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Ans. 231° from a north and south line, or nearly the same as the inclina-
On which side of Africa is there a deep inward bend? Is
Would you infer from the correspondences referred to in the
What two grand divisions are the most regular in outline ?
Near what tropic is it situated ? What mountain-chain on the
Are the most extensive highland plains or plateaus in the East.
Are the principal lowlands of the earth on the long or short
Which of the two continents is the largest ? Which extends
What three of the grand divisions of land resemble a triangle
RELIEFS OF THE CONTINENTS.
On which side of the Western Continent are the principal
Which and where is the highest mountain-chain on the globe?
Between what two oceans do we find the greatest assemblage of large islands on the globe? With what grand division do most of those north of Australia appear to be intimately associated? What, therefore, are they sometimes called ? Ans. The Asiatic Archipelago. The middle regions of what great ocean are dotted with an immense number of small islands ? Does this vast archipelago appear to be wholly independent of either of the continents? What has its existence here- together with other facts-led many scientific men to conclude ? Ans. That it occupies the area of a once unbroken continent which has been grodually submerged, and whose lofty sunmits form the basis of most of the present insulir gr nups and chains.
lunging to America are mentioned ? Other instances ? occur? 39. Where are the principal chains ? Shape and arrangement? What chains be 37. Give particulars of the island of Rockall. 38. Under what various conditions do islands Britain ? Sumatra? Papua, or New Guinea ? Madagascar ! Borneo ? Australia ? size as compared with the State of New York? Ireland ? Newfoundland ? Cuba? Great The largest island and its exteri? 36. What is the area of Iceland, and what its relative and Asia with the eastern shores of North and South America ? 35. Ilow do islands differ? ern continents ? 84. What may be observed by comparing the western shores of Europo
Questions.-33. What is the great point of dissimilarity between the Eastern and West
On ::: Ireland Newfoundland Iceland. STATE OF NEW YORK Great Britain, including England, Wales, and Scot
nents. ning with Vancouver's Island on the south. archipelagoes, or singly. 180 from any other land. On the northwestern coast there is a long chain of them, begin.
America offers numerous examples of this kind of islands. follow each other in succession along the margin of the contiislands. They are long in proportion to their breadth, and and on this account they are sometimes termed continental
39. The principal chains are adjacent to some main shore,
38. Islands occur under various conditions, in chains, clusters, and is situated 260 miles from the north coast of Ireland, and the North Atlantic; it is only a hundred yards in circumference, 37. Of the small islands, the most remarkable is Rockall, in
(46,220 square miles). and their relative size, as compared with the area of the State of New York
36. The following table exhibits the area of some of the largest islands, Its extent of coast-line is about 8,000 miles. to south, and contains an area of about 3,000,000 square miles. lia; it is 2,400 miles from east to west, 1,700 miles from north level of the waves. The largest island in the world is Austraare mere banks of sand or points of rocks just raised above the nents, with systems of mountains, rivers, and lakes, while others 35. ISLANDS differ vastly in size, some being miniature conti
north to south in the latter. vided territory, which some great convulsion separated. peculiar outline, that the two continents once formed an undithe Gulf of Guinea. The idea has been entertained, from this Mexico, and the convexity of the Brazilian shore is opposite to Western Africa is opposite to the indentation of the Gulf of retreating shape of the land. Thus the great convexity of adaptation to unite may be observed in the advancing and with the eastern shores of North and South America, a mutual
34. Comparing the western shores of Europe and Africa land, which extends from east to west in the former, and from Continent and the Western is in the prevailing direction of the
33. The great point of dissimilarity between the Eastern
occurs at the southern extremity of South America, extending
46. The most recent from Chiloe to Cape Horn. To this class also belong the Aleu
instance of an island tian Isles, which form a chain between North America and
formed by volcanic acAsia, in the North Pacific, and the Kurile and Japan Isles,
tion was Graham Islstretching along the eastern Asiatic coast.
and, which rose in 40. Clusters, sometimes called oceanic islands, are those
the Mediterranean Sea, which occur at a distance from continents. They are very
southwest of Sicily, in numerous in the Pacific and Indian oceans. They usually con
July, 1831. A coltain one or two principal members centrally situated with
umn of water was seen reference to others of smaller size, as, for example, the Marque
rising from the sea like sas and Society groups.
a water-spout, followed 41. An archipelago is a sea interspersed with numerous isl
by dense steam, and ands. The term archipelago was originally applied to those
an island which gained islands which lie between the shores of Greece and Asia Minor.
the height of 200 feet, The principal archipelagoes are the Caribbean, or Antilles, in
and a circumference of the West Indies; the Maldive and Laccadive, in the Indian three miles. Toward the close of the year, this island gradOcean ; the Dangerous, Louisiade, and Great Cyclades, in the ually sank beneath the waves, forming a dangerous shoal. Pacific Ocean.
