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565. The Date-Palm is a member of the palm family, which ish, refreshing liquor. When the nut is gathered, a formation grows chiefly in the tropics. From their noble and stately of albumen takes place upon the inside of the shell, producing appearance, palms have been called by Linnæus“ the princes that white, firm, pleasant-tasted, but rather indigestible subof the vegetable kingdom." Wine, oil, flax, flour, sugar, and stance which is called the kernel of the nut. A tree generally salt, says Humboldt, are the produce of this tribe; to which furnishes about 100 nuts. Von Martius adds thread, utensils, weapons, food, and habita- 568. The Bread fruit Tree is distributed generally among tions. The cultivation of the date-palm is an object of high the Friendly, the Society, and the Caroline Islands. The tree importance in the countries of the East. In the interior of Bar- is beautiful as well as useful, and rises to the height of about bary, in Egypt, in the drier districts of Syria, and in Arabia, it forty feet; when fall grown it is from a foot to fifteen inches in is almost the sole object of culture. It is a slow-growing tree, diameter. The fruit is green, heart-shaped, about nine inches and it has been estimated that the age of one sixty feet high long, and equaling a large melon in size. The nuts, when can not be less than 300 years. It is so abundant, and so un- roasted, are said to be as excellent as the best chestnuts, but it mixed with anything else that can be considered as a tree in is principally for the fleshy receptacle or pulp that it is valued.. the country between the States of Barbary and the Desert, that When roasted it is soft, tender, and white, resembling the this region is designated the Land of Dates (Belad-el-Jareed). crumb of a loaf, but it must be eaten new or it becomes hard. 566. The Banana or Plantain, which yields a great amount

Others compare

the flavor to that of a roasted potato. Such is of nutritious substance, is a native of the southern portion the abundance of the fruit, that two or three trees will suffice of the Asiatic continent, but has been transplanted into the for a man's yearly supply. Indian Archipelago and Africa, and has also found its way into 569. The Potato is a native of Chile, and was first introthe tropical parts of the New World. The fruits weigh, alto- duced into Britain from Virginia, by Sir Walter Raleigh, in gether, about 70 or 80 pounds, and the same space which will 1586. 1 all the vegetable productions especially adapted for bear 1,000 pounds of potatoes, brings forth, in a much shorter the sustenance of man it has the widest range, extending, actime, 44,000 pounds of bananas; and if we take account of the cording to Humboldt, from the northern extremity of Africa nutritious matter which this fruit contains, a surface which, to Labrador, Iceland, and Lapland. In tropical regions an elesown with wheat, feeds one man, when planted with bananas vation of 4,000 feet is necessary for its growth. affords sustenance for twenty-five.

570. The Cassava or Manioc is a shrub, a native of Brazil. X

The fleshy roots of this plant yield a nutritious substance, from which we obtain our tapioca. This latter article is a kind of starch, and is capable of being made into excellent puddings; it is a very wholesome food for children, and for persons whose digestive organs are feeble. A considerable quantity of this preparation is exported annually from Brazil to the United States. Arrow-Root, which forms a pleasant and useful aliment for children and invalids, is much cultivated both for domestic use and for exportation in the West India Islands, Surinam, and in some of Hindoostan. It is so named from the property it is said to possess of being an antidote to the poisoned arrows of the Indians.

571. Sugar-Cane.—The range of this plant may be said to extend to all the regions of the torrid zone. In countries where the mean temperature is not less than 64o, it extends to latitude 30° on each side of the equator in the New World, and to about latitude 35° or 36° in the Old. The native country of the sugar-cane chiefly cultivated is China ; wild sugar

cane was found growing in many parts of America, on the 567. The Cocoa-nut Palm also belongs to inter-tropical discovery of the New World. The cultivated sugar-cane was climes, flourishing especially on islands and near the sea-shores. conveyed to Arabia, Nubia, Egypt, and Ethiopia, where it It is cultivated nowhere só extensively as in the islands of Cey- | became an object of extensive tillage. Early in the fifteenth lon, Sumatra, and Java. This tree grows to the average height century it first appeared in Europe. Shortly after the discorof eighty feet. The nuts hang in clusters of a dozen each on the ery of the New World by Columbus, the plant was conveyed top of the tree. The fruit consists externally of strong, tough, to Hayti and Brazil, from which latter country it gradually stringy filaments resembling coarse oakum, which is formed spread through the islands of the West Indies and the southern into coir, and extensively used in the East for making cordage. part of the United States. Inclosed within this fibrous mass is the shell, of great firmness, 572. Coffee. This bush or tree is a native of the Ethiopian and used for many domestic purposes. While the nut is green, highlands of Africa, whence it has been introduced into Arathe whole hollow of the shell is filled with an agreeable, sweet- bia, the East and West Indian Islands, Surinam, Cayenne, and

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Questions —565. What is said of the palm family of plants ? What do they produce ? What is remarked respecting the cultivation of the date-palm ? 566. The banana or plantain? Its productiveness? 567 The cocoa-nut palm ?

