 150 and 190
S. lat., about 15,000 ; southward of 42° S. lat., about 3,000.
Tolima (V.) (New Granada).....

18,320
Purace (V.)

17,008 Cumbal (V.)

16,824 Cyambe (Ecuador)

19,534 Antisana

19,370 Pinchincha (V.) (Ecuador)..

15,936 Cotopaxi (V.)

18,875 Tunguragua (V.)

15,960 Chimborazo

21,424 Sangay (V.)

16,827 La Viuda (Peru) ..

15,968

66

• Peaks marked thus (V.) are volcanoes.

PRINCIPAL MOUNTAINS, AND THEIR ELEVATION.

109

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Vilcanota (Peru)......
Chuquibamba (Peru)
Arequipa (V.)..
Nevada de Sorata (Bolivia)
Illimani
Sahama (V.) (Bolivia and Peru)
Gualatieri (V.)
Potosi (Bolivia)..
Portezuela Come Caballo (Chile and Argentine Republic).
Cordel de la Laguna
Aconcagua
Tupungato
Maypu
Villa Rica (V.)
Osorno (V.) (Chile and Patagonia). ...
Minchinmadom (V.) (Chile and Patagonia)
Yanteles (V.) (Patagonia).

Mt. Stokes
Parime Mts. (Venezuela, Guiana, and Brazil), average from 4,000 to

5,000 feet.
Duida (Venezuela)
Maravaca

Roraima (Venezuela and B. Guiana)..
Mts. of Brazil :

Itambe (Serra Espinhaco)..
Itacolumi (Serra Mantigueira)
Morro dos Canados (Serra dos Orgaos)

Feet. 17,525 21,000 18,373 21,250 21,181 22,350 21,960 16,150 14,521 15,575 22,301 22,450 17,664 16,000 7,530 8,000 8,030 6,400

Mont St. Gothard..

10,595 Ortler Spitz

12,818 Gross Glockner..

12,776 A nennines (Italy), average from 8,000 to 5,000 feet. Monte Cimone..

6,975 Monte Sybilla

7,212 Monte Corno or Gran Sassc..

10,154 Monte Vellino..

7,851 Monte Amaro.

9,113 Vesuvius (V.).

3,947
Erz Gebirge (Saxony and Bohemia), average from 2,000 to 3,000 feet.
Riesen Gebirge (Silesia and Bohemia), average from 3,000 to 4,000 ft.
Bohmer Wald (Bohemia and Bavaria), average from 3.000 to 4,000 ft.
Carpathian Mts. (northern and eastern portions), average from 5,000

to 6,000 feet.
Lomnitz Peak (group of Mt. Tatra)..

8,779 Dinaric Alps (Turkey), average from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. Dinari...

6,667 Mt. Kom...

9,575 Balkan Mts. (Turkey), average from 2,000 to 3,000 feet Schar...

8,805 Orbelus.

9,000 Mt. Pindus Chain (Turkey and Greece), average 5,000 to 6,000 feet. Olympus (moderu name, Lacha).

9,754 Guiona ..

8,239 Parnassus (modern name, Liakhura)

8,068 Caucasus Mts. (Caucasia and Georgia), average 8,000 to 10,000 feet. Elburz.

18,493 Kabek.

16,592 Ural Mts. (between Europe a Asia), average from 2,000 to 2,500 ft. Obdorsk.....

5,118 Konjakofski.

5,307 Tagnai.

3,592

5,075 Yaman..

5,400

8,467 10,500 7,450

5,755 5,750 4,476

EUROPE.

.

Iremel .....

5,095 6,409

3,120 3,404

8,038

3,720, 4,000

Scandinavian Mts. (Norway and Sweden):
Sulitelma

6,178 Snee-haeten

8,120 Skagstol-tind.

8,101 Hardanger-field.

5,748 Vosges Mts. (France), average from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Cevennes Mts. (France), average from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Mt. d'Or, highest peak......

6,196 Pyrenees Mts. (France and Spain), average from 7,000 to 9,000 feet. Pic Netnou or Maladetta..

11,168 Mt. Perdu....

10,994 Cantabrian Mts. (Spain), average from 4,000 to 6,000 feet. Pena de Panaranda...