42. Single islands at a great distance from any other shore are of rare occurrence. St. Helena, remarkable for being the
place of Napoleon's last exile, is 1,800 miles from the coast of Brazil, 1,200 from the coast of Africa, and 680 from Ascension Island, the nearest point of land. Ascension Island is also 520 miles from its next neighbor, the Isle of St. Matthew.
43. A vast number of islands are volcanic. Some are at present the scenes of fiery convulsions. Volcanic islands are found principally in the Indian and Pacific oceans, though some occur in high northern and southern latitudes. They are characterized by a considerable elevation, with a precipitous coast.
44. In the Grecian Archipelago, the Old Kaimeni, a small islet, was thrown up somewhat more than two centuries before the Christian era. A second appeared in the year 1573, called the Little Kaimeni, and a third was formed in the year 1707, called the New Kaimeni.
45. In the year 1811, the temporary island of Sabrina rose off the coast of St. Michael, one of the Azores. It attained the height of 300 feet, was about a mile in circumference, but gradually subsided, and wholly disappeared by the close of February, 1812. In 1813 there were five hundred feet of water at the spot.
Questions.—40. What are clusters? Where numerous ? How usually arranged ? Examples? 41. What is an archipelago ? How originally applied? Principal archipelagoes ? 42. What is said of single islands ? St. Helena? Ascension Island ? 43. What is said of volcanic islands? Where principally found ? How characterized ? 44. What volcanic islands were formed in the Grecian Archipelago ? 45. Give the particulars of the formasion and disappearance of the island of Sabrina. 46. Of Graham Island. 47. Islands and reefs in the Indian and Paciflc oceans? To what owing?
CORAL ISLANDS. 47. A vast number of islands and reefs* in the Pacific and Indian oceans are of coral formation. They owe their existence to the work of countless myriads of the coral-polyps, which inhabit those seas, and which flourish only in the warmer regions of the globe.
48. Coralline structures are sometimes of enormous extent. On the northeast coast of Australia is a reef of coral called the Great Barrier Reef, having a length of nearly 1,000 miles, and being in one part unbroken for a distance of 350 miles. Some groups of coral islands in the Pacific are from 1,100 to 1,200 miles in length, by 300 or 400 in breadth, as the Dangerous and Radack archipelagoes, for example. The Maldive Islands, situated in the Indian Ocean, forming a chain of 470 geographical miles, are composed throughout of a series of circular assemblages of islets, all formed of coral.
49. The following description of coral animals and their operations is from Hughes' “Manual of Geography :” “The coral reefs of the Pacific, as well as those in other parts of the globe, are all produced by the secretions of the coral insect, and the process by which they are formed is one of the most curious and instructive phenomena which the natural world presents to view. The architects of these wonderful structures are polyps of minute size, and of various species, but all possessing a general similarity of form and structure. They consist, to appearance, of a little oblong bag of jelly, closed at one end, but having the other extremity open, and surrounded by tentacles (usually six or eight in number), set like the rays of a star.
50. “Multitudes of these tiny creatures are associated in the secretion of a common stony skeleton, that is, the coral, or madrepore, in the minute orifices of which they reside, protruding their mouths and tentacles when under the water ; but the moment they are molested, or become exposed to the atmosphere, withdrawing by sudden contraction into their holes. It is proved by observation that these creatures are unable to exist at a greater depth than twenty or thirty fathoms; so that the numberless coral islands of the Pacific, and other seas, must be based upon submarine rocks or mountains, though it was at one time supposed that they were raised, by the process described above, from the bottom of the sea."
Questions.—48. Extent of coralline structures ? Great Barrier Reef? Groups in the Indian and Pacific oceans? Examples? Maldive Islands ? 49. Coral reefs, how formed ? Architects of these wonderful structures ? Of what do they consist? 50 Describe the operations of the coral insects. To what depth do they exist? Upon what must coral islands be based ?