Questions.-568. The bread-fruit trec. Describe the fruit 569. The potato ? 670. The cassava or manioc? Arrow-root ? 571. Sugar-cane ? Its native country ? Into what regions was the cultivated sugar-cane successively introduced ? 672. Coffee ?



Brazil. The tree grows upright with a single stem, covered 573. Tea consists of the dried leaves of the tea tree, which is with a light-brown bark, to the height of from eight to twelve indigenous to China and Japan. It was first imported by the feet, and has long, undivided, slender, horizontal branches, Dutch in 1610, and was brought into England in 1666. “The which cross each other. These are furnished with evergreen, tea country” in China is situated on the eastern side between opposite leaves, not unlike those of the bay tree. The flowers the 30th and 33d parallel of north latitude. A species of holly,

called Paraguay Tea, grows spontaneously in the forests of Paraguay, and yields a beverage called Maté in Brazil.

574. The Vine comes to perfection in Europe as far north as latitude 50° or 520, but its profitable culture does not extend much beyond latitude 480,—the best wines being produced between the 30° and 45° north latitude. Its range in America is much more limited, a difference of 10° occurring between its limits in the Old and in the New World. The Fig is the fruit of a small tree with broad leaves. It is produced in India,

Turkey, Greece, France, Spain, Italy, and northern Africa; but grow in clusters at the root of the leaves, and close to the the best figs come from Turkey. The Cocoa, or Chocolate tree, branches. They are of a pure white, and of an agreeable odor. grows spontaneously in several of the countries of tropical The fruit, which is a berry, grows in clusters along the branches, America ; its fruit resembles a cucumber, the seeds of which under the axils of the leaves. Each berry contains two seeds. furnish a substance from which chocolate is prepared.

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ers),- beaver, porcupine, squirrel. 5. Edentata (toothless),sloth, armadillo, ornithorynchus. 6. Pachydermata (thickskinned), -elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, zebra, tapir, horse, ass, and hog: 7. Ruminantia (chewing the cud), - camel, ox, goat, sheep, deer,

antelope, giraffe. 8. Cetacea (be. 575. The animal kingdom is sup- longing to whales),-- whale, dolphin, narwhal, seal, porpoise. posed to comprehend not less than 578. Birds are distributed into the following six orders : 1. Rapaces — Birds 250,000 distinct species, of which,

of prey ; 2. Scansores ---Climbers ; 3. Oscines - Songsters ; 4. Gallinaceae-Hen

like birds (gallina, a hen); 5. Grallatores—Waders ; 6. Natadores-Swimmers. however, an immense proportion

The known number of species is upward of 6,000. belong to the insect class. Its mem- 579. Reptiles are distributed into the following four orders, viz. : 1. Chebers are arranged in four grand lonia (Tortoises) ; 2. Sauria (Lizards) ; 3. Ophidia (Serpents); 4. Batrachia divisions, namely: 1. Vertebrated (Frogs). animals. 2. Molluscous animals. 3. 580. Molluscous, or soft-bodied animals, are those which Articulated animals. 4. Radiated have no bones, but whose muscles are attached to a soft skin, animals

which is inclosed, with few exceptions, in a hard case or shell. 576. Vertebrated animals are those which have a vertebral In this department there are three classes: 1. Those which column, or back-bone. This department is subdivided into four

have their heads furnished with feet, as the cuttle-fish, nautilus, classes: 1. Mammalia, or animals which suckle their young.

etc. 2. Those creeping on the stomach,—the slug, snail, lim2. Birds. 3. Reptiles. 4. Fishes.

pet, and whelk. 3. Headless, as the oyster, muscle. 577. Mammalia, or the mammiferous class, stand at the head of the

581. Articulated animals are those in which the body is animal creation, and are distributed into eight orders—besides man, who divided into joints or rings, sometimes hard and sometimes forms a distinct order, termed Bimana (two-handed). Though they differ soft, which supply the place of a skeleton ; this department vastly in appearance and habit, they nevertheless correspond in one partic- consists of four classes : 1. Annelides, or ringed worms, as earthular, that of suckling their young. The eight orders, with some of their types, are as follows: 1. Quadrumana (four-handed),-monkeys, apes. 2.

worms and leeches. 2. Crustacea, animals covered with a hard Carnivora (flesh-eaters),-cat, hyena, lion, bear, civet, glutton, mole. 3.

crust, as crabs, lobsters, and shrimps. 3. Insecta, of various Marsupialia (pouched), -opossum, kangaroo, wombat. 4. Rodentia (gnaw- families, as flies, bees, wasps, and butterflies.

