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LESSON VIII.-CLOUDB: Cirrus or curlcloud-cumulus or stackencloud-stratus or !all-
ing the diminution of rain from the equator to the poles—increase in the annual num.
of a country-elevation above the level of the sea-line of perpetual snow-climates
LESSON V.-DISTRIBUTION OF ANDALS: Diversity in the organizations of animals-pro-
fusion of animal life in the torrid zone-insects of the torrid zone-reptiles, birds, and
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (Physical)..
THE WORLD, illustrating the Productive Industry of various Countries, and exhibiting
the principal features of Commerce and Navigation....
PHYSICAL Geography is a
snow, and hail, and the various causes which are concerned in the regulation of climate.
6. The Fourth Part relates to organic existence, or the animals and plants distributed over the globe. It describes the great natural divisions of plants, the agencies which contribute to their diffusion, the food plants, and the regions where they are produced. It presents the orders of the animal kingdom, shows its diversity of organization, and its diffusion, and ex
plains the zoological character of the different portions of the HYSICAL Geography is a
world. description of the general
7. The facts of Physical Geography are of a more permanent character features of the earth's surface,
than those which relate to the civil or political affairs of mankind. The the organized beings placed upon
boundaries of nations are frequently changed, either by conquests or treaties ; it, and the operations of the at- new countries become peopled, and new states and territories organized ; mosphere by which it is univer- populous cities spring suddenly into existence ; and the arts of civilization sally surrounded. It relates to are rapidly carried to distant quarters of the earth. The varying condition
of countries with respect to population, internal improvements, boundary the earth as it exists in a state
lines, etc., is such as to require a constant correction of maps and statistical of nature, without regard to po
works, in order to make them correct exponents of political affairs. litical or arbitrary divisions, or 8. Such fluctuations do not belong to the science of Physical Geography to any of those changes or im- The grand and majestic features which God has impressed on the face of our provements in the world which globe—its continents and oceans—its mountains, valleys, rivers, and lakes,-. have been effected by man.
remain now, with all their prominent characteristics, very nearly the same
as they have existed for centuries past. 2. It may be divided into four parts, relating respectively
9. It is true that natural agencies are at work, changing to a limited exto the following subjects : 1. The LAND, or solid portion of tent the face of nature. Volcanic action has rent the crust of the earth in the earth's surface; 2. The WATER, or liquid portion ; 3. The numerous places, raising some portions and depressing others; some rivers operations of the ATMOSPHERE; 4. ANIMAL and VEGETABLE have worked new channels, and formed extensive deltas at their mouths ; life.
and, as in Holland, vast areas of land have been rescued from the ocean by
embankments and artificial modes of drainage. These and other alterations, 3. The First Part describes the extent and distribution of the
considerable as they may appear, are comparatively unimportant as regards land; the arrangement of the continents and islands; the mag. the world at large, and scarcely serve to qualify the remark, that the physical nitude and direction of the great mountain systems; and the aspect of the earth has not greatly changed in modern times. situation and extent of the vast plains, upland and lowland,
10. From what is here observed it must not be inferred that the earth
has not been the scene of mighty convulsions. An examination of its sur. which constitute the most productive portions of the earth's
face shows that at very early periods most important changes successively surface. This part also relates to volcanoes, earthquakes, etc.,
took place. To explain those changes, and the causes which have led to in their relation to the character and aspect of the land portion the present state or condition of the earth belongs properly to the science of the earth.
of Geology. 4. The Second Part relates to the waters of the globe,
11. Physical Geography explains many interesting facts of Civil Geograwhether salt or fresh ; the origin, course, fall, and termination
phy. It shows where nature has provided for the growth of cities, the peo
pling of states, the construction of railroads, canals, and other works of of rivers; the distribution and magnitude of lakes; and the
internal improvement; it points out what courses on the ocean the mariner extent, depth, tidal and other movements of the oceanic
must pursue in order to avail himself of its favoring winds and currents ; waters.
and it explains what pursuits are best adapted to the people of different 5. The Third Part treats of the operations of the atmosphere
countries. The influence of mountains, rivers, seas, climate, and natural which surrounds our globe. It describes the laws which set the
productions on the industry of people and the progress of nations is so great,
that it is scarcely possible for one to possess a thorough knowledge of general winds in motion, and the causes which influence their direction
geography without first understanding those facts which Physical Geography and velocity; it explains the phenomena of moisture, dew, rain, describes.