10.998 Iberian Mts. : Sierra de Oca..

5,450 Sierra Molina....

4,500 Castilian Mts. (Spain and Portugal), average from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. Sierra de Gredos (Spain).....

10,551 Serra d'Estrella (Portugal)

7,524 Mts. of Toledo (Spain), average from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Sierra de Guadaloupe.

5,115 Sierra Morena (Spain)..... Sierra Nevada (Spain), average from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. Mulhacen.

11,658 Veleta....

11,382 Harz Mts. (Hanover) : Brocken

3,658 Schwarz Wald (Baden), average from 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Jura Mts. (France and Switzerland), average from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Reculet...

5,959 The Alps (France, Italy, Switzerland, and Austria), western part, av

erage from 8,000 to 9,000 feet. Monte Viso

12,582 Mont Olan ...

13,120 Mont Cenis

11,457 Mont Blanc

15,760 Great St. Bernard....

11,063 Monte Rosa .

15,206 Jungfrau .

13,710 Finster-aar-Horn

14,106

ISLANDS OF EUROPE, ETC. Hekla (V.) (Iceland) Oraefa Jokull Mts. of Kerry (Ireland) :

Brandon.....

Carran Tual (highest of McGillacuddy's Reeks) Wicklow Mts. (Ireland):

Lugnaquilla ...
Northern Highlands (Scotland):

Ben Wyvis.

Ben Atow...
Grampian Hills (Scotland) :

Cairn Gorm
Ben McDhui.

Ben Nevis.
The Lowthers (Scotland)......
Cheviot Hills (between England and Scotland)...
Cross Fell (Pennine Chain, England).
Scaw Fell (Cumbrian Mts., ).
Snowdon (Wales)..
Plynlimmons
Gran Pico (Azores or Western Is.).
Monte Rotondo (Corsica)
Genargentu (Sardinia).
Mt. Etna (V.) (Sicily)...
Mt. Ida (modern name, Psilorati, I. of Candia)...

4,695 4,305 4,368 3,150 2,658 2,901 3,166 3,571 2,463 7,911 9,069 5,276 10,874 7,674

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Feet. Thian Shan (northern part of Chinese Empire), average from 6,000

to 8,000 feet.
Yalo....

8,500 Petsha.

.above 10,000 Kuen Lun (Tibet, Ili, and China proper), average from 16,000 to

18,000 feet.
Himalaya Mts. (Ladak, Tibet, and Hindoostan), average from 15,000

to 18,000 feet.
Chumalari...

23,929 Kunchinginga..

28,176 Everest (highest known peak on the globe)

29,002 Gossainthan..

24,740 Dhawalagiri.

28,080 Jawahir...

25,670 Bolor Mts. (Ili and Toorkistan), highest peaks average from 15,000

to 20,000 feet. Hindoo Koosh Mts. (Toorkistan and Afghanistan): Hindoo Koosh Peak...

20,230 Sufaid Koh.....

16,000 Suleiman Mts. (Afghanistan and Hindoostan): Suleiman Peak..

12,150 Elbrooz Mts. (Persia): Demavend, height lately ascertained..

21,500 Zacros Mts. (Persia and Turkey), average from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. Sheikiwa

10,423 Taurus Mts. (Turkey), average from 4,000 to 5,000 feet. Ararat..

17,323 Argæus (modern name, Arjish-dagb).

12,869 Olympus ( Chebish-dagh)

9,000 Mt. Lebanon Chain (north of Palestine), average from 6,000 to

7,000 feet.
Hermon (modern name, Jebel-esh-Sheikh)

10,000 Mts. of Sinai (Arabia', highest peak..

9,300 Aravulei Mts. (Hindoostan).

. about 3,600 Vindhya Mts.

average from 2,500 3,000 Gauts Mts.

eastern chain, greatest height 3,000 feet; western chain, average from 3,000 to 4,500. Taddiamdamata .

5,690

AUSTRALASIA, POLYNESIA, ETC.
Warragong Mts or Australian Alps (New South Wales and Victoria),

average 2,500 feet.
Mt. Wellington

6,510 Omeo....

3,700 Mt. William.

4,000 Mt. Bryan (South Australia)

4,500 Mt. Brown

3.000 Gawler Range average.

2,000 Darling Range (West Australia , average.