* REEF, a chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water,
51. Coral formations are of four different kinds, namely, 20 to 30 miles from the shore, and extends to the distance of atolls, or lagoon islands, encircling reefs, barrier-reefs, and about 1,000 miles. coral fringes.
56. The action of the waves as they dash upon this reef has been admi52. An atoll consists of a circular strip or ring of coral sur
rably described : “The long ocean-swell being suddenly impeded by this rounding a shallow lake or lagoon in its center. The circular
barrier, lifted itself in one great continuous ridge of deep blue water, which,
curling over, fell on the edge of the recf in an unbroken cataract of dazzling reefs just raise themselves above the level of the sea, with an
white foam. Each line of breaker ran often one or two miles in length with average breadth of a quarter of a mile, oftener less, and are
not a perceptible gap in its continuity. There was a simple grandeur and surrounded by a deep and often unfathomable ocean. The display of power and beauty in this scene that rose even to sublimity. The annexed cut represents one of these circular islands inclosing unbroken roar of the surf, with its regular pulsation of thunder, as each suc
ceeding swell fell first on the outer edge of the reef, was almost deafening, a lagoon of tranquil water.
yet so deep-toned as not to interfere with the slightest nearer and sharper sound.
But the sound and sight were such as to impress the spectator with the consciousness of standing in the presence of an overwhelming majesty and power.”
57. The Florida reefs are of this class. By examining a map of the waters south of Florida, it will be seen that they are studded with a range of islands called the Florida Keys. These keys rise but a few feet, perhaps from six to eight or ten, or at the utmost to twelve or thirteen feet above the level of the sea. They begin to the north of Cape Florida, and extend in a southwesterly direction, gradually receding from the land until opposite Cape Sable. Farther to the west they project in a more
westerly course as far as the Tortugas Islands, which form the The usual form of such islands may be seen in the section most western group: Most of these islands are small, the below.
largest of them, such as Key West and Key Largo, not ex
ceeding ten or fifteen miles in length; others only two or three, 6 b
and many scarcely a mile. Their width varies from a quarter to a third or half of a mile, the largest barely measuring a mile
SECTION OF A CORAL ISLAND.
58. The reef extends parallel to the main range of keys, for a
few miles south or southeast of it, following the same curve, a, a, habitable part of the island, consisting of a strip of coral, inclosing a lagoon. b, b, the lagoon.
and never receding many miles from it. The distance be. 53. Lagoons are found in a very large proportion of the coral islands. They were found in twenty-nine out of the thirty-two islands visited by Beechey in his voyage to the Pacific. The largest was thirty miles in diameter, and the smallest less than a mile. There is almost always a deep narrow passage opening into the lagoon, generally on the leeward side, which is kept open by the efflux of the sea, as the tide goes down, and through this channel ships may sail into the inclosed waters and find a good harbor.
54. Encircling-reefs are those which extend around moun:ainous islands, commonly at a distance of two or three miles from the shore, rising on the outside from a very deep ocean, and separated from the land by a channel 200 or 300 feet deep. The Caroline Archipelago exhibits examples of this structure. Otaheite (Tahiti), the largest of the Society group, is an instance of an encircled island of the most beautiful kind, being hemmed in from the ocean by a coral band, at a distance varying from half a mile to three miles.
55. Barrier-reefs are similar in their structure to the two tween the reef and the main range of keys varies from six preceding classes, but differ from them in their position with to two or three miles. Between this reef and the main range regard to the land. The largest of this class is the Great of keys there is a broad, navigable channel, extending the Barrier Reef off the northeast coast of Australia, before alluded whole length of the reef, varying in depth from eighteen to to (48). It rises up in the ocean at an average distance of from forty feet.
Questions.-51. Kinds of coral formations ? 52. The atoll ? What does it surround ? Height of the circular reef ? Breadth ? How surrounded ? 53. Lagoons ? Lagoong found by Beechey? Their extent ? Openings into lagoons ? 54. Encircling-reefs ? Exemple ? Otaheite? 65. Barrier-reefs ? The largest of this class ?