Qrcestions.—1. What is Physical Geography? To what does it relate ? 2. Into how Questions.—7. What is said of the facts of Physical Geography? Illustrate. Varying many parts may it be divided ? Name the subjects to which they relate. 8. What does condition of countries ? 8. Do such fluctuations belong to the science of Physical Geograthe first part describe ? To what does it also relate ? 4. To what does the second part phy? 9. How are certain changes of the earth's surface produced? What is observed of relate? 6. Of what does the third part treat? What does it describe ? 6. To what does these alterations? 10. What does an examination of the earth's surface show? What belongs the fourth part relate What does it describe ?
to the science of Geology? 11. Why is a knowledge of Physical Geography important ?
all the land on the globe, while the other is almost covered with EXTENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE LAND.
water. One may therefore be termed the continental or land
hemisphere, and the other the oceanic or water hemisphere. HE surface of the earth consists of unequal portions of land and water. It has been estimated to contain
about 196,500,000 English square miles. Of this area, the dry land is supposed to occupy about 51,000,000 square miles. Hence it will be seen the fluid portion predominates over the solid in the ratio of about
285 to 100. The extent of each division, however, can not be exactly ascertained, owing to the
WATER HEMISPHERE. north and south polar regions not having been fully explored. 13. There is but little regularity in the arrangement of the NOTE. — Before proceeding with the next lesson, the student will attend to the May
Questions on the third page following. land upon the globe. In some parts the coast is indented by deep bays and gulfs, in others the land projects into the ocean in capes and promontories, while the islands are scattered throughout the ocean, either singly or in irregular groups.
LESSON II. 14. The distribution of the land is very unequal,—by far the
CONTINENTS. greater portion being in the northern hemisphere. It has been calculated that there is about three times as much land north
16. THERE are two continents,—the Eastern Continent, or of the equator as south of it, and about two and a half times as Old World, which includes Europe, Asia, and Africa, and the much in the eastern as in the western hemisphere.
Western Continent, or New World, which includes North and Its distribution through the different zones is as follows:
South America. The Eastern Continent is styled the Old
World, from its being the only one known to Europeans preNorthern Hemisphere.
Southern Hemisphere. Sq. Miles. Arctic Zone.....
2,792,000 Antarctic Zone... . Unknown viously to the close of the fifteenth century. The terms Eastern Temperate Zone .24,488,000 Temperate Zone..
and Western refer to the meridian of the Ferro Isles, from which Torrid Zone..... 9,949,000 Torrid Zone
longitude was formerly reckoned. Total .37,229,000 Total
.13,771,000 17. The Western Continent is about 8,700 miles in length
from north to south. The greatest breadth of the continent is about 3,250 miles, and its least breadth, in the center, across the Isthmus of Panama, about 30 miles.
18. North America is the northern portion of the Western Continent. Its greatest length from north to south is about 5,600 miles, and its greatest breadth about 3,100 miles. It contains an area of about 7,493,000 square miles. The main body of the continent may be included within a triangle, whose base extends along the northern shores and whose vertical angle is in Mexico.
19. The eastern side of North America is penetrated by
branches of the ocean, and consequently presents several penin15. The unequal distribution of the land may be most strik. sulas, and the western projects the long peninsula of California. ingly seen from an inspection of a map of the hemispheres, These indented shores, which give to the continent a coast-line projected upon the plain of the horizon of London. The hemi- of 27,800 miles, or 1 mile to every 270 square miles of surface, sphere, in which that city occupies the center, includes nearly are, with numerous rivers and lakes, the means by which civili
Questions.-12. Of what does the surface of the earth consist? How many square miles Questions.– 15. How may the unequal distribution of the land be most strikingly seen ? does it contain ? Square miles of the land? In what proportion does the fuid portion Which hemisphere includes nearly all the land ? How termed ? 16. How many conti. predominate over the solid ? Why can not the extent of each division be exactly ascer- nents are there, and what countries do they respectively include? Why is the Eastern tained ? 13. What is said of the arrangement of the land? I'lustrate. 14. What is said Continent styled the Old World? To what do the terms Eastern and Western refer? of the distribution of the land ? Which hemisphere contains the greater portion, the 17. Length of the Western Continent? Greatest breadth ?' Least breadth ? 18. Length northern or southern? How much more land is there in the northern than in the southern and breadth of North America ? Area ? General form of the continent? 19. What is tho emisphere? In the eastern than in the western ?
character of the coast-line? Extent of coast-line ?
zation and commerce have been extended, and are now rapidly / square miles of surface, thus possessing great facilities for comextending into the interior.
mercial enterprise. Europe is essentially the region of penin20. Among the numerous indentations of the Atlantic coast sular formations : it embraces the Scandinavian Peninsula south of Labrador, are the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Bay of Fundy, (Norway and Sweden); the Peninsula of Denmark; the PeninPassamaquoddy Bay, Penobscot Bay, Massachusetts Bay, Cape sula of Spain and Portugal; the peninsulas of Italy and Greece. Cod Bay, Buzzard Bay, Narraganset Bay, New York Bay, 26. Asia is the largest of the grand divisions of the earth. Raritan Bay, Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, Albemarle Sound, Its greatest length from east to west is about 5,600 miles, and Pamlico Sound, Gulf of Mexico, Bay of Honduras, etc.
its greatest breadth from north to south about 5,300 miles. It 21. South America is the smaller of the two divisions of the contains an area of about 15,909,000 square miles, or considWestern Continent. Its greatest length from north to south is erably more than is contained in both North and South America. about 4,600 miles, and its greatest breadth from east to west It has a coast-line of 35,000 miles, and excluding the Arctic about 3,000 miles ; its area is about 6,679,000 square miles. Its Ocean, which is scarcely navigable, there will be only 1 mile form is triangular. Its unbroken coast-line of 15,800 miles in of sea-coast for every 454 miles of surface. extent, gives only a mile of sea-coast for every 423 square miles 27. Africa, like South America, is a vast peninsula, being of surface, and presents few bays or even harbors.