Questions.—578. Tea? Paraguay tea? 674. The vine? Fig? The cocoa or chocolate tree? 575. How many distinct species is the animal kingdom supposed to comprehend? Into what four grand divisions are its members arranged? 576. What are the vertebrated animals? How is this department subdivided ? 577. What is said of the mammalia?

Questions.-Into what eight orders are they divided ? 578. Into what six orders are birds distributed ? 579. Into what four are reptiles? 580. What are molluscous or soft-bodied animals? What six classes does this department include: 5-1. What are articulated animals ? Of how many, and what, classes does this department consist ?



582. Radiated animals are so called because they have | India and Africa, erect pyramids of clay to the height of ten their organs arranged like rays proceeding from a center : or twelve feet, sufficiently compact to sustain the weight of sevthey are also called zoophytes or animal plants, from their eral men,-far more wonderful works, in proportion to the size resemblance to some families of vegetable forms. This de- of the builders, than the pyramids of Egypt. partment contains three classes, which include star-fishes, sea- 585. No part of the world is so remarkable for the profusion urchins, sea-nettles, jelly-fishes, corals, madrepores, infuso- of insect life as the regions of the Orinoco, and other great ria, and microscopic animals.

rivers of tropical America. Humboldt informs us that at no season of the year, at no hour of the day or night, can rest be found there, and that whole districts in the


Orinoco are deserted on account of these insects. Different species follow LESSON

one another with such precision that the time of day or night

may be known accurately from their humming noise, and from DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS.

the different sensation, of pain which the different poisons pro583. ANIMALS exhibit a wonderful diversity in their organ- duce. The only respite is the interval of a few minutes beizations, from the gigantic forms of the elephant and whale to tween the departure of one gang and the arrival of their suc

cessors, for the species do not mix. On some parts of the Orinoco the air is one dense cloud of poisonous insects to the height of 20 feet.

586. Among vertebrated animals, the reptiles are especially numerous and formidable in this zone,-as the crocodile of Africa, the gavial of India, and the alligator of America,-and the serpent tribe, some distinguished by their prodigious length

and power, the python of India, and the boa of America,

and others of smaller proporTIGER HUNTING IN INDIA

tions, armed with a poison the atom so minute that the strongest magnifying-glass is re

of peculiar deadliness, the quired to detect its individual existence. By the use of the

hooded snake of Asia, the microscope it is ascertained that every leaf of the forest, flower

cerastes of Africa, and the of the garden, and drop of water teems with myriads of living

yellow viper of America. beings, utterly inappreciable by the unaided senses of man, yet

The birds here are of the perfectly organized according to their grade. The variety of

most beautiful forms, splenform, size, strength, and uses, found among animals, with

did colors, and largest dimentheir adaptation to every existing climate and soil, are evi-sions, as the graceful birds of Paradise, inhabiting New dences of the power, wisdom, and goodness of the Creator; Guinea; the parrot tribe of Brazil, the ostrich of Africa, and for, while some beasts of prey with poisonous reptiles, and the cassowary of Australia. The mammiferous quadrupeds are mischievous insects, are only scourges to the human race, likewise found, in tropical regions, in the greatest variety, inthe greater number of the animal tribes are subject to the cluding the most colossal, the elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotacontrol of man, and contribute essentially to his subsistence mus, and giraffe; and the most sanguinary, the lion, tiger, and comfort.

leopard, panther, ounce, hyena, puma, and jaguar. 584. It is in the regions within the tropics that we find ani- 587. The animal tribes of the temperate and cold regions mal life, like vegetable existence, most intensely developed, are, with a few exceptions, distinguished for their positive whether we consider the number of individual, or of species, or utility to man. Advancing from the equator toward the pole, the qualities of size and strength. The coral-forming tribes, they are found, as a general rule, gradually to diminish in which belong to the lowest or radiated department, are chiefly number, magnitude, and ferocity. The insects of temperate confined to those parts of the ocean which lie in the torrid regions are much smaller than their tropical fellows, and except zone. (For an account of the structures of these animals, see in the hottest parts of the year, and in marshy localities, they Lesson V., Part I.) Of the molluscous kind, marine shell-fish produce little inconvenience. The great voracious reptiles of unimportant size and appearance in cold latitudes become totally disappear, and the venomous serpents are few and upon larger and finer on approaching the equatorial seas. Among a smaller scale. The birds of two orders, swimmers and articulated animals, the arachnidæ (spiders and scorpions) attain waders, chiefly subsisting on fish, increase in numbers with an enormous size in the torrid zone; the butterflies are mag. distance from the equator; the songsters also have more melonificent; and the insect class, in general, occur in such numbers dious notes in temperate than in tropical countries; but all the as frequently to become formidable, laying waste the earth, and varieties are marked with greater simplicity of coloring. driving nations before them. The termites, or white ants of