Questions.—Describe the appearance of this reef. 57. To what class do the Florida reefs belong ? Island south of Florida ? The height ? Where do they begin and where extend? Their size ? 55 Where does the rcer extend ? Distance between lbu reef and the main range of legs? Channel ?
CLIMBING THE ALPS.
59. The great danger of this reef arises from the fact that
LESSON VI. throughout its whole range it does not reach the surface of the
MOUNTAINS. sea, except in a few points, where it comes almost to the level of low-water mark. It therefore presents a range of most dangerous shoal grounds, upon which thousands of vessels, as well as millions of property, have been wrecked.
60. Coral-fringes are those formations which extend along the margin of a shore, and have no lagoons.
61. Captain Basil Hall, in his “ Voyage to Loo-Choo,” makes the following observations on coral islands : “The examination of a coral reef during the different stages of one tide is particularly interesting. When the sea has left it for some time, it becomes dry, and appears to be a compact rock exceedingly hard and ragged; but no sooner does the tide rise again, and the waves begin to wash over it, than millions of coral worms protrude themselves from holes on the surface which were before quite invisible. These animals are of a great variety of shapes and sizes, and in such prodigious numbers, that in a short time the whole surface of the rock appears to be alive and in motion.
62. “The most common of the worms at Loo-Choo (an island in the Pacific east of China), was in the form of a star, with arms from four to six inches long, which it moved about with a rapid motion in all directions, probably in search of food. Others were so sluggish that they were often mistaken for pieces of the rock; these were generally of a dark color, and
65. MOUNTAINS are the most from four to five inches long and two or three round. When the rock was
considerable elevations of the broken from a spot near the level of high water, it was found to be a hard, solid stone ; but if any part of it were detached at a level to which the tide
surface of the earth. They are reached every day, it was discovered to be full of worms, all of different
of various heights, the loftiest lengths and colors, some being as fine as thread and several feet long, gen.
having an elevation of more erally of a very bright yellow, and sometimes of a blue color ; while others
than five miles above the level resembled snails, and some were not unlike lobsters and prawns in shape, but
of the sea. Though generally sterile, and unsuited for the resinot above two inches long. 63. “The growth of coral ceases when the worm which creates it is no
dence of man, they have their uses in the economy of nature. longer exposed to the washing of the tide. Thus a reef rises in the form of a They accumulate the moisture of the clouds, and feed the rivers gigantic cauliflower, till its top has gained the level of the highest tides, above which water and fertilize the plains below. They increase the which the worm has no power to carry its operations, and the reef, conse
surface of the earth, and consequently its productions. To quently, no longer extends itself upward. The surrounding parts, how
their gigantic proportions, their lofty projections, and their ever, advance in succession till they reach the surface, where they also must stop. Thus, as the level of the highest tide is the eventual limit to etery broken and varied forms, are we largely indebted for sublime part of the reef, a horizontal field comes to be formed coincident with that and savage, or beautiful and picturesque scenery. plane, and perpendicular on all sides. The reef, however, continually in- 66. There are but few insulated mountains, or mountains recreases, and being prevented from going higher, must extend itself laterally
mote from other masses, and ascending abruptly from a level in all directions ; and this growth being probably as rapid at the upper
country. The examples are chiefly volcanic, as Mount Egedge as it is lower down, the steepness of the face of the reef is preserved ; and it is this circumstance which renders this species of rock so dangerous
mont, in New Zealand, and the Peak of Teneriffe, on one of the to navigation. In the first place, they are seldom seen above the water ; Canary Islands. The usual arrangement is in groups or chains, and in the next, their sides are so abrupt that a ship's bows may strike the members of which are connected at the base. The term against the rock before any change of soundings indicates the approach of
system is applied to a series of chains, groups, and parallel danger. 64. “For a long time it was supposed that the coral formations were
ranges lying in the same general direction, though detached. raised from the floor of the fathomless ocean by the unaided efforts of
The highest points are usually about the middle of the range. . these little creatures, but more accurate observations have proved that 67. The great mountain systems of the two continents follow the animals cease to live at a greater depth than twenty or thirty fath- the prevailing direction of the land in each; those of the WestAs some of these islands are elevated 200 and 300 feet
ern World running north and south ; those of the Eastern, east above the sea-level, it is evident that they must have been raised by sub
and west. The course of secondary chains, as the Apennines marine forces; in short, that the volcano and the earthquake must have been employed in rearing them to their present elevation. Mr. Darwin has
in Italy, the Dovre-field in Norway, and the Ghauts in India, traced those regions throughout the Pacific, in which upheaval and de- corresponds with the greatest length of those peninsulas. pression alternately prevail. Thus a band of atolls and encircled islands, 68. The highest known mountain on the globe is Mount including the Dangerous and Society archipelagoes, constitutes an area of Everest or Gahoorishanka, in Asia. It belongs to the Himalaya bubsidence more than 4,000 miles long and 600 broad. To the westward, the chain of fringing-reefs, embracing the islands of the New Hebrides, Solomon,
range, and is situated in about longitude 86° 50' east. Its and New Ireland, form an area of elevated coral. Farther westward, an
summit is 29,002 feet above the level of the sea. In the same other area of subsidence is met with, including the islands of New Cale
range, to the east, is Kunchinjinga, the next in height (28,178 donia, and the Australian barrier.”