entirely surrounded by the waters of the ocean, except at the 22. The slow progress of civilization in South America has been attributed Isthmus of Suez, by which it is connected to Asia. Its greatest in a great measure to the want of bays and gulfs extending inland and af
length from north to south is about 5,600 miles, and its greatfording maritime advantages to the interior regions This disadvantage of unbroken coast-line is partly counterbalanced by the vast navigable
est breadth from east to west about 4,700 miles. Its area is streams of the Orinoco, Amazon, La Plata, and their branches.
about 11,396,000 square miles. In consequence of its peculiar form, with no considerable peninsulas or sea indentations, its coast-line is only 16,000 miles, or only 1 mile of sea-coast for
square miles of surface. On this account it is the most LESSON III.
inaccessible, least civilized, and least known to civilized nations. CONTINENTS (CONTINUED).
28. The following table exhibits the superficial extent of each grand 23. THE Eastern Continent is the largest mass of land upon
division in English square miles, together with the length of coast-line pos
sessed by each (in English miles), and the proportion which the latter of the globe. It extends for about 10,000 miles from east to west,
these measures bears to the former : and about 7,800 from north to south. It contains an area of about 30,800,000 square miles, or about two and a sixth times
Sq. Miles of as many as the Western Continent. 24. Europe is the smallest of the five grand divisions. Its North America..
7,493,000 27,800 270 greatest length from Cape St. Vincent, in the south west, to the
6,679,000 15,800 423 Europe
3,506,000 20,000 175 Gulf of Kara, in the northeast, is about 3,500 miles ; its great
15,909,000 35,000 454 est breadth, from North Cape to Cape Matapan, is about 2,400
11,396,000 16,000 712 miles. The area of its surface, excluding the islands, amounts to about 3,506,000 square miles.
GENERAL REMARKS ON THE CONTINENTS. 25. Europe is indented by numerous bays and seas on its
29. If we examine the map of the world, we may notice several features of similarity between the two continents. (1.) Each expands into broad extensive flats toward the north, while toward the south they narrow down to points, offering a rude resemblance to an inverted pyramid.
30. (2.) Both attain their greatest breadth about the parallel of 50° N., and are cut off by the ocean at about latitude 70°.
31. (3.) Each has a large portion of its area nearly detached ; South America being joined to North America by the Isthmus of Panama, about 30 miles broad, and Africa being appended to Asia by the Isthmus of Suez, about 75 miles broad.
32. (4.) The peninsulas of both continents follow a southerly direction—as Scandinavia (embracing Sweden and Norway),
Spain, Italy, Greece, Africa, Arabia, India, Malacca, Cambodia, - VAPLESAND VESUVIUS.
Corea, and Kamtchatka in the one, and South America, Caliwestern and southern sides, in consequence of which the coast- fornia, Florida, and Alaska in the other. There are few imline is of great extent, and in proportion larger than that of any portant exceptions to this rule; as the Peninsula of Yucatan, other of the grand divisions. Its line of shores extends 20,000
Its line of shores extends 20,000 in Central America, and of Denmark, in Europe, which project miles; it therefore enjoys a mile of coast-line for every 175 toward the north.
Area for Ono Mile Coast.
BAY OF NAPLES.
Questions.–20. Principal indentations of the Atlantic coast south of Labrador? 21. What is said of South America ? Greatest length ? Breadth ? Area ? Form? Extent of coast-line ? 22. Slow progress of civilization in South America ? Wbat compensation is there for its unbroken coast-line? 23. What is said of the Eastern Continent ? Its length and breadth ? Area ? 21. What is the comparative size of Europe ? Its length and breadth ? Area? 25. What is said of ils coast indentation ? Extent of sea-coas: ?
Questions. What is said of its peninsular character? What large peninsulas does it embrace ? 26. Comparative extent of Asia ? Its length and breadth ? Area? Coast. line? 27. What is said of Africa ? 118 length and breadth ? Area? Extent of coast-line ? 29. What may be noticed by examining a map of the world? What is the Arst feature of similarity mentioned ? 30. What is the second ? 81. What the third ? 82. The fourib? What exceptions are there to the suurib remark?
The strong Blacklines represent the mountain ranges
LIST OR TABLE LANDS OR PLATEAUS. Mongolia, righest parts about 4000 feet above sea. Norway & Sweden/Svart) 4,000 feet above sea Tibet
Bavaria I Central Garmoy) 1600.
Scotland (1. & W. parts of 1,000
Arctic America (part of
12 000 Great Karrdo 13. Arical 3000...
Potost or Titicaca .13.000
Datori according D.dc of Congress, in the Tear 1865.by J.H.Bordo in the Coks Otrue of the District count of Oss United States for the Serutrum District of Tow Tonis.