Questions.-ES2. Why are radiated animals so calied ? By wnat other names are iney a!so called? What animals are included in this class 583. What is said of the diversity in the organization of animals? 584. Where is animal life most intensely developed ? What is said of the corul-forming tribes ? or lhe molluscous kind? or the articulated annoals

Question 8.-585. Profusion of insect life in tropical countries ? 586. What is sail of the vertebrated animals of tropical regions ? Examples? Examples of large mummiferous quadrupeds ? 587. For whal are the animal tribes of the temperate and cold regions distinguished ? The insects of these regions ? The reptiles? The birds ? What is said of their colors ?

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via Gwar er Drultad Srafos, for or Southern District of Wow York

In what peninsula and large island of the East Indies is the
orang-outang, noted for its resemblance to man, found ? In what
part of Africa do the species of the orang genus, known as the
chimpanzee and gorilla exist ? What of the gorilla ? Ans. It is
believed to be the nearest approach to the human being, among the lower an-
imals ; bearing a striking physical likeness to man,-being larger, except
in height,-of prodigious risuscular power, and possessing a strong intel-
lect, but ferocious disposition. Are any of the orang genus found in
America ? Ans There are not. We have observed that the rumi-
nants, pachyderms, and carnivora of the Old World are, in gen.
eral, superior to those of the New, are the quadrumana or
monkey tribe etc. of the former also superior to those of the
latter? Ans. They are.

What of the quadrupeds of Polynesia ?


animals of the horse genus are confined to nearly the same range

as the elephant of Africa ? Ans. Z-a, d-w. QUESTIONS ON THE MAP.

What stately ruminating animal is likewise limited to this


What animals of the horse and ox genera belong to the tem-
What noted cetaceous animals abound in the arctic seas ? perate region of southern Africa ?

What large and powerful bear, inhabiting the frozen regions, Does there appear to be an unusual number of large herbiv-
bas its southern limit mostly north of the Arctic Circle ?

orous animals in Africa ?
What species of ox inhabits the northern lowlands of America What fierce carnivorous animal is confined to central and
and the arctic islands west ct Bartin Bay? What kind of deer southeastern Asia, including the islands of Sumatra and Java ?
is found in the southern part of the arctic regions? Does its What two range through southern Asia and northern Africa ?
range also extend through the cold temperate regions ? What Through nearly the whole of what grand division does the
other member of the deer family has a similar range in the tem- range of the lion extend ? In what part of Asia is the lion
perate regions, but extending somewbat farther south ? Are the found? What marked difference is observed between the lion
reindeer and moose of tho New World like those of the Old of Asia and that of Africa ? Ans. The mane of the former is scanty ;
World Ans They resemble them, but are of different species.

while that of the latter is exceedingly abundant, und lends a peculiar
The northern portions of the co inents form the chief district majesty.
of what kind of animals? What ficrce, rapacious animal, whose What part of Asia and Africa does the jackal inhabit ?
northern limit extends in general a little north of the Arctic Through what grand division does the range of the hyena
Circle, ranges through a great part of the temperate regions ? family extend? Through what portions of Asia What is the

What hugo species of bear, noted for its ferocity, is confined only species extending into the latter? Ans. The striped hyena.
to the western highlands of temperate North America ?

What active carnivorous animal fanges through South Amer-
What animal of the ox genus abounds in the interior plains ica and the southern half of North America? Ans. P-a. By
of the same climatic section of America ?

what other names is the puma known? Ans. Cougar, panther, and
What four species of ruminating animals constituting a dis- American lion. What of its resemblance to the palmer and lion
tinct genus are confined to the western highlands of South of the Old World ? Ans. It is by no peans strong marked.
America ? To what is this genus closely allied ? Ans. To the What fierce carnivorous animal is fhund in most parts of
camel genus. Which species is used as a bcast of burden? Ans. South America, especially in Brazil ? Ans. J-r. By what other
The Ulama. What of its size ? Ans. It is intermediate between that name is the jaguar known? Ans. T'he South American tiger. To
of the common goat and cow. What two pachydermatous animals what animal of the Old World does it bear the most striking
inhabit most of South America and part of Central America ? resemblance ? Ans. The leopard. How do the puma and jaguar
Ans. T-r, p-y. What of their size? Ans. The tapir is of nearly the compare in size with the lion and tiger of the Old World ? Ans.
same size as the common hog, but somewhat tuller; the peccary is much They are much smaller.