feet), and which was, until recently, considered the highest
Questions.-59. Danger of this reef ? Vessels and property destroyed ? 60. Coralfringes? 65. What are mountains ? What is said of their heights? Uses of mountains ? 66. Insulated mountains ? Examples? What is the usual arrangement of mountains ? To what is the term system applied ?
Questions.—67. Direction of the great mountain systems of the two continents ? Course of the secondary chains ? 68. The highest known mountain, its situation and height ? Kuncbinjinga? Name and height of the loftiest mountain in South America ? In North America ? In Africa ? In Europe ?
Dates. Helghts. mountain on the globe. According to recent statements the
Mount Blanc, Alps.... .Dr. Paccard and James Balma........ Aug., 1786.. 15,750 loftiest mountains known in the other four grand divisions are, Jungfrau,
The brothers Meyer, of Arau
1811..12,872 Ortler Spitz, . Three peasants of the Tyrol
1804..12,850 in South America, Tupungato, one of the Chilean Andes (22,450
Peak of Demavend. Mr. Taylor Thompson, 1st European Sept. 2, 1837..14,700 feet); in North America, Popocatapetl, in the volcanic chain
Professor Parrot, and five attendants.. Oct. 9, 1829..17,210 Pamir, Central Asia. Lieutenant John Wood
Feb. 19, 1838..15,600 of southern Mexico (17,884 feet); in Africa, Mount Kenia (sup
Peter Botte, Mauritius .. .Captain Lloyd and officers.
.Sept. 7, 1832.. 2,800 posed about 20,000 feet); in Europe, Mount Blanc (15,760
Mouna-Kaah, Owhyhee... .....Mr. David Douglas.....
Mount Egmont, New Zealand. Dr. Dieffenbach.... feet).
1840.. 9,839 Silla de Caraccas ... .. Ilumboldt and Bonpland.
..Jan., 1800.. 8,683 69. The mountains of the torrid zone are capable of being in
1786.. 15,924 habited by man to a very considerable height. Under the Chimborazo,"
.A. von IIumboldt.
.June 23, 1802..19,286 Purgeool, Himalaya. ..Captain A. Gerard.
1818..19,411 equatof the line of perpetual
Chimborazo, Andes, point snow is not less than about
reached, highest point of
M. Boussingault and Colonel Hall.... 1881..19,699
the globe ever attained 16,000 feet above the level of
by man. the sea.
As we approach toward the poles this line gradually descends, rendering the
LESSON VII. mountains of the temperate
THE MOUNTAIN SYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CONTINENT. zones inhabitable to no very
73. NORTH AMERICAN MOUNTAINS.—North America conconsiderable elevation. On
tains three great mountain systems,—the Rocky Mountains, the Mount Blanc the snow-line is
mountains of the West Coast, and the Apalachian system. It about 8,500 feet above the
embraces besides, the elevated regions of the Ozark Mountains, sea-level, and at the height of 6,000 feet the climate is of very
the highlands of Labrador and the Arctic coast, and the mountgreat severity.
ain traversed plateaus of Mexico and Central America. 70. Table of the heights above the sea of some remarkable inhabited sites. 74. The Rocky
Mountains constitute Geneva, Switzerland 1,450 Hospital of the Great St. Ber
the most extensive Madrid, Spain
mountain system of Jerusalem, Mount Zion .. 2,200 Santa Fé de Bogota, capital of Priory of Chamouni, Switzer
North America. They land ...