2,500 Toolbrunup

5,000 Mts. of Tasmania, principal chain, average..

3.750 Mt. Humboldt

5,520 Mts. of New Ulster (New Zealand) : Mt. Edgecombe (V.).

about 10,000 Tongariro (V.).

6,200 Ruapaho

9,000 Egmont (V.).

8,839 Mts. of New Munster (New Zealand) : Kaikora..

9,900 Mt. Arthur

8,000 Rowley Peak...

5,000 Opureone (Tahiti, Society Is.).

8,000 Mauna Kea (V.) (Hawaii, Sandwich Is.).

13,587 Mauna Loa

13,175 Mt Erebus (South Victoria Land)..

12,400

PRINCIPAL RIVERS OF THE WORLD,

SHOWING THEIR SOURCES-THE COUNTRIES THROUGH WHICH THEY FLOW

-THE SEAS INTO WHICH THEY FALL-THEIR APPROXIMATE LENGTH AND NAVIGABLE DISTANOE IN ENGLISH MILES.

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After the name of each river follow-1st (in parenthesis), that of the district in which it rises ; 2d, in Italics, the countries through which it flows; 3d, the sea or ocean into which it falls ; and, lastly, its length, inclusive of the principal windings of its stream, and its navigable distance, when it can be ascertained.

AFRICA.

Hentet......

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Atlas Mts. (Barbary), average from 3,000 to 4,000 feet.
Miltsin..

11,400

15,000 Egyptian and Nubian Mts., average from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Mt. Agrib ......

5,600 Abyssinian Mts. : Abba Yaret

15,200 Mts. of the Moon (Zanguebar): Mt. Kenia (V.), supposed

20,000 Kilimandjaro...

20,000 Nieuveldt Mts. (South Africa) : Spitz Kop

10,240 Table Mt..

3,582 Cameroon Mts. (Guinea , highest peak..

13,760 Mt. Atlantika ....

from 9,000 to 10,000 Mts. of Kong (Soudan and Guinea), average from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. Mt. Loma ...

5,000 Mts. of Central Africa : Mt. Dogem..

4,500 Mt. Baghzen

.from 3,000 to 3,500 ISLANDS OF AFRICA, Peak of Teneriffe (V.), (Canary Is.)....

12,182 Fogo (Cape Verde Is.).

9,157

NORTH AMERICA.

ots NAV'

Length Dist. MACKENZIE, including Peace R. (Rocky Mts.),British Po88essions : Arctic Ocean..

2,000 Nelson, including Saskatchawan R. (Rocky Mts.),British Possessions : Hudson Bay

1,400 ST. LAWRENCE, with great lakes (Plateau of Minnesota),- United States, Can. ada: Gulf of St. Lawrence

2,080 Navigable for ships 560, and by artificial means for smaller vessels to within 150, miles of its source

1,900 OTTAWA (table-land of Canada),-Canada : St. Lawrence River ......

450

100 St. MAURICE

800

100 SAGUENAY

230 70 SORELLE, or St. John, with Lake Champlain

172 179 ST. FRANCIS (Lake St. Francis)-Canada :

180 CHAUDIERE (Lake Megantic),

125 St. Joun (divide between the U. States and Canada),- United States, Canada,

and New Brunsicick : Bay of Fundy. 820 80 PEYOBSCOT

- Maine: Atlantic Ocean........ 278 50 KENNEBEC

200 ANDROSCOGGIN

140 18 CONNECTICUT

- Vermont, N. Hampshire, Nassachusetts, Connerticut: Long Island Sound

410 50 MERRIMAC (Whiie Mts),-N. Hampshire, Mass.: Atlantic Ocean...

170 5 HOUSATONIC (Taghkanic Mts),--Mass., Conn.: Long Island Sound

180 14 HDSON (Adirondac Mts.), -N. York: Atlantic Ocean.

810 160 MOILAWK Hudson River ..

185 GENESEE (Alleghany Mts.) Lake Ontario.

145 6 DELAWARE (Catskill M18.),-1. York, V. Jersey, Penn, : Delaware Bay. 809 78 SUSQUEHANNA (Alleghany M's.),- N. York, Penn., Md. : Chesapeake Bay.. 450 PotomAC -Nd., Vai

880 115

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66

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