Do large animals appear to be as common on the Western
In the middle and southern temperate regions of what grand Continent as on the Eastern ? To which of the continents does
divisions does the camel have a wide range? What species of the opossum family, extending through the warm temperate and
camel occupies most of this section ? Ans. The Bactrian (two- hot regions, belong? To what great island and a few of the
humped) camel. In what part of the torrid region of Asia is the neighboring islands are the marsupials of the Eastern Hemi-
camel common? What specics is found here ? Ans. The one- sphere limited ? For what is this region noted ? Ans. For the
humped camel or dromedary. Through what part of the temperate extraordinary preponderance of this order over other mammalia within its
and torrid regions of Africa is the range of the onc-bumped camel limits, and for the fact that it contains all of the order of marsupials ex-
prolonged? In what grand division do “artelopes of various cept the opossum family of America. What animals of the order of
species" abound? In what part of Asia do they exist ? What edentata abound in South America ? Ans. 4-3, a-t, 6-8, 8-8.
noted species is found in the mountainous regions of southern Does the presence of marsupials and cdentata on the Western
Europe and of Asia southwest of the Caspian? Ans. C-s. What Continent (the former unknown on the Eastern ; the latter very
animal of the hog genus has a wide range in Europa, Asia, and sparingly represented) seem to compensate in some measure for
along the northern border of Africa? What of the differences the scarcity of larger animals ?
between the common swine and wild boar ? Ans. They are believed Is the range of the monkey tribes limited to the warm re-
60 be such as result merely from domestication. In what grand division gions of the globe? Does it embrace any part of Australasia or
do the elephant and rhinoceros have their widest range? Does Polynesia ? What are the most northern points it reaches in the
their widest range extend as far north in Africa as the Tropic Old World? What is the only corner of Africa not included in
of Cancer ? In what part of Asia are they found? Are the spe- its limits? Does the range of the monkey tribes extend as far
cies of elephant and rhinoceros the same in both regions ? Ans. north in the New World as in the Old? What part of Central
They are not. In which of these regions does the hippopotamus America and the West Indies does it include? Below the mouth
exist ? Does its range nearly coincide with that of the elephant of what great river in South America does it extend ?
of Africa ! Where does it extend somewhat farther north ? What genus of quadrumana is especially characteristic of
Ans. In the valley of the Nile and that of the Red Sea. What two Madagascar and vicinity ?

The arctic coasts and the northern borders of the Atlantio
and Pacific form the district of what bird whose down is an
important article of commerce? Near the extremities of what
peninsula on each side of the Atlantic does the southern limit
of eider ducks extend ? The southern borders of the Atlantic,
Pacific, and Indian oceans are embraced in the district of what
antarctic sea-fowl ?

The district of what tiny and beautiful bird comprises South
America and all of North America except the colder regions ?
Of how many species does the humming bird family consist ?
Ans. About 300. To which grand division are all but a few con-
fined ? Ans. South America.

What gallinaceous bird, now extensively domesticated, has
its native haunt only in North America east of the Rocky Mount.
ains, and from near the latitude of the great lakes to the Isth-
mus of Panama ? What bird is remarkably abundant in the
temperate regions of eastern North America ? Ans. P-n.

The district of what member of the vulture family, noted as
the largest bird of flight, is confined to the Andes region of
South America ? Below what clevation does the condor seldom
descend except in pursuit of prey ? Are. An elevation of nearly two
miles above the sea. How high does it soar ? Ans. Six times as high
as ihe region of clouds.

What large-bodied sea-fowl is found along the southwestern
coast of South America ?

Below the northern limit of what remarkable family of birds
do the warm temperate and hot regions of North America lie !
Near what part of the Western Continent does the southern
limit of this family extend? What member of the parrot family,
noted for its exceedingly gaudy plumage, belongs to the eastern
part of South America ? Ans. A-w. What climbing bird, diso
tinguished for the extraordinary size of its beak, inhabits the
same region ?

The southern half of Europe, with the neighboring parts of
Asia and Africa, form the district of what remarkably sweet-
singing bird?

The southern half of Asia, except west of the Persian Gulf
and south of the Black Sca, is the district of what richly
plumaged gallinaceous birds ? What are among the most
beautiful species of this genus ? Ans. The golden pheasant and the
argus-eyed pheasant. What elegant gallinaceous bird is a native


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