3,346 Chuquisaca, capital of Bolivia. . 9,250 extend from north to Palace of the Escurial, Spain 3,520 Pass of Santa Maria, Alps, high- south through all the Teheran, Persia..
3,785 est permanent habitation in Ispahan, 4,140 Europe
wider parts of the conGreat Salt Lake City, U. S.... 4,300 Quito, capital of Equador 9,540
tinent ; or from the Hampelbaude, highest inhabit- Ladak, city, Little Tibet. 9,995 shores of the Arctic
ed house of Prussia ........ 4,300 Cuzco, ancient capital of Peru. 11,380 Ocean on the north Splugen, village, Switzerland., 4,711 La Paz, city, Bolivia... 12,226
to about the parallel Mont Louis, Eastern Pyrenees, Puno, city, Peru...
.12,870 highest town of France. .... 5,171 Villages on south side of the
of 32° on the south. Cabool, Afghanistan.. 6,380 Himalayas ..
.13,000 The northern portion is divided into numerous ranges, with Post-house Mont Cenis, Potosi, Bolivia, highest city of hardly more elevation than from one to two thousand feet. As Alps .... 6,453 the globe .....
they advance southward their height increases, and many of Soglio, village in the Grisons, Antisana, shepherds' huts, highest village in Europe ... 6,714 Equador....
their summits rise above the snow-line. They attain the most
.13,354 Hospital of St. Gothard, Alps.. 6,808 Tacora, village, Peru ... .13,690 considerable elevations between the 55th and 38th parallels. Mexico, city
7,570 Rumihausi, post-house, Peru ..15,540 The average heights between these limits is from seven to Arequipa, city, Peru 7,852 | Ancomarca,
eight thousand feet. The highest known summits of the sys71. The summits of the loftiest mountains have never been tem are Mount Brown (15,690 feet) and Mount Hooker (15,700 reached, though some adventurous travelers have attained feet), both near the line of the 52d parallel. heights where man can find no local habitation. The difficulties 75. Numerous passes occur in the range of the Rocky. encountered in ascending elevated mountains arise from the Mountains, the most noted of which is that known as the precipitous character of the surface, the vast accumulation of South Pass, near the 41st parallel. It is at an altitude of more snow, the intense cold, and the rarity or thinness of the atmo- than 7,000 feet above the level of the sea, and affords a passage sphere. Travelers have found the rarefied atmosphere on high so easy of access that a wagon drawn by horses might travel mountains to cause a bleeding from the nose and eyes, and to
through it. Thousands of emigrants, with their cattle, every produce other unpleasant effects.
year traverse this pass on their way to the valleys of the Pacific. 72. In the following list are given some remarkable heights which have
76. The Mountains of the West Coast extend along the Pabeen reached :
cific, from Cape St. Lucas to the Peninsula of Alaska. They Questions.—69. Habitation of mountains in the torrid zone? The line of perpetual snow Questio' 8.—73. What three great mountain systems docs North America contain ? under the equator? Toward the poles ? 70. Height of Geneva? Madrid ? Jerusalem ? What other elevated regions dois it embrace ? 74. What is said of the Rocky MountGreat Salt Lake City ? Mexico ? Santa Fé de Bogota ? Chuquisaca ? Quito? Potosi ? ains ? Where do they extend ? What is said of the northern portion ? Where do Shepherds' huts, Equador ? The post-house, Rumihausi, Peru ?
they attain the most considerable elevation ? What is the average height between heights attained by adventurous travelers ? The difficulty of ascending elevated mount
Which are the highest summits of the system? 75. Where is the prinains ?72. Name the heights reached on the following mountains, and by whom: Mount cipal pass situated ? What is said of it? 76. Where do the mountains of the West Blanc, Jungfrau, Ortler Spilz, Peak of Demavend, Ararat, Pamir, Peter Botte, Mouna- Coast extend? What minor ranges do they embrace? What peaks, their height and situaKach, Mount Egmont, Silla de Caraccas, Pichincha, Chimborazo.
tion? What is said of the Sierra Nevada ? Where do the gold regions of Culifornia lie?
ROCKY MOUNTAIN SCENERY.
71. What is said of
these liinits ?